Proceedings of Institutions.

To Correspondents.


BASINGSTOKE.—On Thursday and Friday evenings the The third and concluding part of Mr. Loseby's Paper “On members of the Mechanics’ Institute were gratified by the

Chronometers," will appear next week. delivery of two Lectures, at the Town Hall, by Mrs. Balfour. The subjects selected were “ 'The Uses of Poetry, and MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK, the Mission of the Poet," and on "The llemorable Youth-.

Society of Arts, 7.--Renewed Discussion "On the Con. tul Poets of the Present Century." The Honorary Se

sumption of Smoke." cretary announced that he had received a donation of 51.

London Inst., 7.-Mr. J. Phillips, “On the Philoso. to the funds of the Institution, from G. Sclater, Esq.

phy of Geology." CORFE CASTLE.—The Right Honourable George

Chemical, 8. Baukes, M.P., President of the Mutual Improvement So

Statistical, 8.—Dr. Guy, “On the Duration of

Life of the Members of the Medical Profession;" ciety, recently delivered his long-promised Lecture to the

and Dr. Thomson,“ On the Stature, Weight, &c. members and friends of this Iustitution. The subject was

of New Zealanders." "The Influence of Oratory on the minds and actions of Tues. Civil Engineers, 8.--Annual General Meeting. men, as it appears in various periods of history." After

Linnean, 8. alluding to the most eloquent Grecian and Roman orators, Pathological, 8. the right hon. lecturer spoke of Wolsey, Bacon, Pope, WED. London Inst., 7.-Conversazione, Canden, Bolingbroke, Walpole, Pitt, and Fox, concluding Society of Arts, 8.---Mr. Horace Green, “On Pettitt's

Fisheries Guano,” with Wilberforce, and illustrating his remarks by numerous quotations. At the conclusion of the Lecture, the Rev.

Microscopical, 8.

TAURs. Numismatie, 7. George klubbard proposed a vote of thanks to the lecturer, which was carried by acclamation.-A handsome present

Antiquaries, 8.

Royal, 81. of books has been received from John Cooke, Esq., of FRI. Architectural Assoc., 8.-Class of Design. Newport, Isle of Wight, who had previously delivered a Sat. London Inst., 2.-Mr. M. T. Masters, “On ElemenLecture to the members “ On the progress of Literature

tary Botany." from the earliest period upto the reign of Queen Elizabeth.”

MAIDENHEAD.--An agreeable reunion of the members PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852, and friends of the Literary and Scientific Institution, was held on Tuesday se'nnight; and advantage was taken of the occasion to present Mr. C. Brown, retiring honorary

From Gazette, 9th December, 1853. secretary, with a testimonial, consisting of a handsome silver

Dated 19th October, 1853. tea service. Mr. Brown, in acknowledging the presen- 2407. P. A. le Compte de Fontainemoreau, 1 South street, Finsbury tation of the testimonial, congratulated the institution -Composition in lieu of bone and horn. (A communication.) on its prosperity. It now numbered more members than

Dated 24th October, 1853. it had ever done, and the greatest increase had been 2454. C. E. Blunt:19 Montague place, Russell square—Blunt's during the past year. This was a subject of much plea

Dated 17th November, 1853. sure to him, for he felt that it could not be said that he 2668. C. Burton, 487 New Oxford street-Improvements in carriages. was deserting a sinking cause. On Thursday evening,

Daled 23rd November, 1853. the eighth annual meeting was held in the Guildhall

, tho 2720. H. R. Abraham, 11 Howard street, Strand-Coffins and hearses. Rev. Charles Vansittart presiding. Eight new directors 2721. C. F., Stansbury 27 Cornbill-Apparatus for drill sowing were appointed. Mr. Durant was elected to the vacant 2722. J. F. Empson-Manufacture of wire. secretaryship, and Mr. J. Smith re-elected treasurer.

