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PARLIAMENTARY PAPERS. Baron's observations is contained in the following exe
tracts from Mr. Booker's letter:Frequent inquiries having been made with
• Our liquors,' said the Baron, after the fruit is presrespect to the distribution of parliamentary papers sed, are strained, so as to separate the coarse amongst the different Literary, Scientific, and from the liquor, which is then put into large vessels,
when shortly afterwards Mechanics Institutions, the readers of the JOURNAL
This fermentation we watch with the utmost care are informed that the resolutions of the Parlia- and attention, considering that upon it everything mentary Committee which sat last year on this depends connected with the future quality and richness subject, cannot be carried into effect until they and value of the wine; in the course of a few days, the have received the sanction of the House of Com finer muss that remains in the liquor after the straining
above alluded to, drops to the bottom, and the liquor mons.
becomes perfectly clear and transparent, retaining all its Owing to the illness of Mr. Tufnell, the chair- original saccharine matter, with all its strength, richness, man of the committee, the discussion on the and flavour. At this critical period, upon which we resolutions was necessarily postponed, but the consider the quality of our wines depend, we adopt the Council have authority to state that it is Mr. process of racking. This racking must be effected in such
a manner as to prevent any part of the liquor coming into Tufnell's intention to take the earliest opportunity, contact with the atmospheric air; should it do so, fresh on the meeting of Parliament, to bring forward fermentation, in all probability, will take place, and by the resolutions of the committee ; and, as they the same means, the like causes repeated will operate and were adopted unanimously, it is hoped that the until the flavour and richness of the original liquor are deHouse will not hesitate to sanction them. When stroyed, and the liquor, instead of becoming wine, would this has been done, the committee which must become as worthless as your inferior cider." then be appointed will proceed without delay to Booker) in preventing the liquor from coming into con
“ The reason for this Rhenish caution (writes Mr. decide upon the distribution of parliamentary tact with the atmospheric air during the process of papers.
racking, is this. The first fermentation is what is termed vinous fermentation, and results in the liquor suvjected
to it becoming wine; if repeated fermentations are alON CIDER AND PERRY MAKING.
lowed to follow. they are what are termed acetous fermentations, and they result in the liquor parting with its
vinous and saccharine properties, and imbibing acid or COMMUNICATED BY T. W. BOOKER, ESQ., M.P.
acetous ones, and it is converted into vinegar. Now the At the recent Agricultural Meeting at Ledbury I made atmosphere is the laboratory from which the liquor
absorbs the chemical agent which produces these distinct a few remarks on the production of Cider and Perry, which and separate fermentations. induced some of my constitutents, there assembled, to seek “ And now practically to apply these observations. a conversation with me afterwards on the subject, during one fermentation is all that is wanted to convert the juice
of the apple into wholesome cider. which they requested me to “write another letter," with • The plan to ensure this which I recommend is an special reference to the proper season for gathering the follows:---First-Grind the apples in the cider-mill, and fruit and the mode of managing the fermentation of the squeeze the juice from the pulp, as is done at present.
Second-Rur or pour the liquor, after being squeezed or liquor. If the remarks which I have to make shall strained, into a vat, capable of containing three or four or awake due attention on the part of the cider and perry elevated position, at least five or six feet above the floor,
even more hogsheads. This vat must be placed in an producers of our country, I feel convinced of this, that, to to admit the hogshead or cask, in which the liquor is to Use the words of one who wrote on the subject two hun- be ultimately secured, to be placed under it. At the dred years ago, Dr. John Beal, a Fellow of the Royal a-half to two inchies in diameter, for the purpose of a tube
bottom of the large vat let there be a hole of from one-andSociety, "these parts of England will be some hundreds being passed through this hole into the hogshead or cask of thousands of pounds sterling the better for it.”
