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No. 55. Vol. II.)
JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.
[Dec. 9, 1853.
Journal of the Society of Arts.
a system of having “dummies” charged, in order to surmount, in some degree, the delays and incon
venience which this duty unavoidably imposes. FRIDAY, DECEMBER 9, 1853. 18th. That to a certain extent the use of new
materials is prevented in the manufacture. 19th. THE PAPER DUTY.
That small manufacturers are driven out of the The Council has taken the earliest opportunity, at field by the disadvantage at which the duty places the commencement of a new session, to collect them; and that they are obliged to accept any and place in a concise form before the members terms from the wholesale stationer who has capiof the Society and the Institutions in Union, the tal. 20th. That the duty has to be paid immesubstance of the information which it has received diately, while the customary credit in the trade on the subject of the Paper Duty.
is six months. 21st. That the manufacturer has The following considerations are urged by only recently been brought in contact with the paper - manufacturers against the duty: 1st. consumer, the larger number depending on the That paper must be dried, to avoid paying duty wholesale stationer for advances to meet the duty. on water. 2nd. That paper-making and printing 22nd. That the duty is submitted to as a proteccannot, from the interference of the Excise, be tion not only against foreign but also against made a continuous process. 3rd. That the ex- native competition. 23rd. That the duty is not pense of employing hands, and of carrying out the paid by the consumer, being too small a proporExcise regulations, is added to the amount of the tion to add to the price, and that for common duty. 4th. That the duty renders it necessary papers it falls very heavily on the producer. to keep larger stocks, and to keep them longer The paper-manufacturers favourable to the than would be otherwise required. 5th. That retention of the duty, deny some of the abovethe labels affixed by the Excise cause much trou- mentioned statements, but do not enter into parble. 6th. That spoiled paper, instead of being ticulars. Their affirmative reasons for supporting sold, must be re-manufactured. Tth. That if an the duty are : 1st. That it promotes order and extra glazing is required, it can only be done with regularity in a mill. 2nd. That the credit given out risk in London. 8th. That “re-sorting," for duty (two months), is an assistance in capital if required, must be done in the presence of to the small manufacturer. 3rd. That the present overlookers. 9th. That the manufacturer cannot price of paper is so low as to make further ecomake envelopes. 10th. That the receiver may nomy no object. 4th. That the removal of the lower the value of paper by frivolous objections duty would greatly increase the price of rage. to quality, which cannot be remedied, because 5th. That the public would derive little or no the maker cannot take the paper back. 11th. benefit from the reduction. That a duty on weight deteriorates the quality in Wholesale stationers adverse to the retention proportion to the weight. 12th. That Excise of the duty represent : 1st. That being on weight superintendence hinders experiments, while there it encourages consumers to use too thin papers. is a loss of duty when they are made and fail. 2nd. That foreigners use paper for packing where it 13th. That in “ browns” the duty is nearly cent. would not be thought of here. 3rd. That from per cent. on the value, and in cheap writing- the duty risk and the consequent hazard to mill paper two pence out of every seven-pence half- property, the trade is becoming yearly more repenny, while, as the value of the paper rises, the stricted to a few rich capitalists. 4th. That were duty becomes less oppressive. 14th. That the the duty removed, we could undersell the whole duty most limits the demand for those inferior world. 5th. That double profits are required at kinds of paper where it would otherwise be great present to cover the trouble of recovering the est, increases the hardship of loss by bad debts drawback; and that small and frequent consignupon them, and leads to frauds in the manufac- ments abroad are prevented, while foreign ture; that it also prevents the use of common makers can ship direct to the shopkeeper.or con. papers in a variety of ways, curtails a manufacture sumer. 6th. That discrepancies between the well adapted for women in the rural districts, and weight and Excise marks of paper occasionally checks an increased demand for printing. 15th. lead to disputes. 7th. That the chief importaThat the manufacturer is delayed seventy-two tion of foreign paper is in extra thin bank post, hours, thus rendering it impossible to execute where the duty is small. 8th. That the maker, orders for immediate delivery, and neutralising agent, wholesale dealer and retailer, all have their the advantages of quick railway transit. 16th. profit on the duty, so that the consumer has to That ten per cent. is added to the duty by inci- pay fully double the amount of it, and sometimes dental expenses in carrying out the Excise regu- more. lations; and that penalties are incurred in thou The wholesale stationers opposed to the resands of cases, while very few are exacted. 17th. moval of the Paper Duty represent: 1st. That the That the manufacturer is obliged to give unneces- drawback already gives a fair chance of proving sary notices to the Excise to charge, and to adopt what can be done in exporting. 2nd. That all
the cheap publications would remain the same stereotyping is the risk of sinking capital in a price still and the reduction on paper to any but large impression of a book on taxed paper. 4th. large consumers be inappreciable.