2723. J. Hill, senior, and J. Hill, junior--Winding, doubling, and

spinning machinery. Tiverton.--The re-opening of the Athenæum, which 2724. J. Ainos, Bristol-Wool for casks. was partially destroyed by fire in February last, took place 2725. J. Timewell,

Duke street

, St. James's-Cutting and shaping on the 18th November, and was celebrated by a literary

materials for dress, and musical soirée, under the presidency of J. Heathcoat | 2726. J. Dicks: Parliament street, Nottingham—Bands for binding Amory, Esq: A large party attended, comprising most of 27271 E. Wilkins, 6o Queen's row, Walworth-Draining land. the gentry of the town and neighbourhood. The premises 2721. W. B. Johnson, Manchester-Steam-engines. have undergone considerable improvement. They con

2729. J. D. Brady, Cambridge terrace--Straps for knapsacks.

2730. T. W. Kinder--Permanent way. tain a large and handsome lecture-room, reading-room,

Dated 24th November, 1853. news-room, class-rooms, library, &c., and are in every 2731. J. Lovell, Glasgow – Application of heat. respect adapted for the purposes of a literary institution. 2734. D. Chalmers, Manchester - Railway breaks and signals. On Thursday, December 1st, the Rev. W. Beal, of 2733. H. Mason; Ashton-under-Lyne, and J. Jones, NanchesterDevonport, delivered the opening lecture of the session, 2734. S. Holman, Colney flatch-Double action punp. on the - Development of the Religious Element in Man." 2735. A. V. Newton, 66 Chancery lane-Chest espander, &c.-(A The lecture embraced interesting and comprehensive 2736. G. M. Richards, Swansea ---Feed plates used for oxidising lead, sketches of sun, fire, element, and symbol worship, mytho

and refining silver and lead. logy, &c., and was well received by a numerous and re- 2737. s. C. Lister Nanningham, Bradford-Combing wool, &c. spectable audience. It is gratifying to report the prospe

2728. G. Townsend, Massachusetts-Sewing machinery (A com

munication.) rity of this institution.

2739. W. Jones, Kilney cottage, Swansea-Bricks. WREXHAM.– During the present quarter, a series of 2740. D. L. Banka, 42 St. James's place, Toxteth park, Liverpool, interesting lectures have been delivered at the Literary

Dated 25th November, 1853. Institute, on the following subjects :-"On California and 2742. D. Nicholl, Edinburgh-Envelope manufacture. Australia,” by Mr. W. Hughes, F.R.G.S.; "On the Me- 2743. J. Berry, Manchester Machinery for wire fencing. Empire," by Mr. R. C. Rawlins (gratuitous); and, lastly | 2745. W. L. and C. Brook, Meltham mills, near Hu dersfield

Preparing, dressing, &c., cotton, &c., and machinery for same. readings of ** Hamlet” and the Merchant of Venice," by 2746. A. Drew, Glasgow-Ornamenting woven fabrics, &c. Mr. H. Nichols.

The engagement of paid professional | 2747. J. H. Johmson;.47 Lincolu's inn fields--Carding engines, &c. lecturers is an experiment intended to be continued dur- | 2748. J. H. Johnson, 47 Lircoln's inn fields—Production of printing ing the ensuing quarter, for the carrying out of which surfaces. (A communication.) the Comunittee are indebted to the generous aid afforded 2750. A, ElBentford, 16. Castle street, Holborn–Improvements them by two gentlemen of the neighbourhood—Mr. R. 2751. A. E. L. Bellford, 16 Castle street, Holborn--Rotary engines. Thompson, of Stansty Hall, and Mr. J. Lewes,

(A communication.)

2752. C. C. S. Grenier, Paris, and 16, Castle street, Holborn--Paint 1167. Peter Armande le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South street, for buildings, &c.

Finsbury--proved process for preserving 12 uk, ind its 2753. E. Wilkinson and W. Rye, Oldham-Power-looms

alicntion tj several organic produces and alimentary 2755. E. Barthelemy and T. L'etit geau. Upper Joht street, Fitzroy

substances. (A cominunication.) square, and J. P. Bourquin, Newman street, Oxíord screet 1468. Peter Irmand lc Cointe de Fontaine Moreau, of South street, - Ornamentin, glass.

