Oldalképek
PDF
ePub

glee club, Messrs. Hirst, Netherwood, Etchells, and Hoyle. / 247. China Expedition-Correspondence. Mr. Longley presided at the piano, and Miss Whitham, 252. Dowie's Patent Boots-Correspondence. who is becoming popular as a songtress, gave some solos | 265. Education (Expenditure of Grants)-Statement. very effectively. Mr. Curzon, in his address, directed the 268. Parliamentary Papers (Post-office Regulations)-Return. attention of the audience to the Institution of cheap and

270. Ventilation of the House---2nd Report from the Committee. good concerts for the working classes ; and from the sym- 215. Savings Banks -- Return (Part 1).

271. Naral Prizes--Copy of Despatch of Vice-Admiral Dundas, pathy manifested by all present in the idea which the 264. Revenue Departments – Estimates. speaker threw out, it is probable that some practical 102. Bills – Married Women. result will speedily follow.

112. Bills-Courts of Common Law (Ireland).

93. Bills-Exchequer Bonds.
113. Bills-Stamp Duties.
115. Bills-Custom Duties (Sugar).

Public Records-15th Report of the Deputy-keeper.
To Correspondents.

Railways-Reports upon Certain Accidents.
New Zealand-Further Papers.

Delivered on 30th May, 1854.
Letters from Mr. H. Reid, on “Mechanics' Institute Classes;" | 228. Fire Insurances --Account.

and from Mr.W. Miller, on “ Decimalization of Coins and Ac 232. Greenwich Hospital-Accounts. counts," are necessarily omitted through want of space.

253. Criminal Prosecutions- Abstract of Return. Errata in Mr. Franklin's letter on Decimalization of Coins and

257. Greenwich Hospital, &c.-Return. Accounts.-Page 471, in third paragraph, first line, for

263. Agricultural Statistics-Supplementary Report. £900.84, &c., read £900.48, &c.; and in last paragraph but one, for the fraction 810 , read

840

PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852.

186149

864469

APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.

MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
Mox. Royal Inst., 2.-General Monthly Meeting.

Chemical, 8.
Entomological, 8.
Inst. Brit. Architects, 8.-Mr. G. R. Burnell, “On the

Effect of some External Agents on Building Materials."
TUES. Royal Inst., 3.-Prof. J. Tyndall, “ Vibrations of Heated

Bodies.'

Linnean, 8.
WED. Royal Botanic, 21.-Promenade.

Society of Arts, 8.-Dr. T. King Chambers, “Industrial

Pathology, or the Injuries and Diseases Incident to Indus

trial Occupations."
Geological, 8.-1. Prof. Owen, “ On Fossil Mammalia and

Reptilia from the Purbecks of Durdlestone Bay." 2. Mr.
W. Blandford “On a Section Exposed in the Excavation
of the West India Docks." 3. Mr. J. Prestwich, “ On
the Paleontological and Physical Distinctions of the
London Clay and the Brecklesham Series.” 4. Mr. J.
Prestwich, “On the Relation of the London with the

Lower Tertiaries of France and Belgium."
THURS. Royal Inst., 3.—Mr. M. T. Masters, “ On Botany."

Astronomical, 8.
Philological, 8.
Architectural Assoc., 8.--Class of Design.

Royal Inst., 87.-Prof. Faraday, “ Magnetic Hypotheses."
SAT. Asiatic, 2.

Royal Inst., 3.-Dr. W. B. Hodgson, “On the Importance

of the Study of Economic Science as a Branch of Educa

tion for all Classes." Royal Botanic, 31.

[From Gazette, May 26th, 1854.]

Dated 1st March, 1854. 500. S. Roussell, 67, Rue Caumartin, Paris-Painting glass.

Dated 8th March, 1854. 554. L. J. Barnetche, M.D., Bordeaux-Prevention of accidents on railways.

Dated 9th March, 1854. 562. J. Smith, Liverpool-Baking ovens.

Dated 17th March, 1854. 638. T. J. Hera path, Bristol-Manures.

Dated 27th March, 1854. 710. G. Collier, Halifax, Looms.

Dated 8th April, 1854.
827. J. Platt, Oldham-Cotton machinery.

Dated 11th April, 1854.
850. T. S. Whitworth, Salford-Spinning machinery.