under it. This tube or pipe should be of a sufficient
length to pass through the muss or sediment which deThat the whole subject may be before us, I will beg posits itself in the large vat, and to reach at least six you to copy the following, which is a reprint from the inches above it into the clear liquor, and it should be of
sufficient length to pass through the hogshead or cask Bath Chronicle—a newspaper having extensive circulation placed below or under the vat, into which the liquor is to in the Cider Counties of the West of England, the edi- be passed, nearly to the bottoin. While this process of tor of which copied it from the lereford Journal, and fermentation is going on, the top of this tube should be
corked or plugged up. When the liquor in the vat has struck it off for gratuitous distribution, and to whose dropped fine, the cork or plug being withdrawn, the obliging courtesy I am indebted for the copy I send process of racking commences and is accomplished, and
the fine liquor will run from the large vat through the you :
tube into the hogshead or cask placed under it, the CIDER.–T. W. Booker, Esq., M.P., recently ad. liquor retaining all its original saccharine qualities. drsed a letter to the Hereford Journal, stating that his “ And now the work is done; and the result will be relative. Mr. Blakemore, of the Leys, Herefordsluire, had, found to be a liquor wholesome and palatable, full of xinetime before, conversed with a German Baron, who spirit, richnesss, and flavour, and of value proportioned has large estates on the banks of the Rhine, where hock to the descriptions or sorts of apples which are cultivated and other celebrated wines are produced, and that the in our orchards. My own firm conviction is, that the Karon said that many sorts of the Herefordshire apples difference in value, in the market, of all the cider prowere capable of producing as valuable and desirable a duced in Herefordshire by these simple means, over and bererage as the hock grapes, if a different process of above that produced by our present careless and slovenly making the liquor were adopted." The result of the means, would amount io many tens of thousands of pounds
a year, and would be so much clear gain and profit to all sant Canary, sugared of itself, or as rough as the fiercest those who make cider, to say nothing of the health and Greek winë, opening or binding, holding one, two, three, pleasure of those who drink it."
or more years, so that no mortal can say yet at what age Since I wrote the foregoing, I have been favoured by a it is past the best. This we can say, that we have kept highly-valued and intelligent friend of mine, resident in it until it burn as quickly as sack, draws the flame like our county, with the following admirable " Treatise on naptha, and fires the stomach like aqua vitæ.' Thus Cider-making :" it was written many years ago for the there appears a great difference between the opinions of Farmers' Club at Ross, and is so comprehensive, and full these two men, who probably paid more attention to the of the most practical information, and, moreover, gives it subject than any others; and the question naturally arises, in so much better language than any I can use, that 1 is the cider and perry of the county as good or better than feel I cannot do better than place it before the public. it used to be, after greater attention has been paid to the
" The production of good cider must depend upon the orchards ? I am decidedly of opinion that it is inferior; description of fruit of which it is made, the season, and state and it was this impression which caused me to venture to of the apples when they are crushed, and the management call your attention to the subject. If such be the case, it of the juice whilst it is fermenting. It will therefore be is a great object to ascertain what has caused the deterio. proper to consider the subject under these three heads ration in the liquor. I believe it is for want of a due separately
proportion of the peculiar acid which is found in the The kind of Apple which makes the best Cider. greatest quantity in the wild fruit; and beg to suggest " The acid which gives the pecnliar quick and sharp whether it would not be worth while to try back, and mix feeling upon the palate in good cider, having first been a certain quantity of crabs with the fruit before it is noticed in the apple, although it exists in many other crushed. fruits, has been termed the malic acid. It may not be
The best time of the year for making Cider. too much to say, that it is the due combination of this “ It has been before observed, that Mr. Knight recomacid with saccharine matter, namely, the sugar of the mends the fruit to be perfectly ripe, even mellow, before apple, properly fermented, which is the object to be it is crushed, and this can only happen late in the autumn. aimed at in the manufacture of cider. In the selection of As it is known to be more difficult to manage the fermenthe fruit will depend the proportion of malic acid contained tation of the liquor in warm weather, it is usual to defer in the liquor. The crab has a much greater quantity of making cider till November or December; if, however, this acid than the cultivated fruit; and, generally speaking, the liquor can be put in a cold cellar after the first ferin proportion as we obtain sweetness by culture, we mentation is over, I am of opinion that it might be deprive the apple of its malic acid.
commenced earlier. The juice of unripe fruits ferments " Hence it follows that some delicious table fruits will more quickly than of that which is ripe, and contains not make good cider; this rule, however, is not invariable, more malic acid. Where there is the convenience of a as the golden pippin and some other fine apples appear to good underground cellar, the difference of temperature contain the proper adnjixture of acid and swcetness which between that and the outward air is greater in moderately is desirable in the liquor. Mr. Knight recommends that warm weather than in November; so that if the liquor the different sorts of fruit be kept separate; and considers were fermented under sheds, as Mr. Knight recommends that only those apples which are yellow, or mixed with (and his instructions as to the management of the cider red, make good cider ; and that the fruit of which the whilst fermenting are excellent), and, as soon as fine, reflesh or rind is green, are very inferior. He recommends moved into the cold cellar, the change of temperature that the apples should be perfectly ripe-even mellow, I would be greater at the end of September than in Nobut never decayed-before they are crushed.
