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third cause of the greatness, safety, and happiness The crowding of the people in houses in close streets, and the of this country. What has the change been? First, in consequent dissolution of families, arising out of defective the population. In 1780 our rural population was to the house-accommodation, are evils which demand attentive con.

sideration." civic population as 2 to 1; now the proportions are exactly

I have quoted these passages to show the vast change reversed, and the population of our cities and towns employed in manufactures and commerce are as 2 to 1 of the last half-century, calling, as I submit, for corresponding

which has taken place in the state of this country within those employed in agriculture. From the census of 1801 changes in the law's affecting it. you will find there has been a general increase of the served, that whilst the population has increased in the

It may further be oba population of 15 per cent-in the rural population of 10 per ratio I have mentioned, the average duration of life has cent., and in our great cities of 30 per cent.--that is, those also increased-showing that, with all these changes, perwho possess personal property in our cities have increased threefold as compared with the other portion of the popu. There is a statement of the increase of personal property

sons are upon the whole more healthy than formerly. lation. I hold in my hand a little work (** Results of the in this country since 1815, as furnished by Mr. Porter, Census of Great Britain in 1851", from which, with your In 1815, land was valued at £34,000,000; messuages and permission, I will read a few extracts, as bearing upon the houses at £15,000,000; mines, £600,000 ; railways put great changes to which I have alluded :

down nil. In 1818, the several values s'ood thus: land, * The most important result which the enquiry establishes, £42,000,000; messuages, £39,000,000; mines, £2,000,000); is the addition in half a century, of ten millions of people to the railways, £6,000,000. Thus showing the increase of proBritish population. The increase of population, in the balf of perty which is leasehold or personal, or indicative of the this century, nearly equals the increase in all preceding ages; prosperity of the middle classes, to be 250 per cent. in 23 and the addition, in the last hundred thousand to the inhabitants of these islands, exceeds years. Now, when we have these facts before us—facts the increase, in the last fifty years, of the eighteenth century. which can be proved by returns to which I could refer you, Contemporaneously with the increase of the population at home, I say when this is the case, does it not show the necessity emigration has proceeded, since 1750, to such an extent as to there is for giving additional means for the safe investment people large states in America, and to give permanent possessors of this largely increased amount of personal property of the and cultivators to the land of large colonies in all the tempe- middle classes of the population ?--additional means for rate regions of the world, where, by a common language, com- those numbers of persons who have acquired it to make the mercial relations, and the multiplied reciprocities of industry, most of that which they have acquired. I only ask for the people of tle new nations maintain an indissoluble union that fair-play to which I believe in my heart they are enwith the parent country.

Two other movements of the pop- titled. Here are other indications tending to the same ulation bave been going on in the United Kingdom, -the

result. immigration of the population of Ireland into Great Britain,

In 1815, legacy duty was paid upon £24,000,000 ; anıl the constant flow of the country population into the towns.

in 1845, it was upon £15,500,000. The amount of proThe current of the Celtic migration is now diverted from these perty insured against fire was in 1815, £387,000,000, and shores, and chiefly flows in the direction of the United States of in 1815, £722,0700,000, and so also with savings banks and America, where the wanderers find friends and kindred.

building societies; that is, property has been spread into " It is one of the obvions physical effects of the increase of the hands of a greater number of people than was formerly population, that the proportion of land to cach person dimin- the case, instead of being congealed and conglomerated in ishes; and the decrease is such, that within the last fifty years the number of acres to each person living has fallen from 5.4 to

large masses. But I may be considered as overloading the 2.7 acres in Great Britain--from four to tiro acres in England cause for which I am pleading, and you may think it is and Wales. As a countervailing advantage, the people have time for me to come to my deductions. Be it so. I think been brought into cach other's neighbourhood; their average we are bound to take these facts as proved. What are the distance from each other has been reduced in the ratio of 3 to now means of investment? Is it land? We have already 2 ; labour has been divided ; industry has been organized in seen by the reports of the committees to which I have retowns; and the quantity of produce, either consisting of, or ex- ferred, that there is difficulty attending investments in land. changeable for, the conveniences, elegancies, and necessaries The same may be said with respect to mortgages. Instead of life, has, in the mass, largely increased, and is increasing at a of being divided into debentures, like railway bonds, passmore rapid rate than the population. " One of the moral effects of the increase of the people is an