Dated 18th April, 1854.
892. J. Rowley, Camberwell-Substitute for leather.

Dated 2nd May, 1854.
986. R. J. Mary'on, 37, York road, Lambeth-Anchors.

Dated 4th May, 1854.
988. C. Mee, Bath-Foundation for ornamental designs.
1000. C. Barlow, 89, Chancery lane-Water meters. (A commu.

nication.)
1002. J. Manley, Chacewater-Mine ventilation.

Dated 5th May, 1854.
1004. W. Exall, Reading Machines for cutting straw.
1006. E. Ilaseler, Wolverhampton-Ornamenting metals, papier

maché, &c. 1003. A. M. P. Barbette, Paris-Brass-topped nails. 1010. A. Warner, 11, New Broad street-Metal sheets for sheathing.

Dated 6th May, 1864. 1022. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Railway carriages.

(A communication.) 1024. J. Bernard, Club chambers, Regent street-Stitching machinery.

Dated 8th May, 1854. 1028. G. F. Logan, Glasgow–Templates.

Dated 9th May, 1854. 1034. F. P. Berquez, Richmond road, Dalston-Gas stoves. 1036. C. Liddell, Abingdon street-Permanent way. 1038. E. N. Horsford, Massachusetts, U.S.-Reroval of chlorine.

Dated 10th May, 1854. 1040. P. A. Sparrc, Salisbury street, Strand-Preventing alteration

of written documents. 1042. R. Reece, Athy-Smelting iron. 1014. J. Anthony and W. T. Chafe, Devonport, Pipes and tubes.

Dated 11th May, 1854, 1048. E. Brown, Sheffield-Sciseors. 1030. J. Cundy, Carrington, Nottingham-Reflectors for artificial

light. 1052. H. Doulton, Iligh street, Lambeth-Kilns for baking earthen1054. E. W. Abbott, Regent's quadrant-Umbrellas and parasols.

Dated 13th May, 1854.
1072. E. Barsanti and F. Matteuci, Florence-Motive power by ex

plosion of gases.
1074, C. Garforth, Dunkinfield-Permanent way.
1076. P. G. Shaw, Old Broad street-Decanting liquids.
1078. Capt. H. Y. D. Scott, R.E., Woolwich-Cement.

PARLIAMENTARY REPORTS.

SESSIONAL PRINTED PAPERS.

Delivered on 25th May, 1854. Par. Numb. 180. Metropolis Drainage--Plans. 237. Sugar, &c.—Return. 248. Foreign Sugar-Account. 236. Small Arms-Report, Minutes of Evidence, &c. 108. Bills-Valuation of Lands (Scotland) as amended in Committee,

and on re-commitment. 109. Bills-Benefices Augmentation. 110. Bills-Church Rates Abolition. lil. Bills-Income Tax (No. 2). Public General Acts-Cap. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14.

Delivered on 26th May, 1851.1 44. Local Acts (No. 56, Drainage of Lands; No. 57, Londonderry

Port)-Reports from the Admiralty.
125. Superannuations (Public Departments)- Accounts.
235. Cholera (Jamaica)-Return.
261. Education (Ireland)-Annual Report of the Commissioners.

Metropolitan Water Companies-Reports.
Military Aid to Turkey - Treaty between her Majesty, the Em-

peror of the French, and the Sultan.
Joint Capture-Convention between her Majesty and the Em-
peror of the French.

Delivered on 27th and 29th May, 1854. 269. Carrickmacross National Schools Return. 254. County Courts-Return.

ware.

APPLICATION WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATION FILED. 1153. J. Cox, Birmingham--Percussion caps. May 23rd, 1854.

FEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED,

Scaled Jay 25th, 1854.

2748. John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's inn fields--Improve

ments in the production of printing surfaces. (A commu. nication.)