That the duty presses so heavily upon cheap As a class, the wholesale stationers are for the works intended for large circulation as to absorb retention of the duty; and the explanation given what would amount to a profit upon them. 5th. of this is, that the manufacturers being in want of That it compels the use of thin paper upon such money to meet the duty are under their thumb, works, making an invidious distinction between and are not allowed by them to sell directly to literature for the few and the many. 6th. That booksellers in London.
it has greatly checked the production of reprints Manufacturers from paper, and manufacturers and serials. 7th. That it has hindered the pubusing it, bring forward the following considera- lic from obtaining easy access to works, the copytions for the repeal of the duty: 1st. That the right of which has expired. 8th. That it conduties on papers used for manufacturing and tributes to the present system of limited imprescommercial purposes, such as packing, is 260 sions when new books are published. 9th. That per cent. heavier than on those for luxury or or- it is a punishment by the Government upon an nament. 2nd. That the duty presses very heavily unsuccessful book, by becoming a tax on waste upon the binding of cheap books, and enters into paper. 10th. That it has a tendency to encouthe price of tea and sugar. 3rd. That it depresses rage literary piracy. 11th. That its depressing the fancy-box trade, wherein thin wood is substi- effects upon popular literature includes school tuted for paper. 4th. That the cost of paper is books. 12th. That it is a great hinderance to sometimes, weight for weight, four times the enterprise among publishers. price of articles packed in it. 5th. That paste Publishers opposed to the removal of the duty board-makers, paperstainers, printers, book- suggest a drawback on unsuccessful books, and sellers, and other trades, are injuriously affected. that the Society should offer a reward for a cheap 6th. That in goods for export and otherwise, process of bleaching printed paper and taking where large quantities are used in packing, and out the ink. They also represent that, if the in the case of hot-pressers and calenderers disad- duty were taken off the public would look for vantages arise. 7th. That our manufacturers and reductions which could not be made. They attritradespeople are prevented from setting off their bute the literary piracy which prevails exclugoods as ornamentally as the French. Sth. That sively to the effect of the present Copyright Act. pasteboard-makers are shut out from making Newspaper proprietors favourable to the aborailway tickets and rough cards. 9th. That the lition of the duty urge: 1st. The perishable duty seriously affects our silk manufacturers in nature of newspapers, which increases the injuthe cards for their Jacquard looms, preventing rious operation of the duty upon them. 2nd. them from competing successfully with those of That there would, from this repeal, be a France, not only in cheapness but in the variety remission of 50,0001. a-year and excellence of their designs. 10th. That the available for the employment of more talent, book trade with America is subjected to an unfair by which- a better article would be supplied to competition thereby. 11th. That foreign paper- the public. 3rd. That the duty contributes to boxes can be imported at a ten per cent. duty, keep dormant 25 per cent. of capital in their while ours pay seventy or eighty per cent on the business. 4th. That objectionable advertisematerial. 12th. That the papier mache trade is ments would be rejected if there were more greatly restricted, especially in barring the use of readers. 5th. That, without taxation, a newsa material under one-quarter of an inch thick. paper might be published profitably at ld., or 13th. That some firms of paperstainers pay even at a d. 10,0001. a year in duty. 14th. That a paper Newspaper proprietors opposed or indifferent maker's cuttings are exempt from duty, while an to the removal of the duty represent that conenvelope-maker's or manufacturing stationer's sumers would derive no benefit from a change, are not, though they amount sometimes from a because the fraction gained could not be allowed ton to a ton and a-half per week.
in the price. No facts or arguments are brought forward by Authors in favour of the abolition of the duty manufacturers from paper or manufacturers using urge : 1st. That it prevents the publication of it, that can in any way be considered favourable works of profound science and literature. 2nd. to the retention of the duty.