ing from hand to hand, as personal property does, they increase of their mental activity, as the aggregation in towns have around them all the dificulties which surround inbrings them oftener into combination and collision. The popu- vestments in land for the middle classes. You have to lation of the towns is not so completely separated in England as prove titles, and altogether the process is so difficult, that it is in some other countries from the population of the surround- mortgages are all but a closed book as investments for the ing country; for the walls, gates, and castles, which were de- middle classes. And can you say that it is desirable for stroyed in the civil wars, have never been rebuilt, and the popu- the humbler classes to put their money into farming operalation has outgrown the ancient limits, while stone lines of deations. In this respect great changes have taken place. marcation have never been drawn around the new centres of Small farms have been conglomerated into large ones, repopulation ; tolls have beer. collected since a very early period in the market.places, but the system of cctroi, involving the quiring more capital, and more intelligence, but fewer examination, by customs' officers, of every article entering occupants. Then you may say there is the public funds ! within the precincts of the town, has never existed. The free- I have had that put to me. Why, the public funds, instead men in some of the towns enjoyed, anciently, exclusive privi- of increasing, have diminished during the forty years' peace leges of trading, but the freedom could always be acquired by the we have enjoyed, as the means offered to pay off a portion parment of fines; and by the great measure of Municipal of the public debt, and the proportion that

comes into the Réform (1935), every town has been thrown open to settlers public market is much less than it formerly was, inasmuch of the towns and of the country have become so cqually balanced as large portions are locked up every year by trustees. in number—en millions and a half against ten millions and a

Then, again, as to local enterprise for public or private profit. half-the union between them has become, by the circum- I have stated the immense increase that has taken place in stances that have led to the increase of the towns. more intimate the population, calling for numerous local improvements, than it was before ; for they are now connected together by in- gas works, water works, drainage of lands, markets, washnumerable relationships, as well as by the associations of trade. houses, and baths and lodging houses, but for these " The vast system of towns in which half the population lives, both difficult and costly to obtain, thus creating ob

a separate act of parliament is required, which is has its peculiar daugers, which the high mortality and the recent epidemies reveal. Extensive sanitary arrangements, and stacles in the way of investments of that kind. it was all the appliances of plıysical as well as of social science, are exactly so in respec: to the enclosure of commons a few necessary to preserve the natural vigour of the population, and years ago, but when Parliament was wise enough to pass to develop the inexhaustible resources of the English race. a general enclosure act, 250 commons might be enclosed

in a year, and the expense reduced from 4001. or 5001. to of surface printing have been made, and modifications of 20. or 301. Then the middle classes have, operating the electrotype processes have been used for this purpose. against them, the great difficulty which we are this evening None of these means are sufficiently satisfactory or commet to discuss, that is to say, if any person takes part with ply with the necessary condition of rapidity and cheapness them he is liable to his last shilling and his last acre. This of production. Recourse has been taken therefore to meunlimited risk, I contend, prevents union, and checks enter-chanical means for obtaining the desired end, and a machine prise, and puts a stop to the combination of small capitals, has been invented by Mr. W. Hansen, which appears to by which the community at large would be benefitted perform its work well. The machine is somewhat on the This is a view of the matter as regards the mere question principle of the well-known planing machine. The of investment only, but I believe there is a higher and more drawing to be copied and the plate to be engraved are important view than this; I believe it impedes rewards to placed side by side, on the moveable table or lid of the faithful servants and clever workmen, and has also a ten- machine; a pointer or feeler is so connected, by means of a dency to widen the differences between the employer and horizontal bar, with a graver, that when the bar is moved, the employed. What is the true principle of wages ? the drawing to be copied passes under the feeler, and the It is the proportion between capital and numbers.