Sealed May 26th, 1854. 2755. Joseph Wormald, of Vauxhall, and Georze Pollard, of York

rol, Lamb. tli-!mproved pipe wrench. 2762. Louis Cornides, of 4, Trafalgar square, Charing cross-Com

bining gelatine with certain other substances, and coloring the same, so as to produce various olijects capable of resist

ng atmospheric intluences. 2769. Robert Hawkins Nicholls, of Bedford-Improvements in hoeing

and otherwise cultivating land. 2772. Alexander Macomie, of No. 6, l'ercy street, Rathbone place

Ornamental piece of furniture shaped like a rase, constructed

to contain or form a writing and drawing desk. 2775. Patrick Kelly, of So. 111, West street, Drogheda-Improved

apparatus for cultivating, preparing, and treating land, and

for sowing seeds. 2778. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle street,

llolborn-Improvements in fire-arms. 2784. Edward Keating Davis, of No. 1, Howley street, Lambeth

Improvements in machinery for making pipes, sheets, still worms, and other articles from that class of metals called soft metals, as lead, tin, zinc, bismuth, or alloys of soft metals, that are capable of being forced out of inetal re

ceivers or chambers through dies, cores, &c. 2793. Thomas Garnett, of Low moor, ncar (litheroe, and Daniel

Adamson, of Dukinfield - Inproremeuts in generating

stean and in consuming smoke. 2799. John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Certain ap

plications of vulcanized India-rubber..(il communication.). 2820. Squier Cheavin, of Spalding--Double action or belt filterer. 2828. Edward Oldfield, of Saltord - Improvements in machinery for

spinning and doubling. 2876. Allan Macpherson, of Brussels—Improvements in disinfecting

sewers or other drains or depositarics of fetid matters or gases, and in converting the contents thereof to useful pur

poses. 2879. Hippolyte Laurent Du Bost, of No. 62, Rue Veuve des Petits

Champs à Paris-Improvements in the construction of

locks and keys. 2885. Edward Orange Wildman Whitehouse, of Brighton-Improve.

ments in effecting telegraphic communications. 2888. William Redgrave, of Croxley green, Rickmansworth-Im

prored safety travelling cap. 2898. Edward Beanes, of No. 57, Charlotte strect, Portland place

Improvements in the manufacture and refining of sugar. 2912. Jean Baptiste Pascal, of Lyons- Improvements in obtaining

motive power. 2934. Andrew Lawson Knox, of Glasgow-Improvements in orna

menting certain descriptions of textile fabrics. 2968. Heiman Kohnstamm, of 7, Union court, Old Proad street

Improvements in the manufacture of imitation Jeather. 2977. Charles Lewis, of Hull-Improved lamp for signalling. 9. Joseph Madeley, of Walsall - Improvement or improvements

in the manufacture of certain kinds of tubes, and in nuts for

and heads of screws. 83. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle street, Ilol

born-Improvement in the manufacture or glass. 167. John Westlake, of Totnes-Pulverizing, washing, separating,

amalga mating, and otherwisc treating ores, gossans, earths, and rocks, so as the better to obtain and extract therefrom the gold and other metals and minerals which may be con

tained therein. 220. Peter Arinand le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of 4, South

street, Finsbury-Arrangements for preventing accidents on

railways. 897. William Henry Barlow, of Derby--Improrements in securing

and connecting the rails of railways. 428. Edward Massey, of 3, Tysoc street, Clerkenwell - Improro.

ments in ships' logs, known as “ Massey's patent ships' 457. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle street,

Holborn--Improveincnts in engines for generating power, by means of the expansire force derived from heated air and gases, or by means of the expansive force of liquid carbonic

acid, and other expansible liquids. 702. Thomas John Smith and Joseph Smith, both of Queen street,

Chcapside-Improvements in the manufacture or construction of pocket books, portfolios, and similar articles.

709. James Alesander Manning, of the Inner Temple-Improre

ments in the treating of sewerage. 752. John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's inn fields--Improve.

ments in printing fabrics, and in the machinery or apparatus employed therein.

Scaled May 30th, 1854. 2532. Thomas Sanders Bale, of Cauldron-place, and Daniel Lucas,

of Stoke-upon-Trent--Improvements in ornamenting the materials of and articles manufactured in pottery, as brick, tiles, slabs, &c., and also in glast, slate, stone, and other

plastic substances, 2652. John Riddle Musgrave, Robert Musgrave, and James Musgrare,

of Belfast-Improvements in hot air stoves. 2781. Joshua Jackson, of Wolverhampton-Improved signalling

apparatus. 2785. John Llewitt, of Salford - Improvements in machinery or ap

paratus for spinning cotton and other fibrous substances, 2787. Richard Balderstone, of Blackburn-Improrements applicable

to spinning machines known as 'mules,' and to machines of similar character, for clearing or cleaning certain parts of

such machines. 2790. Lewis Jennings, of Flulver street, Westminster-Improred

mode of producing plain and ornamental sewing, and in

machinery applicable thereto. 2816. William Dray, of Swan-lane -- Improrements in the construction

of portable houses and buildings. 2872. John Bourne, of l'ort Glasgow-Improrements in steam en.

