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Photographic Society, which was founded within ponding members in the colonies and in foreign these walls, at the conclusion of our late Exhibi-countries throughout the century; but it was tion of Photography, the first of its kind that has not until the session of 1851-2 that our colonial ever been held in this country.
correspondence was placed on its present very Our first regular exhibition of useful inventions important footing. A special committee was appears to have been held in 1761, when a Mr. then appointed for the purpose of making the Bailey attended for seven weeks, for a payment of Society useful in advancing the knowledge of the 10s. 6d. a day, to explain the models and other resources and capabilities of the numerous British articles to all comers.
colonies in all parts of the world, and in furnishing In 1756 one, and in 1757, eight, standing com- the colonies themselves with such information as mittees were appointed. From that time to 1851, may be required on subjects connected with arts, the number of those committees varied exceed-commerce, and manufactures." The committee ingly; but at the latter date the present estab- took measures to establish a correspondence with lishment of thirty standing committees, founded similar societies in the larger colonies, and with on the classification used at the Great Exhibition committees of correspondence in those colonies of the Industry of all Nations, was happily where no such societies exist. The co-operation adopted. There are now four classes for raw of the Colonial Office was solicited, and promptly materials; six for machinery; ten for textile fa- accorded; and the results have been highly valubrics ; nine for metallic, vitreous, and ceramic able. The 44th number of the Journal contains manufactures; and one, with four sub-classes, for a very important communication, received through fine arts. In addition to these standing commit- the Colonial Office, from the New Zealand Sotees, special committees for occasional or tempo- ciety on the subject, particularly of the Phormium rary purposes are frequently appointed by the tenax, or New Zealand flax.
nication is referred to merely as a specimen of It is unnecessary for me to remind you of the the kind of correspondence which the Society distinguished part which was played by the So- now carries on with the colonies. See also the ciety in reference to the Great Exhibition. It is 49th Journal on the subject of the Long-haired sufficient to state that the exertions of this Society Angora Goat, and the 40th and 49th numbers prepared the public mind for the idea of the Ex- respecting certain substitutes for Gutta Percha. hibition; that here originated the connexion be- It will be remembered that the last-mentioned tween our illustrious President and the other substance was introduced into this country by founders and conductors of that wonderful enter- the Society of Arts; and that the first specimen prise; that it was first announced to the world by ever received is deposited in our Musenm. his Royal Highness as President of the Society It is not only beyond these islands, however, of Arts; and that almost every name which is that we have extended our commuuications and familiar to our memories as having had a very our means of usefulness. In the United Kingimportant share in the glor of that greatest dom we have entered into an alliance, for mutual work of these times is to be fonnd on the roll of benefit, with 309 independent institutions. The our members.
resolution to establish the union of institutes was The Indian portion of the late Exhibition at passed under the happy auspices of Lord LansDublin was collected at the instance of this So- downe's presidency, on the 18th of May, 1852. ciety, and was intended to be exhibited here. It It was established in the summer of that year ; was transferred to Dublin at the suggestion of his and has for its object, on the one hand, to raise Royal Highness the President.
the institutions, on the basis of perfect local freeIt has been already intimated that the opera- dom and self-government, to a position of power tions of the Society of Arts have not been con- and utility which, isolated and centreless, they fined to these islands. From the very outset the could scarcely attain ; and, on the other hand, to colonies of Great Britain have received a large secure for the Society of Arts the powerful coshare of attention.
operation of numerous and widely-spread bodies On the 18th of August, 1756, the following of intelligent, locally-influential, and publicrecord was entered :-"A letter from Benjamin spirited men. Franklin, Esq., dated Philadelphia, November Such, very imperfectly presented, is the vene27, 1755, was read, wherein he mentions he rable but vigorous Society of Arts, Manufacshould esteem as a great honour to be admitted tures and Commerce. a corresponding member of this Society; and The bye-laws require that at the commencethough it is not required that corresponding ment of each annual session the chairman of the members should bear any part of the expense of council shall declare the policy which the council the Society, yet he desires he may be permitted will adopt during his year of office. This duty to contribute twenty guineas, to be applied in I shall now endeavour briefly to discharge. premiums."