Finsbury--Improvements in the preparation of certain veyou Dated 16th November, 1853.

table and indimentary cuvstances. (A coinmunication.) 2756. W. C. Most, Strand-Truss.

1489. Jarnes lleginbottom and Joseph Heginbottom, of Ovendler, 2758. G. E. Gaza maire, Varseilles, and 16 Castle street, IIolborn

Yorkshire---improvements in ispinning.
Nets for îishins, &c.

1502. Iliram Barker and Francis blot, both of Manchester--Im2760. J. Roth and II. Danner, Mulhouse, France, and 16 Castle

provements in machinery and apparatus fur grinding and street, IIclborn-Cards for carding.

turning mctals. 2762. L.Cornides, 4 Trafalgar squaro-Gelatine with other substances. 1552. Robert Harlow, of Stockport-Improvements in constructing and colouring same, to resist atmospheric intiuences.

anil working valves for baths, wassistants, and other pur2764. J. S. Rousselot, Vimes, France-lagueto-electricity for ma

poses. chinery, &c.

1801. John Grifiths, oi Stepaside Saunderfoot, near Tenby-Cert in Dated 27th November, 1853,

imprurements and steam engines. 2766. W. Pritchard, Clerkenwell-Buffers, and diminishing shock in 1836. Wiliium Newton, oi Chancery Jane-Improvements in the collisions.

proces of coating cast-iron with other metals anl the allory 2768. P. C. J. B. Sochet, Paris, ard 4 South street, Finsbury-Motivo

of other metals. (A communication) power by heated lases.

1851. Thomas Youg Hall, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne-Improvements 2774. S. Hurrell, New Yor:h street, London--Machinery for mca

in safety-laps; part or parts of such improvemerts being string, win.ling, or rolling fabrics,

applicable to the consumption or prevention of smoke, and Dated 29th Vovember, 1853.

for the purpoecs of ventilation generall: 2778 A, E. L. DellEr?, 16 Castle street, Holborn-T'ircarms. (A 1936. William Curtain, or Retreat place, Ilomerton-improved macommunication.)

chinery for printing textile nabrics, oil cloths, leatlur, paler 2780. J. A. Manning, Inner Temple--Treatment of sewerage and

haugings, and other similar fabrics or materials. products thereof.

1975. Charles Coilyford Banks, of Clapham — Improvements in APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS, WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATIONS FILED.


1993. Samuel Taylor, of Manchester-Improrements in apparatus 2919. C. W. llockaday, Post hall, Brighton---Chemical compound as

for generating and applying carbonic acid S88. a remedy for scorbutic affections. Dec. 5, 1853.

2234. Hiram Berdan, of New York-Machine for collecting, pre2630. J. Mold, 6 Portiand terrace--Improvements or additions to

serving, and therely preventing the loss of mercurs, in the augment convenience by transformation and facility the

process of amalgunstirg metals, and for the more perfect and different lines required in the erection or manufacturing

economical washing, separating, and amelyaninting of aurielifices or structures by apparatus, tools, or instruments suit

ferous and other ores. able for the different capacities of operation and general 2054. John Wincoll Baxter, of Mistley, Essex-Certain iinprovements surveying. Dee. 6, 1953.

in ship building. 2258. William Henry Wilding, of Chesterfield street-Improvements

in propelling inachinery. WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. 2262. William Peace, of Heigh-Hewing and excarating coal, cannel, Sealed December 8th, 1853.

and other minerals, strata, and substances, by certain ina1402. Frederick Ludewig Ilahn Danchell, of Elm grore villas,

chinery and appliances thereto.

2322. James Knowles, of Exley Bank, near Bolton le MoorsActon green, and William Startin, of Heathfield terrace, Turnham groen-Improved mode of obtaining auriferous

Improvements in machinery for regulating the velocity of deposits from the beds of rive:s and lakes, and from pits 2341. Patrick Clark and Alexander Clark, both of Gate street,

steam engines and other motive power engines. containing water.