gines. 2873. Joun Bourne, of Port Glasgow— Improrements in machinery

for the production of iron ships and other similar structures. 287-4. John Bourne, of Port Glasgow-Improvements in the con

struction of iron ships. 2889. George Kerr llannay, at l'lverston--Combination and manu

facture of composition grinding wheels, honcs, and other

grinding bodies. 36. Alired Vincent Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Improvedients in

the construction of motive power engines, part of which improvements is also applicable to the packing of pistons

generally. 111. lleury Corlett, of Summer-hill, Dublin-Improvements in

springs for railway and other carriages and vehicles. 123. Robert Galloway, of Lambeth-Improvement in admitting air

to furnaces where tubular boilers are emplored. 126. George lIenry Bursill, of Ofiord-road, Barnsbury-park-Im

provements in operating upon metalliferous ores and other sninerals, and upon slags' and 'sweep,' in order to facilitate the separation and recovery of the metals and other proluets; also in machinery or apparatus for effecting such improve

ments, which is in part applicable to other purposes. 213, Teter Armand le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of 4, South-street,

Finsbury-Improved means of preventing accidents on rail

ways. 387. Ellis' Rowland and James Rowland, of Wakefield-street,

Manchester - Improvements in cleaning the tubular flues of

steam boilers. 431. James Boydell, of 65, Gloucester-crescent, Regent's-park-im

provements in applying apparatus to carriages to facilitate

the drait. 631. Frederick William Einerson, of Trereiffe Chemical Works,

near Penzance-Improvements in machinery for pulverizing, washing, and amalgamating quartz and matters containing

gold and silver. 663. James Young, of East Smithfield-Improvements in brewing. 679. William Dinsley Skelton, of Leeds--Improvements for pre

paring tax for spinning. 680. Robert Owen White, of Swanscombe- Improvements in the

upanufacture of Portland cement. 689. Stephen llolman, of Colney Ilatch --- Iinprovements in ma

chinery for raising and forcing fluids ; part of which improvements is also applicable to the guiding of piston rols

enerally, and otber rous. 729. Elmer Townsend, of Massachusetts (U.S.)- Improvement in

machinery for sewing cloth or other material. (A com

munication.) 756. George Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall, and Wuliai

Walls, of Glasgow-improvement in dyeing Turkey red. 852. lleury Kemp, or C cekmoor, Poole-Improvement in the pre

paration of wood for planking and sheathing ships and other vessels, also in house, ship, and pier building, railway sleepers, &c., and all other purposes whatsoever where wood

is required 870. William Ridgway, of llanley-Improrements in the con

struction of ovens and kilns.

logs."

[blocks in formation]

Journal of the Society of Arts.

the pro

lands of infants and incapacitated persons for the like purposes, and a simple form of grant is provided in the Bill. Any number of sites may be granted, provided

they are for separate Institutions. When the Institution FRIDAY, JUNE 9, 1854.

is not incorporated, the Bill provides that the site may be conveyed to any corporation as a trustee in its behalf,

or to individual trustees; and in the latter case, EDUCATIONAL EXHIBITION.

visions of 13 and 14 Vict., c. 28, are made applicable, by The time limited for applications for space having now

which new conveyances on the appointment of new passed, the Committee are at once proceeding to allot trustecs, are rendered unnecessary. Stamp duty on conthe space to the different Exhibitors, notice of which veyance by way of gift to be 5s., and the death of the will be forthwith sent to each.