If plate to be engraved passes in a corresponding manner capital is free you would be enabled to try peacefully under the graver. It is obvious that in this condition of and quietly those useful experiments which would soon things, a continuous line would be cut on the plate, and, a demonstrate that strikes are a mistake, and it would afford lateral motion being given to the bed, a series of such lines an opportunity of undeceiving them with their own capital. would be cut parallel to and touching each other, the I know those who are the best friends of the working the drawing. If, then, a means could be devised for

feeler of course passing in a corresponding manner over classes who earnestly wish for an opportunity, if strikes are a mistake, to prove the mistake through their own means ; causing the graver to act only when the point of the feeler but at present I say they are hampered with a harsh law, passed over a portion of the drawing, it is clear we should and have not fair-play. “I would quote the words of an get a plate engraved, line för line, with the object to be eloquent and able judge, now no more; they were the last copied. This is accomplished by placing the graver words he ever uttered." If," said he," I were asked what is under the control of two electro 'magnets, acting alterthe great want of English society, I would say it is the nately the one to draw the graver from the plate, the mingling of class with class—I would say that want is of these magnets is in connection with the feeler, which

other to press it down on it. The coil enveloping one the want of sympathy." I ask what could be more valu- is made of metal. The drawing is made on a metallic able than to give the means whereby men of different classes or conducting surface, with a rosined ink, or some other might combine to try a useful experiment in this particular non-conducting substance. An electric current is then direction. The workmen think the profits of the master established so that when the feeler rests on the meare too high and the wages too low. Now can they be tallic surface, it passes through the coils of the magnet, better undeceived, if they are wrong, than by letting them and causes it to lift the graver from the plate to be en. try the experiment for themselves ? I could point out graved. As soon as the feeler reaches the drawing and many means in which moderate capitals could be benefi- passes over the non-conducting ink, the current of electricially employed, but to do so would be to occupy you too city is broken, and the magnet ceases to act, and by a long. I will not now detain you further than to say I have self-acting mechanical arrangement the current is at expressed strong opinions on this subject, which opinions the same time diverted through the coils of the I have fortified by the facts and figures I have adduced. second magnet, which then acts powerfully and presses The experiment of limited liability has been successfully the graver down. This operation being repeated until tried abroad, and I believe it would operate most benefi- the feeler has passed in parallel lines over the whole cially in our own country; and in my mind, until this be of the drawing, a plate is obtained engraved to a carried out, with such checks and safeguards as the legisla uniform depth, with a fac-simile of the drawing. From ture may see fit to impose, I think there will be just ground this a type-metal cast is taken, which, being a reverse for thinking that in this law, at all events, fair-play is in all respects of the engraved plate, is at once not afforded between the classes of the people in this fitted for use as a block for surface printing. The country.

illustrations which are given below have been proA discussion was commenced, but, on account ELECTRO-MAGNETIC ENGRAVING. ILLUSTRATION No. 1, of the lateness of the hour, it was moved and seconded, that it be adjourned to Monday, the 12th of June, at 8 o'clock, p.m., when Mr. John Elliott, who was in possession of the meeting, will open the proceedings.

The SECRETARY announced that on Wednesday next, the 7th of June, being the last Ordinary Meeting of the present Session, Dr. T. King Chambers would read a Paper on “Industrial Pathology; or the Injuries and Diseases incident to Industrial Occupations."

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ELECTRO-MAGNETIC ENGRAVING MACHINE.

BY WILLIAM HANSEN, OF GOTHA. The want of a rapid and cheap mode of producing illustrations in connection with letter-press printing, has long been felt, and every day the necessity becomes more and more urgent. Wood engraving, which is now used for the purpose, however good in its results, takes some time in its preparation, and requires the employment of a skilled artist.“ Various chemical inventions for producing a means

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duced by this process; they must not be looked upon as perfect specimens, but simply as the first productions of the machine and an earnest of what may be produced hereafter. The annexed diagram shows the arrangement of the instrument. A, B, C, D, is the frame on which the bed E, F, G, traverses ; m, k,b, n, the draw

ing to be copied : j, g, h, i, the plate to be engraved, a, the feeler conuected with the graver c, which works on a

lever carrying the armatures of the two electro-magnets, d and c, which act alternately to raise or depress the grarer, as the feeler passes ovor the conducting or nonconducting surface of the drawing.

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that an average of low charges can be accomplished. Home Correspondence.