That it eats into their profits, especially in the On the part of the publishers, for the removal case of cheap popular literature. 3rd. That it of the duty, the following considerations are tends to give capitalists a monopoly of the puburged : 1st. That the duty enhances the price of lishing trade. all books, but of cheap books particularly. 2nd. The opinions of authors seem to vary consiThat the burthen of the duty, as a book tax, is derably as to the importance, in their interests as much increased by the charges of the middle authors, of having the duty repealed; but none men, &c. 3rd. That one reason for resorting to of them defend it, except, perhaps, Mr. Charle s
Dickens, who says that its removal would be a the time. Dr. Branson only contemplated the personal gain to him, “ without any benefit to application of the process to ferns, leaves, seathe heavily taxed public."
weeds, and other flat plants. The method he The Council having collected the foregoing adopted was to impress the object itself into hody of evidence, with reference to the operation gutta-percha, or other soft material, and then to of this duty, cannot doubt that it is one which obtain an electrotype from the mould. The inflicts very serious injury upon the progress of novelty in the present process consisted in the our Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. use of lead for receiving the impression in place
A tax is indefensible which presses injuriously of gutta percha; and also in applying to the upon the manufacturing processes, the supply, polished surfaces of minerals a weak acid, which and the varied uses of that material through acted with different degrees of intensity on the which so large a portion of the business of life is materials of which the mineral was composed, transacted, by which the communion of mind and so caused a greater or less indentation. The with mind is so vastly facilitated, and to which, for moulds from the fossils were taken by liquid the benefit of future ages, the past records of the gutta-percha. Specimens were also exhibited world are chiefly intrusted. The Council has by Messrs. Bradbury and Evans, who are therefore determined to exert the influence of working the process in this country. Samples the Society in obtaining, at the earliest possible were exhibited from Dr. Forbes Royle, of period consistent with State exigencies, the re- cultivated Rheea fibre, from Assam, produced peal of this duty. The Institutions in Union by Boehmeria Nivea, which was the plant with the Society are also earnestly invited to which yields the Chinese grass, of which the consider this snbject, and, if they approve of the fine grass cloth is made; also of the wild Rheea course which the Council is pursuing, to co- fibre. An account of this plant will be found at operate.
The Anglo-Franco-Algerian Vegetable Fibre Company also exhibited some speci
mens of jute, palm, and ditz fibres, in various FOURTH ORDINARY MEETING. stages of manufacture, prepared by Claussen's
process. An account of these will appear in the WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1853.
next number. The Fourth Ordinary Meeting of the One Hun- Thc
paper dredth Session was held on Wednesday, the 7th ON A NEW SAFETY LAMP, AND THE instant, HARRY CHESTER, Esq., in the Chair.
INVENTION OF THE SAFETY LAMP. The following candidates were balloted for
BY ROBERT MOKTIMER GLOVER, M.D., F.R.S.E., LECTURER ON and duly elected :Allen, James. Pilkington, James.
In offering the new safety lamp invented by Bigge, Rev. Henry J. Roddam, Jonathan.
myself, in conjunction with my friend Mr. John Cox, Thomas.
Russell, George, Egerton, Edward Christo- Russell
, George Fitzjames. Cail, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, to the notice of the pher, M.P.
Stafford, the Marquis of, Society, it was at first my intention simply to Fisher, Cyril Jeddere. M.P.
present the lamp, with the shortest possible notice Gregson, Samuel, M.P. Twining, Samuel. Jones, H. Bence, M.d. Winchester, William Henry, subjected, but as there are some matters connected
of the practical experiments to which it has been F.R.S. Nevin, John.