grantce within twelve months shall notivvalidate the grant. The applications have been extremely numerous, and The Bill then provides for the application of the purchase there is no reason to doubt but that a very large and money in different cases, and certain clauses of the Lands valuable collection will be got together, and that St. Clauses Consolidation Act, 1845," are made applicablo. Martin's Hall will be filled to overtlowing. The Society Trustees of Institutions to have power to sell or exis now organising a series of Lectures, to take place, during change lands or buildings, or to let off the same in poi. the Exhibition, upon the subject of education generally, tions. Trustees to be indemnified from all charges in as well as upon the various articles which will be exhibited respect of the land, and, if made liable, to have power to Commissioners have been appointed by different govern- mortgage or sell the premises to indemnify themselves. ments on the Continent and in the United States of The Bill then proceeds to provide that in incorporated America, to attend the Exhibition, which will thus take Institutions having no special provision as to personal the character of a Great Educational Congress.

property, and in all other cases where the Institution is The Lords Commissioners of her Majesty's Treasury, not incorporated, the personal property of the Institution have given directions for the admission, duty free, of shall be vested in the governing body for the time being articles coming from foreign countries and intended for and in all proceedings, civil and criminal, inay be dethis Exhibition, under such regulations as the Commis- seribed as the property of the governing body. Institusioners of Customs may think it advisable to make.

tions may sue and be sued in the name of the corporation, when incorporated, and, when not incorporated, in

the name of the public officer. Institutions to have The Council of the Society of Arts solicits attention to power to make bye-laws and enforce them, with an appeal the intended Educational Exhibition at St. Martin's Hall, on the part of any member to the Charity Commissioners in June next.

against any bye-law. Members to be liable to be sued To give full development to this undertaking, to pro- as strangers. Members guilty of criminal acts to be cure the co-operation, not only of the great Educational punishable as strangers. Institutions to have power to Societies and Institutions at home, but also in the Colonies extend or abridge their purposes, with an appeal on the and the Continental States, and to illustrate it by Lectures, part of any member to the Charity Commissioners. Prowith practical discussions, a considerable outlay must be vision is made for the clissolution of Institutions and incurred.

winding up their affairs, The Council deems it a duty to secure the funds of the Society from an expenditure which would interfere with its ordinary proceedings, and therefore invites the co- TWENTY-FIFTH ORDINARY operation of the Members of the Society and of other

MEETING.
friends of Education.
The following subscriptions have been already received :

WednesDAY, JUNE 7, 1851.
£. s.
d.

The Twenty-fifth and last Ordinary Meeting
H.R.H. Prince Albert, President 100 0 0
Amountof subscriptions already pub-

of the One Hundredth Session, was held on Wed. lished, including that of H.R.H. 677 18 0 nesday, the 7th instant, HARRY CHESTER, Esq., FIFTH LIST.

Chairman of the Council, in the chair. W. Farr, M.D.

0 0 The following candidates were balloted for and George Courtauld

3 3 0 duly elected Ordinary Members : Henry Harvey

0

Castle, Henry James Ramsden, Sir John VilJohn Proctor

5 5 0
Goddard, Ebenezer

liam, Bart., M.P. W. Roberts

McDouall, Colonel

Ruston, Rev. James, M.A. R. A. Slaney

5 0 0

Moody, Rev. Clement, M.A. Tripp, James S. Erratum in Fourth List, for J. Bull, read J. Ball. Robinson, Henry Oliver

Previous to the reading of the Paper, the

Secretary called attention to a model of Mr. C. LEGAL POSITION OF INSTITUTES.

J. Redpath's Smoke-Consuming Furnace, the Mr. Hutt, one of the Vice-Presidents of the Society, has idea of which was partly derived from Mr. C. kindly taken charge of the Bill prepared by the Council re

The air was specting the legal position of Institutes, and it was brought W. Williams's Argand Furnace. into the House of Commons and read a first time on introduced through the outer plate of the furnaceFriday last. The title is "A Bill to afford greater faci- door, which was perforated for the purpose, and lities for the establishment of Institutions for the Promo- it then passed upwards into an air-box above the tion of Literature, Science, and the Fine Arts, and to provide for their better regulation.".

fire, from which it descended in a heated state The Bill consists of thirty-nine clauses. It has for its into the fire, causing the most perfect combustion object the enabling persons whether entitled in fee sim, of the fuel. Opposite the air-box before alluded ple or to limited interests only in land, corporations, and to there was a valve, which could be opened and public bodies, to convey by way of gitt, sale, or otherwise, land not exceeding in quantity an acre, as a site for an shut at pleasure, to admit air directly to the fire institution. Power is also given for the conveyance of the without passing between the plates of the furnace

