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kindly promised their valuable assistance in promoting the investigation of this curious fibre. Having heard that the plant was cultivated in the Botanic-gardens here, I visited them, and found such was the case. Mr. Ferguson, the curator, at once pointed it out, and very courteously offered to give me specimens to take with me. I procured a sufficient quantity of the leaves for analysis, and submitted them to Professor Hodges, of the Queen's College, Belfast, and chemist to the Chemico-Agricultural Society, for examination and report. The following is the result of his analysis, annexed to which is given the composition of the Irish Flax:— “Laboratory, Chemico-Agricultural Society, Belfast, 24th November, 1853. “An analysis of New Zealand Flar, and Irish Flar Straw. One hundred parts of each contain respectively :—
The excess of silica spoken of as the cause of brittlemess does not appear in the analysis, but I think the nonfibrous portion of the “Phormium tenaz” is more incorporated with the fibre than in the “Linum usitatissimum,” and this combination may partly account for the brittle nature hitherto generally attributed to the fibre. If the silica exists in combination with the alkalies potash or soda, which I presume may be the case, I do not see any reason why such a silicate should not be soluble in hot water. Acting on this idea, I have tried the effect of boiling the leaves, and rolling afterwards: in fact, adopting a system similar to Watt's patent, which, though not yet perfectly applied to Irish flax so as to please the linen manufacturers, may eventually be successful, and indeed appears the most likely way of managing this New Zealand flax. As yet I have no result to lay before you of these experiments, except that I deprecate the use of much alkali to soften the plant, or the use of fire heat in drying it, having found both add greatly to the brittleness of the fibre in the green state.(a) When I have any further information to give worth notice, I shall communicate such at once; in the mean time the facts I have stated and the analysis of the plant, will, without doubt, prove interesting to many readers of your useful journal.
(a) I found the plant dried by fire-heat rather quickly very easily broken; but after re-saturation with water it recovered its tenacity, and was not o improved by slow-drying at a distance from the fire. The amount of o used in bleaching linen a peared destructive to this fibre; but I should not like to state this positively, without another trial.
}}rottnings of $nstitutions. —o
ALTon.—The Mechanics' Institution has now been established 16 years, and during that time it has accumulated a library of 1,011 volumes. During the last winter fifteen lectures were delivered on various subjects, and two exhibitions of dissolving views, and three of microscopic objects, were held. An analysis of the members showed that there were, of subscribers paying ten shillings per annum and upwards, professional men, &c., 23; tradesmen, 37; of subscribers paying eighteen pence per quarter, tradesmen, 9; mechanics, 47; and apprentices, &c., 24; making a total of 140.
BATTERSEA.—On Tuesday evening, Mr. A. Coleman, of Wandsworth, delivered a very instructive and interesting lecture to the members and friends of the Literary and Scientific Institution, “On Combustion.” The lecture was illustrated by experiments; and the principle of the Davy Lamp, Gas-lights, Argand burners, Oil lamps, and Ventilation were explained in a clear, intelligible manner. The vicar took the chair, and, at the close of the proceedings presented the thanks of the meeting to Mr. Coleman.
BURY.-The inauguration of the Athenæum took place on Wednesday, the 23rd of November. It has been erected by public subscription, in consequence of the insufficient accommodation in the premises occupied by the Bury Mechanics' Institute. The building consists of a large, lofty, and spacious Lecture Hall, gallery, and ante-rooms; the Hall is 85 feet long by 43 broad, and is 25 feet high. There is also a gallery capable of accommodating from 150 to 200 people. On the ground-floor there is a news room, 43 feet by 15 feet; a museum, 43 feet by 30 feet; a library 30 feet by 17 feet 6 inches; lecturers retiring room ; one classroom, 30 feet by 17 feet 6 inches; and a committee room. In addition to the above there are also, in the basement, three good class rooms, and the requisite offices necessary for such a building. On this occasion, E. Grundy, Esq., of the Wylde, the President for the year, after referring to the donations of the late Earl of Derby, and the patronage of the present Earl, introduced Lord Stanley, M.P., whom he requested to preside over the meeting. The following gentlemen were also on the platform:—The Bishop of Manchester; the Rev. C. Richson; the Rev. Dr. Vaughan; J. Cheetham, Esq., M.P.; N. Starkie, Esq., M.P.; J. Smith, Esq., of Liverpool; Richard Fort, Esq., of Read Hall; the Rev. the Rector of Bury, who is one of the Directors, and many other influential gentlemen of the town and neighbourhood. The Noble Chairman, after a few introductory observations on the value of education, said, that five years ago, in 1848, it was proposed to erect a new Athenaeum; in two years the funds were so forward as to justify its promoters in beginning the building; in 1850, the corner-stone was laid, and now they had to congratulate themselves on its completion. There was one person, whose name was connected with this building, to whom he was not at liberty to refer; but this he would say in his father's name, that there was no man in public life, of whatever political party, who was more #. and sincerely interested in this great question,-the question of the age, the question of national instruction; no man more sincerely anxious to further instruction, and to raise all classes, especially the working classes, in the social scale. The Rev. Mr. Thorburn, M.A., read the report of the trustees on the building of the Athenaeum, and also a statement of the classes now in operation. The architect, Sydney Smirke, Esq., had estimated the cost of the Athenaeum at upwards of 4,000l. Towards this sum was raised by public subscription, rent of Hall, and other supplementary sources, the sum of 4,4811. The expenditure had been, for contracts for the building and superimtendence, 3,468l. ; for fitting up furniture and other matters, 1,038l; and for the bazaar and exhibition, 368l. ; making a total of 4,874. ; and leaving a balance now due