It will probably be thought right that some Many other eminent persons have been corres- special demonstrations should celebrate our first
centenary, but it would best be signalized by and perceived many of their bearings upon the more than ordinary fruits of utility in our ordi- prosperity of those interests which we are charnary proceedings; by extending and consolidating tered to promote. By the merciful arrangements our resources and means of action, by large addi- of Providence, our interests, rightly understood, tions to our roll of members ; by a marked im- are always in harmony with our duties; and we provement of our valuable journal; and by the have much cause to be thankful that this truth, acquisition of premises more suitable to our pre- in relation to the health and homes of our sent condition than these which we have com- brethren, is now peculiarly obvious. The council pletely outgrown.
will not neglect its grave admonitions. The The inheritance of our predecessors is accepted progress of mechanical invention, and the appliby the council of the current year. We shall cations of machinery to arts, manufactures, and endeavour to carry on with good vigour what has trades, and to the uses of daily life, are now more been commenced with good judgment; and, at important than ever. The forthcoming report our retirement, to leave behind us some things of Mr. Whitworth, on the Manufacturing and that may be worthy of record. We shall not Mechanical Industries of America, is anxiously think it necessary to pursue the very objects that expected by the council. The well-known comWilliam Shipley pursued. He was particularly petency of the author, and the vital importance anxious to promote the growth of madder ; but of the subject, will secure the fullest attention to we think it not at all needful in these days to his work. The reports of the other Commistake extraordinary measures to make the world sioners on the Exhibition at New York, will, grow madder. We hope, however, to do some doubtless, be of great value. things that Shipley and his coadjutors would The “strikes" which afflict the manufacturing have gladly seen done.
districts are regarded by the council with deep The council will continue to develop the union regret. The Society feels an equal interest in of institutions, and the foreign and colonial cor- the well-being of, the masters and men. Exrespondence. The council will carefully consider perience of the past evils of former strikes is the results of the Exhibition at Dublin, with a found insufficient to prevent their recurrence view to their profitable use. The Society of Its sad lessons must be again and again learned ; Arts feels a deep interest in the success of but it may be hoped that, when we have a real the intended Exhibition at Paris, and desires education of the people, these lamentable spectathat therein the arts, manufactures, and com- cles may be no more seen; and it is worth conmerce of the United Kingdom and its depen-jecturing whether, when education is improved, dencies may be fully and honourably repre- an amendment of the law of unlimited liability, sented. The council will do what it can to and the introduction of partnerships en commanpromote this object. The council will readily dite, by placing the men in the position of masters assist the promoters of provincial exhibitions in such partnerships, might not have some effect which
may be held in connexion with any towards restraining workmen from taking up, as of the associated institutions. The efforts of such, a position which is inconsistent with the the Society will be continued to procure an essential conditions of mastership, and has an amendment of the Law of Partnership; to pre- inevitable tendency to destroy the means of empare the mind of the public for the adoption ployment. You have seen that in its first century of a decimal system of weights, measures, the Society of Arts has been an active promoter coins, and accounts; and to abolish those of education—I hope that, in this respect, our taxes, e.g. the Duties on Paper, which are spe- second century will be no discredit to its elder cially injurious to arts, commerce, and manufac- brother. The council is thoroughly convinced
that an improved education for the whole people, The quinquennial Swiney prize, of 1001. ster- rich and poor, adult and child, is the first requisite ling, contained in a goblet of the same value, for the improvement of manufactures, commerce, (designed by Mr. Maclise, R.A.) will be ad- and arts; that a liberal measure of science must judged by the council, in January next, to the enter into that education; and that it is the duty author of the best published work on Juris- of this Society to promote vigorously this great prudence attention being particularly directed object. We shall not involve the Society in any to that branch of Jurisprudence which relates to religious or political controversies ; but we shall arts and manufactures.