2

1

1

1

[ocr errors]

0

door. When fresh coal was added to the fire, handicraftsmen surrounding themselves with the defences and a large quantity of air was required, this against pain and death placed in the power of their su

These causes it is the business of Political valve was opened; as soon as the charge had Economy, State Hygiene, and the science of Education to become ignited the valve was closed. The cold investigate and teach us how to remedy. But there is air continually impinging on the inner plate of also a class of causes arising out of the nature of various the furnace-door, kept both it and the ash-pit descriptions of bodily exposure and exertion ; pain, sickness, cool, which was a great consideration on board of the work, without doing which the man could not be

and death, accrue from some things necessarily part steam-vessels. It also prevented the rapid dete- industrious at his trade. Écre lies the field for Industrial rioration of the door. The furnace-bars were not Pathology. The first class of evils depend mainly on the more than three-quarters of an inch thick by six work not being sufficiently regular or plentiful, or being inches deep; and were placed half an inch apart ; the second is aggravated by abundance ; the more a man

under-paid, or some such economical mis-management; they were grooved on the top, thus making the has to do the worse he fares, and hence the propriety of set corrugated, offering a broken surface to the the term “ Industrial.” I will illustrate this. There are fuel, and thereby less inclination to clinker. tivo coal-whippers at a time of a commercial crisis in the This furnace could be applied to any boiler at a of work, and the other is kept on.

coal trade ; fewer hands are wanted ; one gets turned out

In six months time comparatively small cost, and in a short space of the one out of work is starving, because he was so weaktime. The expense of fitting it to a 30 h. p. ened by temporary want of food that he was not fit for boiler, including brickwork, furnace-bars, &c., employment when he could get it. It is the business of would be about £30. It might be seen in ope- The other man has worked as hard as possible in the way

the political economist to remedy commercial crises. ration at Messrs. Wackerbarth's, the sugar re- you know these fellows are engaged, jumping up a foot or finers, and also at the Lea Cut Iron Works. two and throwing their whole weight on to a rope for ten The first Paper read was

or twelve hours a day; it is I believe the most wasteful,

unscientific, and pernicious expenditure of human muscle INDUSTRIAL PATHOLOGY; OR THE ACCIDENTS that ever was devised. The consequence is that his

AND DISEASES INCIDENT TO INDUSTRIAL heart cannot stand it, the fibres are overstrained with OCCUPATIONS.

these continued violent jerks, and the organ becomes

diseased. After a tedious illness, during which he is an By T. K. CHAMBERS, M.D.

incumbrance and expense to society, the industrious, I come to this room to day for the purpose of introduc- well-paid man dies at forty. Here it is that Industrial ing a subject, not indeed wholly new to the Society of Pathology comes into play. It is the duty of that science Arts, but yet probably new to most of the present mem to find out why such and such labour is injurious in a bers. Nevy, too, is the mode adopted of taking it up, special manner, and to suggest a remedy. For example, namely, the appointment of a special committee, the in the instance quoted above, we may find out that it is undertaking of a special exhibition, and the issue of the sudden jerk which is the cause of the injury to the special circulars and reports upon it. I think, therefore, circulation, and devise some better mechanism than is it cannot be devoid of use, and I hope not of interest at present in use. either, to explain somewhat at length, what Industrial Again, painters are liable to colic and palsy from the Pathology is, that is, what its aims are in the opinion of use of white lead; we may introduce a substance equally those who are taking a part in its promotion, why the convenient, in the shape of white zinc or other substitutes. Society of Arts should concern themselves with it ; and Tailors sit all day in a confined atmosphere, with the what the Council propose to do in the matter.

legs crossed and the spine bowed, so that neither the ribs Industrial Pathology then-(I do not particularly admire nor the digestive organs have room to act. The consethe name, but I did not make it)- Industrial Pathology quence of course is that the stomach and bowels become is the “science of bodily SUFFERINGS connected with the disordered, the spine twisted, the gait shambling, and the carrying on of handicraft work.”