Lincoln's inn ficlus - Improvements in revolving shutters Sealed December 9th, 1853. 1408. Antoine Poncou, of Marseilles-Certain improvements in

and other closures for portable and other buildings.

2348. Charles Scott Jackson, of Cannon street, City-Improvements obtaining motive power. 1410. William Muir, of Manchester-Improvements in turning

in preserving seeds, potatoes, and other roots. lathes; a part of which improrements is applicable to other | 2362. Thomas Grahaine, of llation lialt, Wellingborough-Improveuseful purposes.

ments in building ships and other vessels. 1414. William Brookes, of Chancery lane-Improvements in treating 2393. Ellen Jones, of Palace street, Pimlico-improvement in steam fabrics suitable for floor-cloths, covers, and such like articles.

engine governors. (This is the same invention as that for ( A cominunication.)

which letters patent were granted to her late husband on the

141h day of April last.) 1415. William Brookes, of Chancery lane-Improvements in the

manufacture of boxes and other hollow receptacles. (A 2426. Julius Augustus Rotli, of Philadelphia-Improvements in the communication)

bleaching and drying of fibres or fibrous materials ; part of 1425. Christopher Binks, of Albert villa, North Woolwich

which improvements is applicable to the dryins or woren

and other textile manufactures. Improvements in dryers, and in preparing drying oils for

2447. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's inn fields- Improvements 1435. Richard Hopkins, of Manchester -- Improvements in machinery 2450. James Denoon Toung, of liestminster-- Improvements in oil paints, varnishes, and other uscs.

in mills for grinding. (A communication.)
or apparatus for cutting and shaping cork-wood and other
similar substances.


Scaled December 14th, 1853. 1501. Robert Midgley, of Northowram, Yorkshire--Improvements

in preparing and finishing certain worsted yarns, and in 1437. William G. Craig, of Newport, Monmouth-- Improvements in apparatus employed therein.

axle boxes, guides, and bearin01 locomotive engines and 1503. William Bogsett, of St. Martin's lane, and George Brooks

carriages; parts of which improvements are applicable to the Petit, of Lisle street-Improvements in dioptric reflectors.

Uushes and bearings of machinery. 1911. Richard Archibald Brooman, of Fleet street--Method of, and | 1450. John Mackintosh, of Pall Mall East-Improvements in the

machinery for, reducing wood and other vegetable fibres to construction of portable boats, or vessels, or buoys.
pulp, applicable to the manufacture of paper, pasteboard, 1659. William Francis Snowden, of Weymouth-Improved mangle.
millboard, papier maché, mouldings, and other like purposes. 2001. Edward Patrick Gibbon, of Dublin-Improrements in window
(4 communication.)

frames and sashes.
Sealed December 12th, 1853.

2133. Charles Townsend look, of Tovil IIouse, Maidstone--Improve. 1428. William Smith, of Shefield-Improvements in the node of

ments in the manufacture of pulp. manufacturing metallic handles for knives and forks, backs 2352. Ilenry Whitaker Butterworth, of Philadelphia Improved for razors, bows for scissors, and the relative parts of such

supplemental reflux valvc for steam engines. (A communilike instruments,

cation.) 1429. John Marsh, Theophilus Marsh, James Marsh, and Walter 2417. Thomas Thompson, of Nuch lark street, Corentry--improve. Marsh, all of Sheffield-Inproved mode of fastening the

ments in machinery for weaving carpets, cuach lace, and handles of table knives and forks.

velvet. 1457. Timoleon Zoé Louis Maurel, of Paris-Certain improrcments 2421. William Russell, of Biriningham-improveinent or improvein horological alarms.

inents in the manuiacture of copper tubes.


Date of No. in the Registration. | Register.


Proprietors' Names.


Dec. 7



A Solid Spring-Knife Handle...
Improved link motion for Steam Engines

John Lingan.......
Edward Reynolds

Pea Croft, Sheffield.
Butterley Iron Works, Alfreton, Der.

byzbire Wood Street, Cheapside Wakefield, Yorkshire

9 » 10

35 10

The Commercial Purse
Improved Chimney Top

Dent, Alcroft, and Co.
Edward Green..