lend a helping hand to make education industrial, Those applications of Science and Art by which scientific, and practical. the well-being of our poorer brethren who labour In the pursuit of this purpose, we ought to be in our towns, villages, fields, mines, and ships, may powerfully aided by the associated institutes. We be promoted by the improvement of their houses, rely on them for cordial, energetic, and continuous clothing, food, fuel, instruction, amusement, and aid. It is important that they should continue to health, are deeply interesting to this Society, do what they do at present; but they might do it which has long since recognised their importance, better and do more. They generally lament that
they are unable to maintain in efficiency their Again, some of the premiums have reference to classes for systematic instruction. The council such developments of our famous mechanical skill is of opinion that the mechanic, artisan, or la- as may be applicable to the further saving of hubourer, has at present no sufficiently obvious man labour in manufactures, trades, and houseinducement to pursue continuous studies in his holds, e.g. the sewing machines, the washing local institute. His previous education has not machines, &c. We have offered no premium for prepared him for it. There is little or no emula- a shaving machine, but we are quite ready to tion to incite him ; there are no examinations to reward one, if it can be used by men with orditest his progress, no certificates or diplomas to nary nerves. The premiums for the meteorologirecord it, no present and tangible rewards for cal instruments were suggested by the report of his success. Wanting such encouragements the the Conference at Brussels. It is desirable that youth who, after his daily work, purely for the the Society should hold an exhibition of meteorolove of knowledge, pursues it in regular attend- logical instruments. ance at his institute, is a hero of no mean order, We hope to have attractive and useful meetand such youths are not abundant in any class of ings on the Wednesdays of this session. The society. It is hoped that during the present following subjects of discussion have been detersession the council may be able to establish a mined on :-"Gold Crushing and Pulverizing," system whereby examinations may be held in “ Consumption of Smoke," "Ventilation of Colseveral districts, and certificates of progress and lieries,” Sewing Machines," “Manufacture of attainments, and possibly prizes, may be awarded Carpets,” “ Gas and its applications to domestic to the class-students of the institutions in union uses. We hope, also, to have a good discussion with the Society of Arts. It is hoped also that on “ Patents,” that the subject may be fully eluan exhibition of educational apparatus, foreign as cidated; and that measures may be taken to well as British, may be opened when the present procure such amendments of the law as may very interesting exhibition of " useful inventions”. deemed requisite. is closed.
And now, apologising for having detained you The time will not allow me to particularize so long, I will conclude by reminding you that, any of the articles in the present exhibition, and as the council is only the executive of the mind indeed it would be a work of supererogation to and will of the Society, it is to the members of do so; for, though we have not engaged Mr.. the Society that we must look for the mainBailey at 10s. 6d. a day to explain them, we have tenance of its high position. The council will the pleasure of seeing here the major part of | do its best; but we hope that you will aid us by the exhibitors themselves; and they, doubtless, increasing the number of subscribers, by taking will give explanations of their own inventions. A part in discussing, both here and in the JOURNAL, full explanatory catalogue is also provided. The those subjects with which experience has renPrize List for the present session has been very dered you familiar in arts, manufactures, and carefully prepared by the Secretary, in commu- commerce; and by aiding us generally in the nication with the standing committees. In this Society's works. To the members of the standing list the wants and capabilities of the colonies, as committees I venture to make a particular apwell as of the United Kingdom, have been atten- peal. It is very much, indeed, to be desired that tively considered. Some of the premiums offered they would furnish us with an annual report on are suggestive that articles now imported from the condition, progress, wants, and capabilities of foreign countries might advantageously be pro- those arts, manufactures, or trades to which the duced in the colonies. Others point to the committees have reference, and also with short ocopening of fresh sources for the supply of ma-casional communications on points of special terials for our manufactures, and for facilitating interest. The Journal would be greatly enprocesses in the arts.
Our textile manufactures riched by the shorter documents ; and the annual have made rapid progress of late years from the reports, simultaneously presented by all the comfrequent introduction of new substancese. .g. mittees, would form a volume of vast interest and Alpaca—from which good or useful articles of no slight national importance. attire have been produced at low prices. Other premiums again point to the utilization of sub- MURCHISON seconded, a vote of thanks to the
Mr. W. TOOKE, F.R.S., proposed, and Mr. stances, such as peat, refuse coal, imperfect coal, Chairman, for the address he had read, which refuse ores, slag, &c. Why should British India use only the seed of the filax plant (Linum usita- was carried by acclamation. tissimum), and let its valuable fibre rot in the soil ?
The SecrETARY announced that at the meet. Why should Australia export only the wool of the ing of Wednesday, the 23rd instant, the followsheep, and boil down thc carcasses merely for ing paper would be read, “On Machines for fat ? Is it impossible to preserve the flesh and to Pulverizing and Reducing Metalliferous Ores," export it in a satisfactory condition to this country, by Mr. Geo. F. W. Stansbury. where butcher's meat is not overabundant ?