Without occupying time in discussing various points of

the subject which present themselves to my mind, I shall ON RAW MATERIALS FOR THE PAPER MANU- endeavour as briefly as possible to offer a sketch of such a FACTURER, OR RAG SUBSTITUTES.

method of procedure as I think would be found calculated

to eliminate the undoubtedly immense resources of our Sır,--I have endeavoured in the following communi- Indian possessions for supplying our wants in the material cation to meet one of the suggestions of Doctor Royle, in in question, presuming that some sneh arrangement as I his valuable and comprehensive paper on Indian fibres, by have mentioned, of forming a Central Committee or Com. offering a few observations of a practical nature, the result pany in fact, in London, were in existence, and proper of some attention to the subject during my residence in agents selected acquainted with the subject, and empowered India, contining myself however in this letter to that to act in India. branch of the matter more especially referring to materials I propose that the raw materials be prepared from suitable as cheap substitutes for rags in the manufacture suitable fibrous substances, into the state of blocks or bricks of paper, and the best methods of collecting them in that of what is called half-stuff

, that is, fibrous matter reduced country for commercial purposes on an extensive scale. to a crude pulp and dried, so as to render it convenient We have abundance of experimental knowledge on the for transport, and calculated for being submitted to the subject, all indicative of the great resources of our Indian further process and superior machinery of this country; possessions in fibrous materials-Doctor Royle very properly For the purpose in view we find ready as it were to hand refers to the superabundance of riches at his disposition in India a simple and admirable machine in universal whole regions of his subject, he admitted, were still un- employ by the natives, and to be found in almost every touched. We have therefore a rich mine to work upon, house, where it is used in many of the processes of their only requiring a combined effort in its exploration. The simple arts, such as the cleaning or husking of rice, the prelatter object would be best accomplished, I believe, by the paration of drugs, dye stuffs, brickdust in building purforination of a Central Committee in London, composed of poses), tobacco, tan, and a multitude of other uses, amongst parties interested in the development of these resources, which the manufacture of paper, the subject which now in. in communication with agents in India, who, being ac- terests us in this inquiry, takes an important rank. The quainted with the requirements, trade values, and suit- machine in question is called a Dhenkee, and resembles in ability of fibrons materials, should be provided with the principle our European tilt hammer, means of operating in the various substances which might The accompanying sketch of the machine in question present themselves.

will at once explain its nature, better perhaps than a page The subject of paper materials is one of great magnitude, of description, it represents an oriental paper mill, admi, and must be entered on with enlarged views, and on an rably adapted for the objects we propose. "Its cost would extensive scale; articles of small price are peculiarly be, erected in place-engineers, foundations, and all sensitive of charges, and it is only by large operations charges included, three shillings, and this charge supposes

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the more than usually heavy machine employed for paper the prices of the latter matters, should receive encourage making. It consists of a log of any heavy wood, about ment. It is to India we must look for extensive and 8 inches square, and 9 or 10 feet long, shod with iron, cheap supplies, for it is there alone we find the necessary striking on a block of wood or stone. Two women placed at conditions of very low-priced and intelligent labour, with the tail of the lever raise it about 60 times per minute. an abundance of elementary suitable materials. AdvanOne woman, seated at the head of the machine, turns over tage should be taken at the source of these conditions, by the substance being operated on. The mill occasionally rough-shaping the work, as I may term it, and then stops, in order that a child may be suckled, or to take a bringing to bear on it, our civilized labour and beautiful smoke, but nevertheless its daily work might be esti- machinery: mated (depending of course on the description of stuff) at It would occupy too much space and time to attempt about 20 to 30lbs., reduced to the state of a crude half- to enumerate the varieties of vegetable matter in India stuff. The three women would be remunerated, (if paid which might be applied for obtaining fibre; a few of labourers and not members of a family), at one ana, or 13 them, however, may here be noticed, such as the banana, each. An additional male hand would be requisite, or plaintain leaf-stalk; the aloe; the abundant mudar, (probably the master or contractor), whose business Asclepias gigantea, which contains a very fine silky fibre in it would be to wash and pass the crushed material its bark, probably equal to flax for our purposes, and somethrough a simple search or seive, into a vessel of water, thing resembling gutta percha in its milky juice ; bamboo returning the insufficiently prepared portion to the leaves, employer! by the Chinese; the shéeal khanta, Dhenkee; and, to form the pulp into blocks and bricks, Argentea mexicana, the most abundant of weeds, and conin a 12-inch brick-inould, and drying them in the sun. taining a very large quantity of good fibre, easily pounded His wages would be two anas or 3 pence per day of ten out of it (as also an abundance of seed, which produces an hours, so that the total wages for the preparation of 20 oil with the qualities of linseed oil); the stems of the to 30lbs. of such material would amount to seven-pence ginger plant, now quite worthless, as they will not burn; half-penny.*