with the history of the invention of the safety The following Institution has been taken lamp, with which I am particularly cognizant, into Union since the last announcement :
I think it advisable, as this is the Society of
Arts, to premise what I have got to say about the 313. St. Austell, Literary Institution. Previous to the reading of the Paper , the present invention with a few preliminary
The history of all inventions presents nearly the secretary called the attention of the meeting to a same character. It is rarely given to any one indilarge number of specimens which had been re- vidual to at once excogitate a great fact. Whether ceived from the Imperial Printing-office at we take the invention of the steam engine, or gunVienna, produced by the process known in Ger- powder (a), or the recent applications of anæsthetic many as Naturselbstdruck,” and in this coun-agents in medicine, we shall always find a fact or try as "Phytoglyphy," or the art of printing great truth dawning dimly on the mind of some from nature. These specimens included every obscure observer, and gradually elaborated, and at variety, botanical, geological, entomological, fos- last developed, by some one more fortunate than sil, and fabrics. In the year 1851, Dr. Ferguson his predecessor. In these matters it is often as at Branson communicated to the Society * An the storming of a town, where the forlorn hape is Account of a Method of Engraving Plates from Natural Objects," which was read at a meeting
(a) I am prepared to prove that what we call the invention of held on the 26th March in that year, and which gunpowder was merely the substitution of solid shot for th:
inflammable projectiles, such as the Greek fire, shot from copper was published in the Notices of Proceedings at tubes (cannon) by means of gunpowder.
CHEMISTRY AT THE ROYAL FREE HOSPITAL.
sacrificed, and the rest of the army march through cally; and it is also quite clear that these two the breach with banners displayed. A recent great men knew nothing of each other's invenwriter on inventions has said, that “he invents tions. who perfects.” It is certain that this is the The invention of the safety-lamp was hailed vulgar doctrine, and that whatever previous with a tumult of applause. It was not merely labour may be employed, or ingenuity exerted, that it contributed to the safety of the miner the solid reward is always given to the individual through it mines that had not hitherto been who presents an invention in a practical form deemed capable of being worked for ages, could before the public. But it is not in this way that now be worked. The inventor of the safety-lamp the merits of inventors should be judged. All was splendidly rewarded; and Mr. George Stephenwho conduct a great discovery in the true pathsson, too, presented with a sum of money, the foundaof science should have their respective merits tion of his future fortunes. The only party who recognised, and a Society like this is especially escaped remuneration was Dr. Clanny, the origithe one to make amends for the deficiency of nator of the whole investigation, except from this popular applause which the early labourers in any Society. But after the invention of the wire-gauze useful effort may have to lament, and which, I safety-lamp, certain imperfections began gradually am happy to say, this Society did in the matter of to reveal themselves. In the first place it was the safety lamp. Dr. Clanny, the inventor of the found to give so little light that the pitmen seized first safety lamp, was, for many years, my most every opportunity of removing the gauze, finding, attached and venerated friend, and I am proud in point of fact, that their work could not be done that I was the means, in his old age, of present with the imperfect light. And, in the second ing him with a testimonial calculated to prove to place, the great fact began to be developed, that him, with the gold and silver medals of this So- this lamp, however secure in a still atmosphere, ciety, that his services in the cause of science and was not safe in a current. humanity had not passed without some recognition. Davy himself, with his profound sagacity, was Questions with regard to the invention of the not ignorant of the latter important fact. Bafety lamp are often urged and much_misunder- vinced himself by experiments at a blower in one of stood. The simple facts are these: Dr. Clanny, Mr. Lambton's (Lord Durham's) pits, that, when so far back as the year 1806, conceived the idea opposed to a current of the gas of mines in rapid of a safe lamp to burn in mines. In the year motion, the gas would pass through his lamp, and 1813, a paper by him on the subject was read to burn inside and outside, and recommended a tin the Royal Society, and published in the Philo- shield for protection on the side from which the sophical Transactions.” Dr. Clanny's first lamp, current came. Strange to say, this practical although cumbrous, was quite safe. His plan observation of his has been to all intents ignored was to insulate the light by means of water, and practically by miners up to the present time. to supply the flame with air by a bellows. What A vicious mode of reasoning with regard to tho causes I claim for Dr. Clanny is 8.mply the original idea, of explosions, appears to me to have prevailed with and the merit of having commenced the work in viewers on this subject. An explosion takes place: the
inquest shows that all known causes of accident are exthe right spirit of scientific investigation, and to cluded. The men were working with Davy's. A goat prove this I beg to refer to the fact, little known, had been tapped, or a blower; and the interence is that that Sir Humphrey Davy, before the production the Davy. was not the cause of the explosion, all the of his wire-gauze lamp, proposed four others, all Davy's being perfect as far as the evidence goes--simply