vember, and this would probably tend to prevent the “ There was a curious manuscript written by Dr. John liquor fermenting again. If the new cider cannot be Beale, a fellow of the Royal Society in 1657, upon the removed, from the warmth of the atmosphere, there can subject, of which the following are extracts : - Crabs and be no question that it is better to defor the making till wild pears, such as grow in the wildest and barren cliffs, the weather becomes cool. and on hills, make the richest, strongest, the most pleasaut, and lasting wines that England yet yields, or is ever
Fermentation of the Juice. likely to yield. I have so well proved it already by so
The researches of scientific men, although very many hundred experiments in Herefordshire, that wise elaborate, have done very little in throwing light upon men tell me that these parts of England are some hundred the nature of fermentation; it appears to partake, in a thousand pounds sterling the better for the knowledge of measure, of the vital principle, of the phenomena attendit.' He mentions of these kinds of austere fruit the ing which we know nothing. Many curious and interesting Bromsbury crab, the Barland pear, and intimates that facts have been discovered during the investigation, but the discovery of them was then but lately made, yet they none of which appear to be of much use in the making had gotten a great reputation.' He adds, the soft crab of cider. There are three kinds of fermentation, or and white or red horse pear excel them and all others rather there are some products which pass regularly known or spoken of in other counties.' Of the red horse through three stages of fermentation, viz., the vinous, the pear of Felton or Longland, he says, that it has pleasaut acetous, and the putrescent. Other substances pass at masculine rigour, especially in dry grounds, and has a once to one or other of the latter stages ; gum and water peculiar property to overcome all blasts.' of the quality turning to vinegar without forming any spirit, and meat of the fruit he observes, such is the effect which the at once putrefying: It is not desirable that the vinous austerity has on the mouth on tasting the liquor, that the fermentation should be complete in the manufacture of rusties declare it as if the roof of the mouth were filed cider, in which case all the sugar of the apple would be away, and that neither man nor beast care to touch one converted into spirit; this never does happen without a of these pears, though ever so ripe. Of the pear called portion of vinegar being also formed, the acetous fermenrinny winter pear, which grows about Ross, in that county, tation going on conjointly with the vinous, as when cider he observes, that it is of no use but for cider; and that if frets a great deal it may be very strong, but is comparaa thief steal it, he would incur a speedy vengeance, it tively of little value, having lost all its richness and being a furious purger; but being joined with well chosen become sour. The vinous fermentation stops naturally crabs, and reserved to a due maturity, becomes richer before it has run its course, and it is the object of the than good French wine; but if drunk before the time, it maker to avail himself of this property in the liquor, and stupities the roof of the mouth, assaults the brain, and to endeavour to prevent any secondary fermentation taking purges more violently than a Galenist.'
place; the number of schemes which have been suggested Or the quality of the liquor he says, 'according as it to prevent which, showing that it is the most important is managed, it proves strong Rhenish, Barrack, yea, plea. point to be attended to in the manufacture of good cider.
I am of opinion that the 100-gallon cask is much better be too light at first, and it should be increased gradually thun larger, and that the liquor is not only more easily as the liquor runs from the muss. Two sets of bags, managed, but more likely to be good; it may be that allowing one to drain for some time without pressure, cider in large casks becomes stronger, but not so frequently would be an undoubted advantage. rich as in single hogsheads. Although it may not be ap
• E. P." parent, fermentation commences as soon as the juice is I need not, I think, add one word to the advice here expressed from the fruit; and the sooner the cask is filled given. I earnestly hope it will be followed, and sure I and allowed to remain quiet, the more regular and certain am that we shall all feel and acknowledge the value of it, will be the process. What should we think of the brewer in the improvement in quality, and increase in value, of who, whilst his beer was working, brewed another quan- our county beverage. tity, and added the raw wort to the first ? Yet this is I have been asked by hundreds whether it is really the constantly done in filling a large cask with cider; or even fact that during each visitation of that awful scourge, the worse. for the apple juice is added cold, whereas the wort Cholera, which has again appeared among us, not a single might be mixed with the beer whilst warm. It would be case has ever yet occurred in Herefordshire : my reply greatly better to keep the liquor in open tubs, till enough has been that it is so : I shall be glad to be corrected if I be obtained to fill the cask, and then to put it together at am wrong: if I am right, the knowledge of this cannot once.