EXHIBITION OF INVENTIONS. a prevalence of burrs” or seeds in the wool, which“ burrs” Tae Fifth Annual Exhibition of articles of excessive in quantity. It is also imported in the whole
are a disparagement, but not very serious, unless they are utility invented, registered, or patented, during fleece. On its reaching this country, and before putting the last twelve months was opened on Wed- it to the combing machinery, it has to be assorted and nesday last. Notices of this Exhibition will classed by our manufacturers, according as their purposes
may require. This has to be done with all our homeappear in the JOURNAL from time to time.
grown wool, and the process costs but little more in the one case than in the other. In sorting mohair about one
sixth part is taken out which is too short in the staple and LONG-HAIRED ANGORA GOAT.
not applicable for combing purposes ; and in the process The following Report has been forwarded to of combing about one-fifth part is made into
what is tech
nically termned • noils ;' these together are bought by woollen His Royal Highness Prince Albert, in reply to inanufacturers, from which they make cloth of different the inquiry received, through the Board of kinds and other materials. Trade, from the Swellendam Agricultural Society “With respect to the third question, What the value at the Cape of Good Hope. This communication of such fleeces would be per pound ? it would seem that
the was published in No. 49 of the Journal, page last four years it has varied from is. to 28. 3d, per pound,
present value is about 2s. 3d. per pound. During the 593. It will be remembered that the object of the the average over that period being about ls 8d. per pound. inquiry was to ascertain how far the statements In reference to the fourth question, Whether any which had been brought forward by Captain large quantity of it would be required by the European
manufacturers ? it is said that there has been a greater Conolly, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic demand for this article for some years past than our imports Society, and by Mr. Thomas Southey in his work could supply, and these have amounted on the average of on Colonial Sheep and Wools, might be relied the last four years to about two and a half million pounds. on; and that in the event of satisfactory replies As a proof of this it is asserted that for a long period it
has been sold by the Greek merchants without the buyer being received, efforts would be made with a having a chance of seeing his purchase beforehand, the view to the importation of a flock of Angora buyer's only protection being the assurance of the seller goats into that colony, and the export of their wool that it shall be of good merchantable quality. This fact to the mother country:
goes far to show how extremely desirable it would be to increase the production, as it must undoubtedly be limited
in its employment by the impossibility of obtaining a sufThe Council of the Society of Arts have much pleasure ficient supply, no less than by the difficulties and impediin reporting, for the information of his Royal Highness the ments in the way of getting the present limited one. "The Prezident, that on the receipt of the documents from the spinning of this article has now become an extensive and Swellendam Agricultural Society, they immediately entered steady irade. Ten or fifteen years ago it was found that into correspondence with the leading brokers and manu- the yarn spun by English machinery was very superior to facturers importing, or using Angora goats' wool (called Turkish hand-spun yarn, so that about that period nearly
tiitik” or “tilik” in that country, and mohair” in Great all spinning in Turkey ceased ; and this, no doubt, will Britain, and that the following is the substance of the account for the falling off in the export of mohair-yarn in communications with which they have been favoured. It 1837 as compared with 1836. We now import the raw is propused to deal with the questions seriatim, and then material—the wool and export it again in a partiallyto make such general remarks as have been elicited in the manufactured state, as yarn. On account of the present course of this inquiry.