. power of taking the exercise necessary to health obliterDian's Creator ordained that he should eat bread in the 'ated. If an artist wants to represent a starveling, he takes "sweat of his brow," but he did not ordain that he should a tailor as his model; if a plump rosy man were to tell you eat it in suffering, in the rotting of his vitals, the peril- he was a journeyman tailor, you would not allow such an ing of his soul, and the welcoming of premature death. evidently inexperienced workman to mend your coat. Though labour is the lot of our species, it is healthy, in- With a life einbittered by indigestion, what wonder that vigorating labour which is natural to them, and not that a tailor takes to opium, gin, and tobacco, the only things which entails misery and pain.

that make existence endurable. Now cannot these evils The highest and most natural state of man being the bo corrected ? The cross-legged position is assumed greatest perfection of body and soul, any occupation which because in the ordinary sitting posture the heavy cloth tends to shorten his days, to make him a discomfort could not be held near enough to the eye. The problem to himself and his neighbours, is unnatural, and a proof is to invent some sort of table which would be equally of barbarism and defective civilisation. Every country convenient. where such occupations exist is lower than it might be in Shoe-makers and boot makers suffer equally from a the social scale, -has not yet done its utmost to place man constrained position, and also from the pressure of the last in his proper position as king of the world. As long as against the stomach. Heartburn and painful digestion he that toils with the hands has a life shorter and more are so common, that a certain pill in the l'harmcacopeia plıysically painful than he that toils with his brain, the (the Pilula Sagapeni Comp.) is called the coblers’ pill. duty of self-improvement is unperformed by a people. A patient of mine, now in St. Mary's Hospital, has a

It is not necessary for me to observe that such is the hollow big enough to put one's fist ia, from the pressure case now in every known nationthat the corporeal inwards of the breast bone by the boot-tree; of course his labourers are both shorter lived and endure more physical lungs and heart are diseased by such distortion. Cannot evils than the mental labourers. Statisticians are explicit some one devise a new sort of boot-tree, which will not enough on that point. Now it will be found on enquiry drive its tap roots into people's lungs? that there are two distinct classes of evils to account for Looking-glass makers and water-gilders are constantly this. In the first class are included poverty, ignorance, coming into hospitals for mercurial paralysis; and when political weakness, and other circumstances which provent | they go out of the hospital they are not fit for much else

than the workhouse. There are two ways of remedying remedies. Parliament does not profess to be an inventive this: one is to give them some protection against the body, nor, except very indirectly, the cause of invention, poisonous fumes; and the other is to improve and cheapen but we do, and in this lies our peculiar aptitude for the rival modes of gilding and silvering, in which mercury is task we are now undertaking in earnest. Let us see, as an not used.

example of government interference, how they have lately Washerwomen constantly suffer from varicose veins and dealt with one most crying evil,—the excessive number other mechanical disorders arising from the standing of accidents in factories; and then think low the Society posture. It is the business of Industrial Pathology to de- of Arts might perform the same duty. There was a great vise a chair in which they could work as at present, or else cry heard last autumn. In the three years ending Octoto discover some mode of doing the same thing by the ber 31, 1853, there were 11,716 persons mutilated by agency of mechanics, which is now done immediately by machinery, of whom 105 were killed on the spot, and the the unaided body--to wear out mechanism instead of rest had only arms, fingers, legs, and so on, cut off. This muscle, iron instead of energy.

was more than ten times the number of accidents which I show you 'here a rotten jaw-bone, which Mr. Simon happened in factories by other causes. While the num. · was obliged to cut out of a man's head because it was ber of machinery mutilations was, as stated above, 11,716, corroded by the noxious fumes evolved in the manufacture the other accidents were. 1028. Alarmed at this, the of lucifer matches. It is to be hoped that there some factory inspectors thought it was time to carry out more mode of making them without rotting men's jaws, and strictly than had been hitherto done certain provisions this mode it is the business of Industrial Pathology to in the Factory Act (7th Victoria), which required a perfind out.