No. 57. Vol. II.]


[Dec. 23, 1853.

Journal of the Society of Arts. anthracite area of ter' Welsh coal-field extended

, 5.97; anthracite area of the Welsh coal-field extended

from the Vale of Neath to Kidwelly, in CarFRIDAY, DECEMBER 23, 1853.

marthenshire, and, after crossing beneath Carmarthen Bay, again appear iu Pembrokeshire,

and continued all across that coultry to St. Bride's EXTRAORDINARY MEETING.


Mr. J. GLYNN, F.R.S., said that, in discussing An Extraordinary Meeting was held on Mon- the subject of the prevention of smoke, it was deday, the 19th instant, William Bird, Esq., in the sirable to keep in view certain questions suggested chair, for the purpose of resuming the

by the necessities of the case, and by the require

ments of the Society. He would allude, in the DISCUSSION

first place, to the two subjects, Nos. 46 and 47, ON THE CONSUMPTION OF SMOKE. in the premium list of the Society of Arts for The Secretary stated that he had received two the present session, as embodying roughly what communications on the subject of this meeting, one he considered should be chiefly attended to in from Mr. Charley, of Belfast, who said that at the this discussion. These were :Mossvale Bleach Works near that place, owing to "46. For an account of recent improvements in, or applithe use of Williams's smoke consuming apparatus, cations to, the furnaces of steam engine boilers, for the with the addition of a little more air at the bridge, consumption or prevention of smoke, without increasing

the expense of working." there was almost complete immunity from dark

“47. For an account of improvements in the furnaces smoke ; indeed the smoke was scarcely ever per- of manufactories, especially in glass works, iron foundries ceptible except immediately after firing. At and the like, for the consumption or prevention of

smoke." other times the ejection was of a white or pale ashy colour, somewhat resembling steam. The It should be remembered that, in 1843, now coal used was “Hard Ayr," from Scotland. Among ten years ago, a Select Committee was appointed the white linens it was most desirable to prevent by the House of Commons “to inquire into the dense smoke, and thus avoid stains from colly. means and the expediency of preventing the The other letter was from Mr. J. M. Dodd, nuisance of smoke arising from fires and furwho thought that the simplest and most natural naces.” This committee defined smoke to method of obviating the evil, in regard to furnaces be:-“ First, black smoke, that nuisance to employed in various trades and manufactures, was which the attention of the Committee is dithe substitution in such furnaces, of anthracite rected, consists essentially of carbon separated coal for the other combustible minerals now in by heat from coal or other substances, and is use. The non-smoke producing properties of commonly mixed mechanically with carbonic this fuel were thus stated by Mr. R. 0. Taylor, in acid gas, carbonic acid, and other matters." his “ Statistics of Coal.” “The value of the The Committee mentioned six other kinds of noxWelch steam or slightly bituminous coal is en- ious smokes and vapours, arising from copperhanced by this quality of burning almost wholly works, alkali-works, lead-works, &c.; but they without smoke. Steamers burning the fat directed their inquiry to smoke arising from the bituminous coal can be tracked at sea, at least imperfect combustion of coal in furnaces—that was Beventy miles.

It is a complete tell-tale of smoke in the common acceptation of the word. their whereabouts, which is not the case with It was expedient in conducting the present disthose burning authracite, as the latter kind cussion to follow a similar course, and to limit it, sends forth no perceptible smoke.” A further in the first instance, to the furnaces of steam proof of the applicability of this fuel to the use boilers, brewers' coppers, tallow melters' pans, of large furnaces was to be found in the fact, that stills, and other furnaces of a similar kind, used in the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company had re- large towns, and comprehended under No. 46 in cently undertaken the working of a Colliery in the Premium List; then to go on to the questions Pembrokeshire for the supply of this fuel to arising under No. 47, affecting glass works, iron their vessels. Of the value of anthracite as fuel, foundries, smelting works, and the like. It apMr. Taylor gave the following particulars: “The peared also to be requisite to bear in mind that evaporative power of English coking coal is it had been already decided “ that the object to 7.81lbs. of water to llb. of coal. The evapor- be attained is the production of a perfect combusating power of anthracite is 10.56lbs. of water tion to prevent smoke,” as given in the evidence to 11b. of coal. The number of lbs. of of Dr. Ure. (See Report, Answer 98.) The water to which llb. of fuel will impart 1 degree means of preventing smoke appeared to be five; of heat is : Walls End coal, 2,000lbs : semi- but the methods of applying them varied consibituminous South Wales, 9,000lbs.; charcoalderably. They had been applied not only in 10,000lbs ; anthracite, 12,000lbs.” The com- various ways separately, but in combination, for position of anthracite might be stated as : Carbon which many patents had been taken out; and