scarcity of mohair, and its consequent dearness, quantities " In reply to the first question, Whether a breed of goats of goods are made from English wools as an imitation, exists in Angora bearing only one description of hairy and passed off' to the consumer as genuine. Although the covering of a silken fineness, which can be annually clipped? price may be subject to a little fluctuation, as the material the answers have invariably been in the affirmative. It is principally used for fancy fabrics, and though the limited would appear that this wool or hair has a peculiar glossy, quantity produced has kept it up for the time, there seems Bort, slippery feel, is white in colour, and grows in staples to be little doubt that the parties engaged in the trade or locks, so that it is somewhat curled and wiry. The have so established it, that it will not only continue but shearing takes place annually, and the process is perfectly increase, and especially if the price is kept moderate--say simple, the fleece being of pretty uniform length and qua- from 1s. 6d. to 1s. 9d. per pound. lity from the root to the point or apex. The average “For a time mohair was chiefly used for the list ends of length of the staple is from five to six inches. It is said woollen cloths, and commanded little attention; but for that it has sometimes been clipped twice in the year, when some years past it has been greatly gaining in favour for the market value has been high, but it is thus rendered the fancy trade. Formerly it was used for thick heavy much less valuable, length of staple being required. fabrics, as coatings, shawls, &c.; but recently it has been
** As to the second question, Whether such fleece is almost exclusively wrought up in plain and fancy worsted pluchased in Europe as it comes from the goat's back, and stuff's, and other lighter articles for female attire. The without requiring the expensive picking process which yarn is generally spun at Bradford and Norwich, and the Cashmere or Thibet, or other shawl-wools containing an great bulk of it is used for the manufacture of Utrecht underdown must undergo? it is said that Angora goats' velvet, a material which is now largely employed for wool is perfectly free from underdown '—unlike the decorative purposes, and for the linings of private and Thibet or Cashinere, which has a downy covering on the railway carriages. Utrecht velvet is now manufactured puit
, with long coarse hairs or kemps at the top, the sepa- on a limited scale at Banbury and Coventry, but the chiet ration of which is both tedious and expensive. It is packed seat of the manufacture is in France and Germany, in bags and shipped as it comes from the animal's back; especially the former, to which countries the yarn spun Becasionally (but which is in all cases recommended) a few in England is exported. Plush and lace are also made of the coarse locks at the skirting are taken off at the time from it, and recently it has been introduced into the or shearing and packed separately. Locks, or pieces of manufacture of a cheap imitation of black silk lace, now Evry, which are trifling in amount, and are easily separated, so generally worn, for which, from its glossy silky appearmuall be taken out where they occur. On the other ance, it is well calculated. Yarn composed of mohair and land it is asserted that washing is necessary, as there is natural coloured alpaca mixed together, in various shades,
is also largely used in the Bradford trade, in the manu or enterprise; besides, in many parts of Asia Minor a facture (with cotton twist warps) of an immense variety weed or "burr" is found to exist very generally, which is of materials for ladies' dresses, gentlemen's summer coats, very detrimental to the wool. From all the information &c. It is also extensively used both alone and in com we are possessed of, we have great confidence that the fine bination with silk, for making a description of goods Angora goat might be successiully introduced, and would called lustres, ta binets, and fringes.
thrive well on the table-land at the Cape of Good Hope. • There are several distinct breeds of goats in Angora It is a hardy animal. We would, however, suggest as and the surrounding districts, as well as the one which desirable, to send out at first with the animals few produces the mohair wool, which is larger than the shepherds who are accustomed to their habits.” ordinary goat. The wool of one is called “cambello," Nr. Titus Salt considers that not only the Angora and is of a brown colour, short and downy underneath, goat, but the Alpaca is an animal particularly worthy the with long coarser bairs at the surface of the fleece. The attention of the government with a view to its propagation import of this wool from Turkey is irregular, perhaps in our colonies. Mr. Salt has a flock of Alpacas (about a 6,000 pounds one year, and none the next. The value dozen); they have been bred in the neighbourhood of has varied during the last four years from 7d. to Is. 5d. Bradford, and no difference is perceptible between the per pound, and it is now worth from ls. to 1s. 20. per foreign and the English clip. The animals only require pound. The value is uncertain and the demand depends to be kept from wet; cold does not injure them. They entirely on fashion. There is another description of require housing in this climate, and no doubt would wool which is obtained from the ordinary goat. Its thrive well in a dry elevated temperature. There might, colour is mostly grey, brown, and black, but seldom however, be some difficulty in obtaining them, as those white. It partakes somewhat of the nature of Thibet, imported are sinuggled over, the government of Peru only it is much coarser. It is close and fine, full at the having passed a law prohibiting their exportation, in conbottom of the staple, with long coarse hairs mixed and sequence of some person who had a correct notion of their growing through it. Its present value is 6 d. per pound. value having some years ago shipped off 300 to England, It is only suitable for very low-priced carpetings, &c. of which, however, only six survived the voyage. Alpaca
“Up to this point the information furnished by our wool is now 2s. 9d. per lb.” Messrs. John Foster and different correspondents has been almost identical'; but Son (Bradford) also say that “ if this animal (the Alpaca) here we have to record a great diversity of opinion, on a could be introduced into the Cape or Australia, it would branch of the inquiry on which after all the whole ques- be of great benefit to the grower, as well as to the manution depends—the probability of naturalising or acclimat- facturer.' Mr. George Shaw Pollock (Liverpool) likewise izing the Angora goat in the Cape Colony, or indeed in confirms this opinion, and says that, the Alpaca is a any other country but its own.