as also, all the scitamenea fainily—all containing a large On the head of the materials to be employed for this quantity of very strong silky fibre, somewhat like that of preparatory manufacture, it has been already stated that the pine apple. In the hills we have various tree barks, they are of great variety, more or less suitable to the pro- of unsurpassed quality; also the rheea nettle fibres. The duction of good paper. The native paper-makers gene- Chinese employ one of the mulberry family for their very rally employ old bags--sunn hemp, which they prefer to beautiful papers, which induced me to experiment on the all other materials-old tishing niets, or any such refuse. bark of the refuse stems of the mulberry plants employed Rags are very scaroe, inasmuch as the labouring classes by the silk growers. From this material I obtained a require or wear but little clothing, which at their demise very good tough half-stuff, suitable for bank note papere is burnt with them.

From the great abundance and extensive cultivation of Theoretically, almost any vegetable substance will the banana or plantain, which surrounds almost every yield a fibre which inay be converted into paper; but the house, it is probable this material would form one of the requisite conditions of an abundant and cheap source first objects of attention by paper-material collectors; but, require discrimination. The attempts to manufacture fro:n its coarse, stringy nature, it would be cheaper in the paper from straw, wood, peat, &c., in this country, can state of fibre than as half-stuff. This plant offers great never compete with the resources of tropical countries, advantages for our views generally, for it is truly in the and the result of the laudable efforts made in the former position of refuse, inasmuch as it has already paid the direction have shown that by the time the fibre has been charges of its cultivation by its products in fruit; the extricated from these materials in a fit state for the art, interior of the plant, or truc flower-stem, is caten as a the cost in labour and chemicals has resulted in an vegetable by the natives, the lower part being perfectly account, showing that as good a material might have mild, whilst the upper extremity, near the bunch of fruit, been obtained as cheaply in the ordinary rag market. pours out, on cutting it across, a limpid fluid, which is Any discovery, however, which will tend to keep down very acrid and deleterious, and is a true substantive olive

dve on cotton cloth, as indelible as marking ink, for In the event of employing such fibres as the plantain leaf which it may be substituted. I may shortly have it in stalk, a sınall pair of hard wood grooved rollers, such as they my power to exhibit to the Society some specimens which employ for squeezing sugar cane would be very useful; their I expect from India of bricks of half-stuff

, or of such cost is two shillings.

materials as we have now under consideration.

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We now co:ne to consider the very important head of industrious population, inasmuch as it proposes to avail price, or the rate at which supplies of paper half-stuff itself at once of their own simple arts; it brings the quesmight be imported from India, referring more especially tion as near as possible to the state of a domestic industry, to Calcutta, where probably the best grand centre for euch ever the most economical in such countries; it reduces to an operation would be found. Reviewing the subject the lowest point the charge of collecting from extensive from a knowledge of its general character and elements, districts the various elementary matters which might I am of opiuion that contracts could be made, according to present themselves. European machinery and methods the ordinary usages of the country, with the middle men, could only be employed advantageously in localities village dulals or brokers, at the rate of from one rupee where refuse or very low-priced materials presented eight anas, or three shillings, to two rupees eight anas, or themselves in considerable quantities within a moderate five shillings per maund of 82 bs., deliverable at any central radius. In reference to plaintain or banana fibre, these depot within a radius of twenty miles. These prices are conditions would be found in the neighbourhood of equal to from about 41, 4s. to 71. a ton.