because no one returned to tell the tale. Now in such a modifications of that of Dr. Clanny. At length case, by way of exclusion, I should conclude that it was the his attention was drawn to the researches of Ten- Davy, just as Euclid proves that, no other point being nant, “ On Flame." Tennant, of Cambridge, had possible, a certain point is the centre of the circle. Bediscovered that flame would pass along tubes in sides, in the South Shields report, positive evidence appears a ratio compounded of their breadth and length. tions then to the Davy amount 10 these : Ist. deficiency
to be given of the insecurity of the Davy. The ubjecThe smaller the caliber, the shorter would be the of light; and, in a lamp, light is a great object. It would length that flame could traverse. Davy improved be easy to have a pertectly safe lamp, by passing the air upon the idea, and with that happy and sagacious through such an apparatus as is used in the satety jet of genius which belonged to this wonderful man, light. Davy's proposed shield, if it were known from
the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe ; but then it would give no came to the conclusion that wire gauze was as it what direction the blower would come, might be safe; but were an abstraction of this principle, and that as that cannot be known, according to the inventor's own here we had tubes of the shortest possible length, admission, to make the Davy sate there should be a shield and narrowest diameter. Hence his invention of light is deficiency of safety, as it leads to candles being
all round. It may further be observed, that deficiency of the safety lamp. But as the object of these pre- used where lamps ought to be used. liminary observations is to do justice to all, it must An account of the various attempts made to remedy not be denied that there is indisputable proof that the defects of the Davy, viz., insecurity in a current and GEORGE STEPHENSON, absurdly called by a biogra- deficiency of light, would fill a volume. As far as I am pher of Davy, a Mr. Stephenson, had, when a the Davy, are the Clanny and Museler lamps.
the only lamps that have to any extent superseded humble miner, ascertained the same fact practi. Dr. Clanny did not abandon his efforts to improve the
safety lamp with the discovery of the Davy; he never be strong of Haswell, and others; but as the lanp has been lieved the Davy safe, and produced in succession several publicly tested, and evidence given on the subject beforo lamps. At length he found that if the lower part of a ihe House of Commons, I prefer reterring to their reports. lamp were made of thick glass, and the wire gauze Thus Mr. Wood states the results of some experiments cylinder retained above this, two things arose : 1st. the made in Killingworth pit. By an ingenious contrivance current of air descended to feed the flame in converging the lamps were made to revolve in a current of gas, so as curves, and the gaseous products of combustion ascended to be brought to a white heat, then water was thrown in diverging curves, so that there was a double current, upon the glass lamps. Under this severe trial almost all which prevailed in the whole cylinder. This double cur- the lamps passed the flame. Respecting the present rent he contended rendered a lateral current less likely to lamp, he says, “I tried Dr. Glover's lamp:
I pass through; and, 2nd., owing to the use of the glass, subjected that lamp to a considerable velocity; we could ihe gauze being no longer required to give light, could be not produce a white heat, and the fame did not, therefore, made much finer, or even doubled and trebled. The pass; it went out, although the wire gauze was much Müseler lamp differs from the Clanny only in having a longer and of larger size than that of some other lamps chimney in its interior just above the flame. The sim. which I had exploded; but I attribute this to the chimney plicity of the Clanny lainp, and the excellent light it af- in the inside of it diminishing the area of wire gauze fords, have brought it into extensive use. The pitmen, who and burnt air for the wick, casting down the explosive are very careless of their Davys, and in fact appear in some inixture within the gauze. I am, however, of opinion instances almost to delight in injuring them, are very that the construction of this lamp may be improved, as I careful of their Clanny lamps; and as far as I am aware, see no reason why the insecure gauze should be placed on no accident has yet occurred from their use. But there the top." So the vaunted security of wire gauze is are two objections to the Clanny lainps, viz., the liability abandoned for ever! He further says, " In my opinion, of the glass to fracture on being heated, froin a drop of Dr. Glover's lamp is likely to be a very useful one." He water falling upon it in this state, and also its liability to goes on to say, that when the lamp was thus intensely fracture from mechanical causes. The latter objection has heated, more so than is possible except in an actual explo. been grossly exaggerated. The glass can be made so sion in a mine, water thrown upon it (which, of course, strong, and is so protected, as to be little liable to me- cracked all the glass lamps), only cracked the inner cylinder. chanical injury; nor in this respect is the wire gauze of This is the most decisive test of the success of our plan, the Davy beyond objection. Shortly after the invention because we do not expect the inner cylinders to be kept of the lamp now produced, I was conversing with | cool. It is, moreover, little exposed to water; but if, one of the most extensive viewers in the north, when a under these circumstances the inner cylinder was cracked, government inspectorof mine joined us. The viewer asked it was not injured so as to be unsafe, and the outer thick the inspector what he thought of the new lamp. The latter glass was safe; the whole lamp being still safe, the success replied that he only objected to the glass. The viewer said, of our plan in every respect was perfect. Again-in "Why it is safer than gauze!" meaning mechanically safer. answer to the question : " At present your opinion is But the liability to fracture from water falling upon the that Dr. Glover's contains the two principles of giving heated glass is a serious objection, and one which has been the greatest quantity of light and the greatest safety, felt in practice.