there still remained a wide fine for the exercise water-wheels had been applied to Mr. Brunton's
of inventive talent anu skill in adapting revolving grates, when no other rotary motion
them to the various forms of furnaces, and was at hand to work the furnace. It was evid
the uses to which they might be put. The most dent that Stanley's contrivance was very effective,
obvious means of preventing smoke was the sub- and even elegant in its action, when the steam-
stitution of coke for coal, as in locomotive engines, engine fed its own fire, and regulated the supply
which, by Act of Parliament, must burn their own of coal to the demand for steam; but the neces-
smoks;" but it was found more convenient to avoid sity of care and attention to raise the fire from
inaking any. This might also be accomplished by time to time, and to remove the clinkers, induced
the use of dry Welsh, Kilkenny, Kilmarnock, or Mr. Brunton and other ingenious persons to
other coal of similar character, or of anthracite it- devise what might be called the fourth means.
self, abundantly found in South Wales, instead of Before noticing this, however, it might be right
the bituminous coal of Newcastle, Durham, and the to mention that Mr. Godson invented a method
Midland Counties. The next plan was to produce of supplying furnaces with coal from below, by
a complete combustion of these smoky coals by a forcing up a column of fuel, which was lighted
due supply of air to the incandescent fuel. For at the top, and caked as it was delivered to the
this purpose various methods had been devised by furnace, the column of coals being pressed up-
Mr. Charles Wye Williams, Mr. Chanter, Mr. wards in a box, as a candle was raised in the socket
Samuel Hall, and many other persons, some of of a candlestick, or like the wick of a lamp. Al-
whom contrived to warm the air before it mixed though this plan was in many respects satisfactory,
with the heated vapours; whilst some divided it was evident that much inconvenience must
the air as it entered into numerous streams or attend its application to large furnaces. The fifth
small jets. Others, again, admitted it through means, therefore, might be said to have suggested
sliding doors and regulators; but the last of itself from the imperfections of the fourth. It
these means of supplying cold air, although it consisted in giving a longitudinal motion to the
might prevent smoke, sometimes increased the grate, by which it fed itself with coal at the
consumption of fuel. The third means, which, in furnace mouth, and cast off the clinkers at the
a great degree, included the second, was by con- tail-end of the fire-bars, the forward motion cor-
stantly supplying fuel to the furnace in small responding with the consumption of the fuel;
quantities, much scattered and divided, so that the while, by other motions given to the fire-bars,
coal was not only ignited as it fell upon the fire, the mass of fire was broken, or stoked, so as to
but the heated vapours at the same time had a admit a due supply of air, and the clinkers dis-
supply of air sufficient to produce their complete engaged from the bars, so as to be readily cast off
combustion. To some extent this might be when they reached the end of the bars. Such
effected by the careful stoking of a skilful fire- plans were Mr. Brunton's peristaltic grate, in
man in a well-constructed furnace; but as this which the fuel was digested, so to speak, like
constant attention to the supply and frequent food in the stomach of an animal, giving heat and
stoking of the burning coals involved often re- supporting physical power; and Mr. Juckes' plan
peated openings of the fire-doors, and the conse- of grate, composed of fire-bars like links of an
quent admission of cold air in excess, mechanical endless chain, upon which the fire travelled
contrivances had been introduced, which, without through the furnace. These means, variously
opening the fire doors, until it became necessary modified or combined, had all been exercised,
to raise the fire from the grate bars, and to clear and in some cases with considerable success, to
them from the “clinkers” or earthy parts of the obviate and prevent the discharge of smoke from
coal vitrified by the heat, scattered a constant and chimneys into the atmosphere of towns and cities.
continuous supply of fuel upon the fire. In most of In discussing the subject, Mr. Glynn thought
these devices there was a hopper filled with coal, the different speakers could not do better than
and a pair of rollers through which it passed. It follow the subdivisions of the syllabus, under
then either fell directly on the fire, as in the well- each of the two heads before-mentioned :-
known revolving grate of the late Mr. Brunton ;
or it was scattered over the fire by the centrifugal