be too widely circulated, nor can our thankfulness be too "If I may be allowed to suggest an experiment, there great to the Almighty Being who has so singularly and is one use to which I should be very glad to see a large signally blessed and protected us. cask applied; that is, to fill it partly with fresh muss, and the remainder with boiling water—the probable result would be a very pleasant and useful liquor. Temperature
PREPARED COFFEE-LEAVES. has much to do with fermentation, and it would be an Mr. Daniel Hanbury has just presented to the Society a advantage to have two cellars, one much colder than the sample of prepared coffee-leaves. Mr. Hanbury, in an other. If the liquor, upon pitching fine, were racked in a article communicated by him to the Pharmaceutical clean cask and put into a cold cellar, there would be much Journal, thus details their qualities, quoting further less risk of its fermenting again. I should recommend no information from Mr. M. Ward, of Padang, extracts from other liquor to be added it; but, in order to prevent ullage, that it should be racked into a smaller cask ;—the whose letter he inserts : less air admitted the better, aud if the cask be sound and
The existence of caffeine in the leaves as well as in the iron-bound it may be better to close it at this time.
berries of the coffee-plant has attracted some attention, " The application of cold will check fermentation im- and a project for substituting them for those of the teamediately. I have seen liquor in a state of froth boiling plant has been actually devised by Dr. John Gardner, out of a large jar, suddenly reduced to a state of quiescence of London. According to this gentleman, the leaves by pumping upon the side of the jar. This fact induced require to be subjected to a certain process of preparation me to cause an experiment to be tried at Gayton during before they are used. What this process is I am unable a very bad season for the cider making, the weather being to state ; but specimens of the prepared coffee-leaves very warm; a cask of juice was rolled into a brook of were placed by Dr. Gardner in the Great Exhibition of cold water, and sunk by stones attached to it; it remained 1851, together with the caffeine extracted from them, in that position till nearly Christmas, and was so much since which time advertisements have appeared in the better than any other made that year that Mr. Newman Ceylon papers soliciting tenders for the supply of coffee. obtained double the price for that hogshead he did leaves by the ton. for any of the rest. Perfect stillness is very desirable, as Whether these advertisements have met with a response motion is found to excite the acetous fermentation. A I know not, but in March last my attention was drawn to bottle of wine, attached to the sail of a windmill in mo
a letter signed “ An Old Sumatran," published in the tion was, after three days, converted into vinegar, although Overland Signapore Free Press for January 3rd, 1853 closely corked. When a second fermentation does take This letter, which was reprinted in the Pharmaceutical place in cider, there is very little hope of its being rich Journal for March (vol. xii
. p. 443), states, that on the and good.
western side of the island of Sumatra an infusion of * In such case, I should recommend its being drawn torrified coffee leaves is of universal consumption among out into tubs, exposed to the cold as much as possible; the inhabitants; so much so indeed, as to be regarded as and after being thus flattened, put back into the cask, at
one of the very few necessaries of life. * the same time well stirring up the whites of fifteen or
Upon applying to the writer of this letter, who proved twenty eggs, previously mixed up with a portion of the to be N. M Ward, Esq., of Padang, I speedily received liquor; if this succeeds in fining it, which probably it the following more detailed communication, since which will, it may then be racked into a clean cask, and closed
a box of prepared Sumatran coffee-leaves, kindly foras much as possible from the air. It is probable that a warded by him, has reached my hands : great deal of mischief is caused by some principle of fer
“ Padang, 15th May, 1853. mentation remaining in the cask ; this might be prevented by well sealding the casks before they are filled; or, what
Although long aware of its value as an article of diet I think would be better, by washing out the casks with among the natives here, it never occurred to me that it clear lime water. One large piece of lime put into a
inight be introduced successfully as such at home, until I hogshead of water, and allowed" to settle, would answer
learnt from the Free Press that a patent had been taken Some brimstone matches burned in the out by Dr. Gardner. It then struck me that as its adopcasks would have a tendency to prevent fermentation.