fectly secure boxing or fencing of machinery. They had Few persons who walk much in the streets can avoid observed that of these 4000 annual accidents of various often meeting a bleeding groaning mass carried by on a degrees of severity, at least 10 of the most severe kind stretcher, having just fallen from some ill-made scatfold- occurred from horizontal shafts above seven feet from the ing. It is the business of Industrial Pathology to en-ground, and which custom did not require to be guarded quire, whether it is an essential part of the nature of our like those within reach of a man under ordinary circumcountrymen to fall from scaffolding, or whether the con- stances, Custom did not require it, though the strict struction of it might be so altered as to prevent the acci- letter of the law did. With the hope, then, of reducing dents. For the encouragement of those who are possessed somewhat at least these forty annual accidents, (which, be with the latter idea, it may be cursorily mentioned that it remembered, were not the slighter ones alluded to, but in China they have for several thousand years used a generally fatal,) the inspectors sent round a circular, light bamboo scaffolding, covering the entire building announcing their intention of requiring strict compliance like a network, and certainly preventing the falls which so with the enactment, and that all machinery, whatever its often happen in Europe. Our ideas seem to have travelled height froin the floor, should be boxed. They had the wholly in the direction of making it stronger, heavier, and opinions of the best engineers that there was no dificulty more unmanageable.

at all in this being done. Instantly up comes a deputation I trust that by these few familiar illustrations, I have of Members of Parliament, magistrates, and all sorts of made clear what Industrial Pathology is, and how it respectable persons interested in the profits of manudiffers from Hygiene. It does not profess to enquire into factories; they beseige the Home office, and show the the health of the industrious classes generally, but only impossibility," that is to say the great outlay of capital into their health so far as it is affected by their special involved in compliance with the law. What was Her occupations. It is desirable that this division of labour Majesty's Minister to do? Of course decide on the evi. among scientific observers and teachers should be fully dence before him, countermand the peremptory circular of understood, in order that the facts collected should be the inspectors, and take upon himself the responsibility of properly arranged, and handed directly to those who will rendering the law still dormant. A second circular was use them aright. Into the respective utility and conse- issued, making various suggestions for the greater security quent dignity of the two sciences I have not enquired : 1 of the inachinery, such as putting up hvoks to catch only wish to point out which it is that the Council feel lapping straps, employing only adults in dangerous places, themselves called upon to take up.

&c., and the test of the effectiveness of these provisions is I now come to the reason why our Society should to be the number of accidents which occur during the particularly give time and attention to the subject. It may be current year. But in the mean time not the slightest at. said that the investigation and cure of disease is not their tempt is made to alter the machinery employed. Sugprovince, nor universal philanthropy their aim. True, gestions are brought forward to guard the workmen in the raising man in the scale of creation, by advancing his some degree from its dangerous proximity, but the making arts and manufactures, is our vocation, and a great and the monster itself less fearful is never thought of. Thisis the glorious one it is; but as he that treats his friends to a object that the Society of Arts would aim at; we would enbanquet is responsible that no poisonous matters are in the courage the invention of less injurious machines and modes dishes, so are we responsible for the boon we are confer- of manufacture; we would make them public, and enable ring on England in increasing her material powers, to see the executive to say, "No, gentlemen, our orders are not that there is no evil contained in it, no death in the pot incapable of execution; the way to carry them out in of sweet dainties. It would be a scurvy gift to our coun- shown at the Society of Arts.” It is our business to lead try to adorn her with more luxurious raiment, while the -it is the business of government to drive to drive threads that compose it are the fibres, and the dye. that those who, longer than human patience can bear it, refuse makes it glow, is the blood of her children.

to be led. But the leading must go first, else the driving But is there nobody to take this matter off our hands will be tryanny. We must serve out the straw before Is there no man, or set of men, who, while we are push- we require the tale of the bricks. Whether it will ever ing on industry, will see that we do no harm? Really, be wise of parliament to forbid many of the noxious inodes there is not; it is nobody's business but ours, and nobody of handicraft work which I have mentioned, I do not has the power of doing it so well and so effectually. I do know—but I am sure it would not be wise till the possinot deny that government may, if rightly directed, afford bility of less injurious modes of attaining the same object most useful help in this truly great work of perfecting can be shown. our country, in the same way as they aided us by the I come now to the third question which may be countenance given to the Great Exhibition of 1851.' But asked concerning Industrial Pathology, viz., how does their province and ours are quite distinct, and they could the Council propose to be of use in this matter ? This pot take our place any more than we could take theirs has been in a great measure answered by a circular which without injuring the cause. It is for our rulers to require has lately been issued, and which was printed in the that certain evils be put a stop to ; it is for us to suggest | Journal a few weeks ago. They propose in the first place

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]
« ElőzőTovább »