Madras or Calcutta, or other large Indian towns. AlThe charges of collection, transport to Calcutta, ware-luding to Calcutta, it is probable that the refuse of the housing, packing, and shipping, &c., I estimate 'at two consumption of the fruit in question by a million and pounds per ton.

a-half of people might be concentrated in that locality The charges to London, including freight, insurance, on very econonomical terms, aided by the immense exchange, dock, and in fact all commercial charges, i network of rivers and nullahs with which that city is estimate at £7 per ton weight. It is necessary to specify connected, affording cheap and easy communication. the ton weight, as the ton for freight would be only To remove the paper duty at this present epoch would 16 cwt.

afford but little assistance either to the manufacturer or I have assumed the charge for freight at the full the public, inasmuch as, the supply of raw materials being average rate for ordinary times of peace, or £3 10s. per ton a fixed quantity at this moment, any remission of duty of 16 cwt. The present rate for that item would at once would pass over as a simple bonus to the rag collectors amount to £7 or 27 10. A summary of the above costs a very uncalled-for gift, and to the positive detriment of and charges gives us for the lowest-price materials :: the revenue at a very inconvenient time. With the im.

6. d. mense resources which this country possesses in her troCost per ton

4 4 0 pical dependencies, more especially India, she should Charges in the country

0 0 have the supply of the world with paper as she has of Freight and charges to London

other manufactures, instead of being undersold; but new

ground must be opened, and the proper direction should Total £13 4 0 be-India. And for the more expensive limit, which would pro

T. F. HENLEY. bably include articles equal to linen rags :

81, Cambridge st., Pimlico, May 20, 1854.

f 8. d. Cost per ton

0 Charges in the country about

2 2 0 UNIT OF WEIGHT FOR A DECIMAL NOTATION. Freight and charges to London

Sir,-In my communication on the Decimal Notation of £16 5 0

Money, to which you kir.dly gave insertion in your number It may

be useful to offer a few words on the subject of of the 19th of May, I suggested a certain quantity of silver the organization necessary to be given for collecting such to be fixed on as the “ coin” of account,the adoption of which materials on an extensive scale in Mdia. on this would render unnecessary any immediate change in our head I have to observe that it would be necessary to present currency, while it would not disturb in the slightest have recourse to the usual Indian system of making degree the prevailing notions of value. cash advances to contractors ere & pound of the

Now it is found that a cubic foot of water weighs 1000 goods had any existence. Such, however, is the ounces avoirdupois ; consequently the tenth of a foot cubed universal custoin of the country, and one which it weighs one ounce, of which the weight (14 grains) of the would be almost impracticable to deviate from. The proposed silver “coin” is exactly the 250th part. By Government itself advances to its contractors about making this the standard unit of weight, 1000 • weights” one-third of the amount of contract

. Indigo planters, will of course be equivalent to 4 ounces, and 4000 to a silk collectors, having frequently ranges of country ex- pound. Thus a decimal notation may be introduced which tending over sixty miles, carry on their transactions under will not require the sudden abrogation of the popular terms this system, and, if it have its bad points, on the other

“pound" and “ounce;" reduction between the present and hand it has some very important advantages. The natives, proposed systems not presenting the smallest difficulty. from ages of custom, expect this assistance from their em Let the government only begin by establishing an imployers, and it must be admitted, are wonderfully faithful proved notation, and the people will of themselves ere long on the whole in adhering to their bargains. They live perceive the advantages and necessity of a more convenient on from year to year, prematurely eating the produce of system of coinage, weights, and measures. their labour, and under the system become steady, indus

I am, Sir. trious, and contented labourers. The wealthiest portions

Your obedient Servant, of these vast countries are those where European capital or

SAMUEL A. GOOD. intelligence has penetrated for the production of the various staples of Indian commerce. There are losses from deaths

ller Majesty's Dockyard, Pembroke-Dock,

May 31st, 1854. and defalcations which form a charge on the operation, but experience proves that it has not annihilated any branch of trade which comes within its influence.

I might extend this subject much further, but I shall Proceedings of Institutions. have fulfilled what I proposed to myself in addressing you, if I have succeeded in fixing attention on what I believe will be found to be the proper direction to HUDDERSFIELD.— The spacious saloon of the Mechanics' be given to any cfforts which may be made for obtaining Institution was more than usually crowded on Saturday from India extensive supplies of low-priced raw materials last, being the evening for the monthly meeting; An for the important manufacture in question. To recapitu- address was delivered by the Secretary, Mr.Frank Curzon, late, the method I have suggested is applicable to whole on “ Music, the Educator," which was preceeded and regions of country now teaming with an intelligent and followed by some excellent singing, by the Huddersfield

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