tion in Europe would unquestionably be attended with "I shall not say much upon the mode of cruslaing the important advantages to the labouring classes, a knowapples and pressing out the juice, having had so little ledge of the fact of its general use here might be of practical experience ; but I have always thought that if service, by giving that confidence in it which must
Tho the fruit were crushed between wooden rollers, and necessarily be wanting to a new and untried article. allowed to drain before being put under the stone, the fact of it being the only beverage of a whole population, process would be much expedited; as the apples some
and of it having from its nutritive qualities become an times roll before the stone a long time before they are
(a) This employment of coffee-leaves was not previously unbroken.
noticed. Brande, in his Manual of Chemistry (Lond., 1918, “Lo Ireland they use a press formed by a lever, which vol. ii., p. 1616), briefly states that the leaves of the coffee-plant might be made at less expense than with a screw, and be are used in Java and Sumatra as a substitute for tea, and that it theore quickly worked : it is impossible the pressure can is probable they contain theine..
important necessary of life, will be a sufficient guarantee bark only contains extract, it is better to rub off this of its safety as an article of diet, and of its freedom from betwixt the hands and to reject the wood. deleterious effects. “ The natives have a prejudice against the use of water
“ I have already remarked, that whilst the culture of as a beverage, asserting that it does not quench thirst, or the coffee-plant, for its fruit, is limited to particular soils afford the strength and support the coffee-leaf does. With and elevated climates, it may be grown for the leaf, a little boiled rice and infusion of the coffee leaf, a man wherever within the tropics the soil is sufficiently fertile. will support the labours of the field in rice-planting for This extensive habitat, if I may so term it, added to its days and weeks successively, up to the knees in mud, nutritive qualities and freedom from deleterious prinunder a burning sun or drenching rains, which he could ciples, points it out as the best adapted of all the producnot do by the use of simple water, or by the aid of tions affording caffeine for general consumption; and if spirituous or fermented liquors. I have nad opportunities it should turn out that the article can be sent to distant of observing for twenty years the comparative use of the countries without deterioration, I shall have every concoffee-leaf in one class of natives, and of spirituous fidence in its ultimate adoption for general use. liquors in another, the native Sumatrans using the former,
The price here of the leaves prepared for use, is and the natives of British India settled here the latter; generally about 14d. a pound; and, I suppose,
may be and I find that while the former expose themselves with prepared and packed for the European market, of good impunity for any period to every degree of heat, cold, and quality, for 2d., affording sufficient profit to the planter, wet, the latter can endure neither wet nor cold for even a and bringing it within reach of the poorest classes of short period, without danger to their health.
Europe." Engaged myself in agriculture, and being in conse- which he sent has arrived in excellent condition, and
Such is Mr. Ward's communication. The sample quence much exposed to the weather, I was induced several years ago, from an occasional use of the coffee-leaf appears to have been very carefully prepared. It consists to adopt it as a daily beverage, and my constant practice of tolerably regular fragments of shining leaves mixed has been to take a couple of cups of strong infusion with with pieces of stalk. Its colour is deep brown; its odour milk
in the evening, as a restorative after the business of somewhat like that of a mixture of coffee and tea, and the day. I find from it immediate relief from hunger and extremely fragrant. Immersed in boiling water, a transfatigue, the bodily strength increased, and the mind left parent, brown infusion is obtained, which, when made for the evening clear and in full possession of all its sufficiently strong, forms, with the addition of sugar and faculties. On its first use, and when the leaf has not milk, a beverage by no means un palatable. been sufficiently roasted, it is said to produce vigilance, but
Caffeine, as is well known, is a crystallizable, nitroI am inclined to think that where this is the case, it is ganized, vegetable principle, (a) existing in the berries of rather by adding strength and activity to the mental the coffee-shrub, in the leaves of the tea-plant of China, faculties, than by inducing nervous excitement. I do in the Yarba de Mate, or Paraguay tea of South Amenot recollect this effect on "myself except once, and that rica, and, as MM. Berthemot and Dechastelus have was when the leaf was insufficiently roasted.