to the treasurer of 3931. The Directors' report was then red, from which it appeared that in the first quarter of the Athenæum's operations, there were 454 members; in the second quarter, 587; in the third quarter, 584; and during the fourth, the present quarter, there were 700 members. The receipts up to the present time had been 402, and the expenditure 3421.; leaving a balance of 521. The Rev. C. Richson then addressed the meeting on the advantages to be derived from Mechanics' Institutions and similar societie. The Bishop of Manchester dwelt on the duties of employers to the employed in assisting to provie better education for the operative classes generally, Mr. J. Cheetham spoke to the value of libraries in towns like this, and also of the importance of village libraries. The Rev. Dr. Vaughan spoke of the advantages of education, as the forerunner of a nation's greatness; and alluded to those great but expired cities of bygone ages in illustration of the sentinent. Mr. Smith, of Liverpool, and Mr. Richard Fort, of Real Hall, also widressed the meeting. BRIGHTON.—A special general meeting was held at the Mechanics' Institution, on Thursday, the 24th of Novemher, sor the purpose of receiving a letter from Mr. S. Robertson, presenting a model of the Holy Land, the property of the late Rev. F. W. Robertson, M.A., VicePresident of the Institute; and also for hearing a lecture som Mr. Harry Chester, on the subject of “Mechanics' Institutes." The Committee had invited the members of three or four other institutions in the town to be Present, and a numerous audience was collected. After Premising that they were to expect, not a display of *quence, nor a philosophical disquisition on education, but a plain business-like talk about institutions, with a Yew to practical suggestions for their improvement, Mr. Chester adverted to the presence of the members of the other institutions, and pointed out the importance of a friendly co-operation amongst them. It struck him, as a oranger, that in such a place as Brighton it might have on better to have established one very large institution, head of dividing their strength among five distinct bodies; and he siggested that, if it were not now too lso to effect a junction, some kind of federation might *ill be established. Each of the five institutions might ologue one or two representatives, who should sit at a * Committee, to promote the general interest of the institutions, and to provide for such joint action as "ght be sound possible. He expressed his regret *.*.prise that the Pavilion, whose numerous and *lous rooms were open to the givers of balls and oncerts, to “Wizards,” and all sorts of shows, was * allowed to be used by these institutions. He *d out their great value, as affording opportunities of the association of different classes, for innocent *ments, the occupation of dangerous leisure, for occasional and systematic instruction. Such institu'*, were necessary. Without them schools and ‘hurches wanted a necessary supplement. It was use** Provide schools, if you did not provide the means of using and completing what was acquired in them. It **les to provide churches and clergy, if you left the * without innocent amusements and beneficial emWoment for their leisure hours. The question was, how othese institutions be best improved 2 They should *ue to provide newspapers and circulating libraries, "d amusing lectures, to hold soirees, and to take ex*; but they should do a great deal more than this. *extension of their libraries could now be effected at ** soluction of the prices of books and maps, in ãour of those institutions which were in union with the *ty of Arts. The Duke of Wellington's Despatches, *hought to be in every library in the kingdom, but **ount of their high price (eight guineas) were in ****, could be had through the Society of Arts for : $oineas. The statistical returns recently made to **iety showed that the reading of this institution "* the average, though there was room for im
provement in this respect. People were alarmed when they saw what a quantity of “fiction" was read by the members of a Mechanics' Institute; but was no fletion read by those who were not members? In order to raise the standard of reading, the great point was to lead the members to read with a purpose. For to interest a man in some particular subject, furnish him with a strong inducement to seek information respecting it, and then provide him with books, or with a living teacher to assist him. To the success of classes of continuous study a system of examinations, diplomas, and rewards was essential. It was hoped that such a system would be organized under the auspices of the Society of Arts, but nothing could be done without the co-operation of the institutes. Music and drawing classes should be established in every institution. It was not creditable to Brighton, with a population of 75,000, that it had no public drawing school, or School of