1. Have the improvements or the apparatus
action of fans or wings fixed upon the surface of two mentioned been in actual use? If so, to what
very fiat cones, upon which the coal dropped furnaces were they applied, and for what time ?
from the rollers, as in Mr. Stanley's plan, much Did they prevent the discharge of black or dark
used in Manchester, where the governor of the smoke from the chimney-tops? If the smoke
steam-engine regulated also the supply of fuel to was visible, to what extent; and if at intervals,
the furnace, according to the engine's demand for when ?
steam. In all these cases, mechanical power was 2. What was the kind of fuel used before any
required, and these machines could only be used experiments were tried ? What kind of fuel has
where a steam-engine was employed, although been used since ? What is the difference in
Mr. Glynn had known some instances where the quality and cost in either or both ?

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3. What kinds of furnaces or grates, or modes steam into the flue, and in some measure damping the of setting, have been used or tried ?

fires. In answer to questions, Mr. Stevens said that 4. What kind of apparatus has been applied to he hoped shortly not only to get rid of the smoke, but

his arrangements were being applied to bakers' ovens, and prevent the production of smoke? If by the also of the smoky taste which the bread too often had. admission of air, state whether cold or heated, The cost of the apparatus must depend on a variety of and in what manner it was brought into contact circumstances, such as the form and size of the furnace.

If it were a new furnace, the actual expenditure for with the fuel ?

manual labour would be from 31. to 101., whilst the cost 5. What mode of supplying coal to the furnace, of the new form of furnace would be no dearer than the old. or of feeding the fire? What mode of stoking, If the furnace was for an engine of four or five horse whether by moving grates or otherwise, and of power, he should say the cost would be about 31. ; but if

it were of fifty horse power, about 101. As regarded old clearing the bars of clinkers ?

furnaces, the lowest price at which he had been able yet 6. State the cost of the apparatus, the time it to adapt his invention, was 51., and the highest, an exhas been in work, and the prospect of its durabi- ceedingly expensive one, for an engine of fifty horse power, lity from past experience, and the general results 251. With reference to his charges for royalty, he never

asked to be paid until the parties were satisfied with the arising from its use.

success of his invention. He should say that the saving of Mr. J. LEE STevens had the pleasure of attending the fuel with his furnace would be from twelve to eighteen, last meeting of the Society, when this subject was before and thirty per cent., and on an average certainly not lower them, and wished then to have an opportunity of explain- | than twenty per cent. As an instance, he might mention, ing his patent for preventing smoke, but abstained froin that when he first put up his furnace at Messrs. Miller, doing so, as not pertinent to the paper then before them. Ravenhill, and Salkeld's, Mr. Salkeld informed him that He would now, however, in some measure endeavour to he was about to do so under an economised boiler, and do so, and show that it was in practical use, and, he that, therefore, he need not expect any great saving, the believed, obviated many, if not all, the objections to the more especially as it was looked after by the best stoker introduction of furnaces in large cities. His object had in London, who had a regular supply of coals, namely, been not to introduce new machinery, but so to adapt old three and a half tons for seven days two hours. Mr. that a common stoker might be cabled to manage it Salkeld had since informed him that he was now supplywithout any great exertion. He in some measure altered ing the same quantity of coals for eight days five and a the fire-bars, his object deing, as far as possible, to prohibit half hours. Messrs. Easton and Amos, engineers, were the admission ci air from beneath the furnace, trusting to about ascertaining the quantity of coal they used in a get a sufficient supply above the fire place. He therefore fortnight, and also the quantity of water evaporated, reduced the interstices