proved, (b) in Guarana, the basis of a favourite beverage in some parts of Brazil. The plants affording these pro
ductions occupy very different positions in the vegetable " As a beverage, the natives universally prefer the leaf kingdom; the coffee-plant belongs to the natural order to the berry, giving as a reason that it contains more of Rubiaceæ, the tea-plant to Camellieæ, the Paraguay tea the bitter principle and is more nutritious. They are
(Ilex Paraguariensis, St. Hil.) to the Ilicineæ, and the not unacquainted with the extract in a half-solid forin Guarana-plant (Paullinia sorbilis, Mart.) to Sapindaceæ. obtained by decoction, but in the lowlands I am not
It is not a little remarkable that Caffeine has hitherto aware that they apply it to any particular purpose. The been detected only in plants which are broadly distinroasted leaf used to form an article of trade betwixt the guished from each other in their botanical characters; coffee districts of the interior and the lowlands of the but it is yet more extraordinary that these plants should coast, but since the government monopolized the pro
have been independently selected as articles of diet by duce, this trade has in a great measure ceased, the semi-barbarous nations, inhabiting widely-separated pornatives believing the sale of the leaf as well as that of tions of the globe. the berry, forbidden. In the lowlands, coffee is not planted for the berry, being not suficiently productive; 02. Theine and Guaranine are identical with Coffeine.
(a) Its composition is expressed by the formula C8 H5 N2 but the people plant about their houses for the leaf for
(b) Journ de Pharm. (Aug. 1840), tome xxvi., p. 518. their own use, not however to the extent of the demand, so that in the settlement of Padang they are obliged to have recourse to the berry mixed with a portion of burnt
Home Correspondence. rice, without which the beverage would be too dear for them. It is an undoubted fact, however, that everywhere they prefer the leaf to the berry,
CONSUMPTION OF SMOKE. “The muster I have the pleasure to send, is the pro- Sir,-Mr. G. F. Wilson has given a very clear descripduce of my own ground, properly prepared by a native tion of his experiences in smoke consuming. The prinwell acquainted with the process. The best mode of ciple is that of making the heat of the red tire distil and roasting, he says, is by holding the leaves over the clear coke the raw fuel which is added in small quantities, and flame of a fire made of dry bamboo. The fire-place burning the gases as they pass over the red fuel. should be circular, of brick or other material, two feet This is precisely the principle adopted thirty years ago deep, two feet in diameter at the bottom inside, and one by Cutler, in what he called his Gas Stove, i.e., the fire and-a-half at top, with a small door-place on one side was made in the top of the oval and burned downwards, for introducing the fuel. The reason for using bamboo so that the smoke and gas as generated had to pass as fuel is, that it produces but little smoke, and that through the fire and were consumed. little containing no creosote, it does not adhere to the leaf. But Cutler's Gas Stove went out of use— because it was When sufficiently roasted, as described in the Singapore a piece of mechanism requiring a little attention. Free Press, the leaves have a brownish buff colour, and Now, although it is true that manufacturers may be are then separated from the stalks, which are arranged in able to make a rangements for consuming their smoke the slit of å stick afresh and roasted by themselves. The under penalty of the law and prosecution, yet, when all natives pound the whole of these roasted stalks in a the manufactories and steam boats—under close watching mortar, and mix them with the leaf for sale; but as the of the police, have done this, it will not make the atmosphere of London clear, for the simple reason that let truth correct it; which, if gainsayed, it should be dwelling houses, and not manufactories, produce the great done-not under the veil of an anonymous correspondent, mass of the smoke; and how would dwelling-houses be but with a name to support the assertion. watched by policemen and provided with smoke con- Science has to deal with tangible facts and figures; to guners? What smoke-ometer shall be applied as the the political arena alone belongs the anonymous inktest to take it out of the category of mere opinion opposed spiller. by opinion in evidence before a magistrate. And unless
I am, Sir, yours faithfully, we can get rid of house smoke we shall not accomplish
SEPTIMUS PIESSE. our object by merely ameliorating the factories.
42, Chapel-street, Edgeware-road. We must dig a little decper to begin at the beginning. Fuel is of various kinds-smokeless and smokeful. To
RUSSIAN LEATHER. produce perfect combustion a certain admixture of certain
SIR,-From statistical tables, we find that leather forms gases is requisite. With an imperfect mixture of smoke, an important article of export from this country. In an imperfect combustion is the result, nor does it follow order to retain this trade it is necessary not only to that the combustion is perfect even when smokeless, for produce a good article, but such as is not likely to be boxions gases may pass off invisibly.
surpassed. The leather manufactured in Russia has long It is possible by chemical analysis to determine the been celebrated for its durability (I believe the peculiar degrees of perfection in the various kinds of fuel brought smell is produced by the oil of birch bark). Can any of to market-as
, for instance, what degree of encumbering your correspondents, from actual observation, give any gases they contain which may produce smoke or noxious account of the mode of preparing Russian leather“ from exhalation. They might be ranged in lists, from the the hide ?" It found suitable, the process might, I believe, pure white-flamed Cannel coal down to coke.
be introduced into this country with advantage. As smoke and impure gases are a nuisance, the
G, N. H. simplest process would be, instead of requiring smoke consuming, and disputing on what is smoke and what is not, to require of those making smoke to pay a Proceedings of Institutions. tax on their fuel proportioned to the damaging power. Thus certain qualities of coal and coke would pass without duty, and certain others would pay a minimum
LANCASTER.-A lecture was lately delivered to the memduty, and certain others a maximum duty.