more than any other lamp that you have seen ?"-he To remedy these defects as far as possible, the present answers : " I tilink Dr. Gluver's is the best lamp of that lamp has been invented. Instead of the single glass cylin- construction I have seen." Mr. Forster states that he der of the Clanny lamp, a double cylinder is used. The thinks Dr. Glover's is the best lamp. On the other hand, outer cylinder is a quarter of an inch thick, the inner one Mr. Mackworth thinks the lamp “ very safe and ina good stout glass, a full eighth of an inch thick. The air senious," but objects to its weight, the fact being that it is to feed the flame enters at the top of both, through wire ten ounces lighter than the Clanny. And Mr. Henderson, gauze and passes downward between them, entering the the inventor also of a safety lainp, considers that there inner cylinder through gauze. The double cylinder, kept is a difficulty in uniting the gauze so as to prevent the packed' as it were together by the gauze, is thus much Aame passing. What he means I do not profess to unstronger than a single one would be, and the double derstand. I have only to add that the lamp is now in cylinder is a double protection, as if either cylinder be pretty extensive use. broken the lamp is still a saté lamp, and there would be tiine at least to remove the lamp and replace the
DISCUSSION. injured cylinder, which could easily be done, all the In reply to the Chairman, whether any gentleman glasses for the different lamps being of the same gauge. wished to address the meeting on the subject, The current between the glasses keeps the outer cylinder Mr. GLYNN said he had listened to the paper with cool, so that it can always be held in the hand, while a great interest and pleasure, as it so happened he was intiMüseler or Clanny soon gets so hot that it would burn the mately acquainted with the early history of miners' flesh. The light is even superior to the Clanny, owing safety lamps, more especially that of the late Georgo probably to the more perfect combustion, the air entering Stephenson, who was for a long time engaged in experithe inuer cylinder at the bottom. In the interior of the ments in endeavouring to shorten the tubes. About that wire gauze cylinder is placed a tin cone; the object of time Sir Humphry Wavy produced the best lamp that this is to force the air to enter the lamp through the two had been seen, it being an improvement on that of Dr. glass cylinders, and so to regulate the supply of air as to Clanny; the object was that the light might be fed with make the lamp self-extinguishing in an explosive mix air, without coming sufficiently into contact with it to ture. The wire gauze could be done without, and a tin cause an explosion. Mr. Stephenson shortened the tubes, or copper tube substituted with holes at the top, as in the and made his lamp of a glass cylinder, with brass ends, Eloin lamp; but in practice we find such a tube get hot; perforated with small holes,-it being considered a great and it is thought that it is an advantage to have the desideratum to get as good a light as possible. Sir Humwhole lamp as cool as possible. Strange to say, the most phry Davy's was made with the wire gauze, which was exteusive viewer in the north of England, who long found to be quite as liable to fracture from mechanical refused to admit any insecurity in the Davy, now advises causes as the glass, whilst the fame would occasionally that all gauze should be done away with in this lamp! come into contact with the foul air and produce an exploWe, however, do not see the reason, believing in the sion. Indeed, every one knew the miners were very report of an eminent viewer to us on the subject, in reckless, and would open their lamps, or incline them, so which he states that our lamp unites the maximum of as to bring the fame to the side, for the purpose of light with the maximuin of safety. I hold very elabo- lighting their pipes, by which many accidents were rate reports from Mr. Reid, viewer of Pelton, Mr. Arun- caused. Dr. Glover's lamp appeared to him to go a long