between the bars from half-an-inch which he should be happy to supply to the Society when er an inch to a quarter-of-an-inch. The bridge receded he obtained it. from the bars so as to give room for his other arrange- Mr. J. GILBERTSON said he had a plan he invented ments. Beneath the fire bars he had described, he had several years ago, which came very near that patented another range of bars nearer the ashpit. Beyond the by Dr. Stevens, and which required little attenend of the upper range of bars he placed a caloric plate, tion in the stoking. It was applicable to breweries, mills, which was prevented coming into contact with the bridge and almost every description of manufactory, and he had by studs or flanges, and this plate was faced with Welsh had them constructed from six feet to half a foot lumps, there being 3 or 4 inches between it and the bars ; square. With regard to tallow melters' pans, he had Whilst the fire was being lighted, there would certainly be a invented, thirty-five years ago, a covering for them, which mall quantity of smoke. The fire heated the boiler, and destroyed the effluvia by passing it through the fire-bars, when the fire was stoked the cinders were forced over and and it was now very generally adopted. In his plan, á heated the current of air, which passed through a fire-box, model of which he held in his hands, the bars and cheeks and not over the bars, it being admitted into the furnace or sides were cast hollow, for the admission of pure air at just above the fire-box. In his opinion, notwithstanding the bridge or back of the furnace, before the smoke enthe dictum of Sir Humphry Davy, the most perfect heat tered into the flue, thus supplying the gaseous products was attainable when the oxygen had been previously of the fuel with fresh air at a very high temperature, heated; for he found that the higher the heat of the which was necessarily acquired in its passage through the oxygen, the more perfect was the combustion of the car- hollow bars and side plates. The effect of partly conbon. It was said that Sir Humphry Davy arrived at suming the smoke commenced as soon as the fire was the conclusion that the oxygen should be cold because lighted, and increased as the bars became heated. If orthe fire burned brighter in cold weather ; but did it never dinary attention was paid to the stoking, all the fuel occur to him that the fire burned brighter in the might be consumed under the boiler by slow combustion, winter because the smoke was lighter, the atmosphere instead of being driven into the atmosphere. By these being denser and assisting in the combustion. Mr. Stevens means a considerable saving would be effected in the here read a long list of establishments he had supplied quantity of fuel consumed, and there would be less dewith the Patent Smokeless Furnaces, among whom were struction of the bars, as they were kept cool by the air Keen and Welch, mustard manufacturers, of Garlic-hill; passing through them. He might mention, to show its Welch and Margetson, silk dyers, London and Merton, efficiency, however, that it had been adopted by a Mr. Herring Brothers, manufacturing chemists, Aldersgate Bridge's, a whalebone boiler, in Houndsditch, and he was street ; Miller, Ravenhill & Salkeld, engineers, Glass-house- enabled to live in his house with perfect ease. fields; Vallance & Catt, brewers, Brighton; Gresham-club; cessor, from carelessness or some other cause, discontinued Easton and Amos, engineers, Southwark; Courage and its use, and the result was that he had been indicted for Donaldson, brewers, Shad Thames; Bevington and Morris, a nuisance and compelled to leave. His object was not leather merchants, Bermondsey; Betts and Co., distillers, now to come into competition with any other parties, but Smithfield-bars; Earl Fitzwilliam; Billinsgate market, &c. to let them know what simple means there were to abate He referred to Billinsgate-market, because it had given the nuisance. He might also mention that he had apgreat satisfaction to the city authorities, who had favoured plied his principle of slow combustion with great advanhim with a further order, notwithstanding its not having tage, in warming buildings, by means of hot air stoves, so proved as successful as it would have done, in consequence that the air, to use an expression of Dr. Reid's, was made of a tube about four inches

in diameter having been intro- to circulate freely through the heart of the house, the duced into the flue from a steam-engine, causing a flow of whole area þeing kept at an equal temperature. The

His suc

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