If this bers of the Church of England Instruction Society by duty were so regulated that the low-priced coals became Mr. Johnson, of Bishop Stortford.
The subject was practically dearer than the more perfect fuel, the latter
" The Recent Discoveries at Nineveh and Babylon." would be preferred and the former discontinued, till the The judicious selections which he made, as well as proprietors might contrive to produce it in an unobjection the manner in which he treated the subject in general, able form by some process of manufacture. The appoint- elicited great approbation from a numerous and atten. ment of officers at the different points by which fuel is tive audience. His references to Scripture and to various brought to London, to collect the duties, would be an ancient authors were highly interesting and instructive, inexpensive and effective process, making it imperative, while the numerous and ably executed diagrams which he in the interest of the general community, to abstain not exhibited materially increased the gratification which the merely from smoke, but from noxious gases.
lecture afforded. Perhaps some of your chemical readers might furnish
NEWBURY.-On Tuesday evening Mr. J. T. Topham a statement of the composition of the various kinds of delivered an interesting lecture “On the History and fuel bronght to London, pointing out the best and the Utility of Poetry;". to a highly-respectable and numerous Forst, and set up a competition amongst fuel owners to audience, at the Literary and Scientific Institution. The produce the most perfect fuel, with a duty on the im- lecturer, at the outset, drew attention to the extreme perfect, and the smoke nuisance will be at an end.
antiquity of poetry, and traced its origin to religions I am Sir, yours taithfully,
feeling. He then presented us with some poetic fragments W. BRIDGES ADAMS.
from the Old Testament, introducing the Thanksgiving Ode of Moses, as the oldest complete poem on record. He referred to the universal cultivation of poetry, and
reminded us of a time when traditionary poems were the PERFUMERY AND CHEMISTRY.
only existing histories, and when even laws were metri. Sir, — If the author of the letter on Chemistry and Per- cal compositions. He glanced at the great poetic writers fumery, published in No. 50 of your Journal, and in- of Greece; of classic and modern Italy; of France from tended as a reply to mine-though none was needed its early minstrelsy to the present more polished period; which appeared in No. 49, really be a perfumer, as his and said a word or two on the romancists of Spain, and signature implies, he would know that I could not, the celebrities of Germany. He then entered on the histhough ever so inclined, "confine the term Perfumery'i tory of our own poetry. “After the conquest the native to various odoriferous substances, and exclude scented minstrels were of course neglected by the Norman rulers'; soaps ; because he would be aware that one-third of the and it was not until a century or two after that great returns of every manufacturing perfumer is derived from epoch, that the Normans and Saxons "fraternized," and the
English language became formed. The first work in this I do, however, emphatically exclude from the term new language contained the achievements of King Arthur. perfumery, "groceries, &c.," the et cætera meaning, I Soon afterwards there appeared a Life of Charlemagne; and presume, “ confectionery, “ because perfumery has to do from these two volumes may be traced almost everything with one of the senses--smelling, while groceries, &c., that was written or sung about this period. The Crusades are distinguishable by another-taste; and, had not our soon after took place, and these introduced to us a different physical faculties clearly made the distinction, commeree kind of fiction. The Holy Land was the scene of the new and manufactures would have defined them.
stories, and dragons, and dwarfs, and giants, were then I therefore repeat, that essences of fruits are not used things expected"in our romances. Robert Langlande wrote in perfumery, as stated in No. 47, from the quoted au- the first original poem in the English language, and Chau thorities. If any man can deny this assertion, let him cer, a contemporary of his, made a great advance on all How do 80, or for ever after hold his peace," at least preceding poetry. The lecturer then referred to the in
vention of printing, and the mighty changes it had effected. The Journal of the Society of Arts is not a medium He traced the causes which led to the revival of classic of mere controversy. If a statement be made in error, learning, and dilated on the colossal effects occasioned
Nov. 14, 1853.
upon this subject.