hardy, graceful animal, and would, he presumes, thrive “Mr. Geo. Shaw Pollock (Liverpool) thinks the Angora on the bleakest mountain lands, either at the Cape or in goat might be located with success and great advantage Great Britain.' Messrs. R. M. Scholefield and Co. at the Cape of Good Hope." Messrs. R. M. Scholefield (Liverpool) say that, there is also an animal called the and Co. (Liverpool) suppose that the Cape colonists Vicuna, in South America, which the Cape climate could not do better than naturalize the animal there.' would suit, and the wool from which is worth 6s. to 7s. Mr. Titus Salt (Bradford) highly approves of the plan per pound.' proposed by the Swellendam Agricultural Society. He The Council of the Society of Arts are anxious to avail considers that the propagation of the Angora goat should themselves of this opportunity of expressing their readibe promoted as much as possible. He has long thought ness to undertake the collection of evidence and informathat we had colonies suitable for its propagation, and if tion on all matters affecting the material progress of this it should be found that they can be acclimatized at the country and her dependencies. They believe that in the Cape, he is persuaded the scheme proposed would be a British possessions in various parts of the world, there are very profitable investment. In February 1852, Mr. Salt many substances as yet unknown to commerce, which ordered from Angora one male and two female goats; they might be beneficially employed in the arts and manuarrived in Bradford last December. They have had factures, and they conceive that it is in the highest degree young ones and are doing well. The hair is of a beautiful important that wherever the supply of any particular raw quality. The old ones have been clipped this year, and material falls short of the demand, the greatest publicity the second coat has not in the least degenerated. Mr. should be given to the fact, so that colonists and others Salt has therefore sent to Angora for a further supply' may thereby be led to inquire whether it be possible On the other hand Messrs. W. Greame and Co. (Liverpool) to tind or rear any substitutes for the same in their own say that as regards Angora goats' wool, or mohair, we immediate localities. It is extremely desirable that no may at once inform you from the best information, occasion should be lost in studying and making known the gathered from parties from that quarter, that, from an rude and primitive methods of the natives themselves, as extraordinary peculiarity of the animals in that locality, it is by the publication of such statements that the there is no probability of their being transported to other attention of individuals in other countries, where the arts regions with any chance of success, for, when removed have attained to a greater pefection, are led to apply their even 50 or 100 miles only from their immediate locality, knowledge and experience to the improvement of the the wool degenerates and loses the soft silky character mechanism and processes adopted in less civilized states. which constitutes its chief value. Under these circum The Council have to thank the following gentlemen stances we can hold out no hopes of succeeding in the for the ready manner in which they responded to their views suggested by the Agricultural Society at the Cape communication :- Messrs. Arınstrong and Berey; Mr. of Good Hope. It would appear from the same authority also Edward Barstow ; Messrs. Buchanan, Browne, and Co.; that this peculiarity is not confined to the goats, but that even Mr. Edmund Buckley ; Messi's. Abram Gartside and Co.; the cats are subject to the same change when removed Messrs. Greame and Co.; Mr. James Haley; Messrs. from that locality, and they account for it as being some Hughes and Ronald; Messrs. Law and Wylie; Mr. atmospheric action only peculiar to that district.' Messrs. George Shaw Pollock; and Messrs. R. M. Schulcfield and Hughes and Ronald (Liverpool) say that some attempts Co.; all of Liverpool. Messrs. John Foster and Son, have from time to time been made to introduce the breed and Mr. Titus Salt, of Bradford ; and Messrs. E. and R. into other parts of Asia Minor, but the quality and W. Blakc, and Mr. George Jay, of Norwich. character of the wool has been found soon to retrograde.
“ (By o.der) The want of success may, we think be chiefly attributed
• P. LE NEVE FOSTER, to the little care, attention, and encouragement, ever
• SECRETARY." bestowed in that country on any measure of useful progress or improvement, and the total absence of all energy