Design. The pupils should be taught to draw at once from the round, and not from the flat. The late Mr. Butler Williams's method of drawing from graduated models was highly commended. In learning to draw, the pupils should be taught how they saw ; and what were the causes of the differences between the real shapes and the appearances of things. How few people could give an explanation of the reasons why they saw only the lecturer's face and not his back! One of the causes why the French excel us in architecture, and in the manufactures into which design enters, was the general instruction in drawing from models in that country. Classes for research were also recommended. Why should not some of the members devote themselves to the pursuit of different branches of natural history? One class would take up the subject of the geology of the neighbourhood, another the entomology, a third the birds, a fourth the botany, a fifth the marine productions, &c., &c. Recently evidence of a highly contradictory character had been given by scientific men before a Committee of the House of Commons, on the subject of the rainfall on chalk; some insisting that the rain which penetrates the surface of the chalk is retained in large rivers and immense lakes in its substance; whilst others as contidently declared, that the rain penetrates the substance of the chalk, and finds its way into the sea at the feet of the cliffs. In the neighbourhood of Brighton it had been said that many such streams, issuing from the chalk, were to be seen. Why should not such questions be examined and ascertained from actual observation, by the geological class of this institution? Photography was becoming exceedingly popular. Why should not a photographic class be formed? The object should be to furnish various inducements to persons of various tastes and pursuits to join the institution. Facilities should be provided for the prosecution of such pursuits. Lists of books bearing upon them should from time to time be exhibited in the library. Mr. Chester strongly pointed out how necessary it was not only to extend but to improve the education of the whole people, high and Iow, rich and r, young and old, and urged upon the members of the institutes that they should connect those bodies with the educational system of this county, and bring their influence to bear upon it. He explained the Government system of pupil-teachers, and showed what great advantages it offered to the children of the poor. He sug. gested that all the pupil-teachers of the different public schools in Brighton and its vicinity might be admitted free, or at a very low payment, to the institutes. This would be a great advantage to the children, would connect them in early life with the institutes, and the institutes with their schools, and excite a mutual interest. One of the great evils of the day was the early age at which children were removed from school. Let the institutes endeavour to counteract this tendency. Some employers of labour in different districts had provided prize-funds, for the reward of children being at some public school, and above twelve years of age, who passed the best examination in certain
specified subjects. This had an excellent effect. Why should not the five institutes of Brighton combine to collect a special fund, and to institute similar exami. nations? If the subjects selected for prizes were selected with judgment, the standard of instruction in the schools might be raised by directing the attention of the teachers to art and science and industrial training. This would have most important results, and excite such an interest in education as would prove of the highest value. What immense good might be accomplished if these bodies would thoroughly exert themselves in promoting the cause of education, instead of leaving it exclusively to the clergy, and a few benevolent and energetic gentlemen and tradesmen. He did not recommend the institutes to establish day-schools of their own, for that would introduce all sorts of religious differences and difficulties, from which it was essential that they should keep clear; but they might promote education in many ways. They might collect the statistics of education; they might show how many people in Brighton could neither read nor write; they might promote the efficiency of the schools and raise the ages of the scholars. When this was done, but not till then, there would be candidates in abundance for the Institute, and candidates well qualified to profit by its advantages. Mr. Chester then turned to the subject of social reforms, which he desired to see promoted by the Institutes. The working classes were too apt to seek through political reforms an improvement of their social position. He advised them to seek social reforms as the sure forerunners of political improvements. Politics they must carefully avoid, as opposed to their fundamental rules, and as fatal to that union of all classes of opinion, which was one of their greatest treasures; but political economy they might and ought to entertain. He briefly explained the English Law of Partnership with unlimited liability, and contrasted it with the French and American partnerships en commandite; and recommended the members to inquire into the subject, to diffuse information respecting it, and to cooperate with the Society of Arts in endeavouring to procure an amendment of the law. The same advice was given with reference to the duties on paper, the enormous duties on wine, oceanic postage, &c. They were also urged to promote an improvement of the dwellings of the poor, the establishment of baths and washhouses, allotments, early closing, &c., &c. They were not to undertake these matters themselves, but to collect and diffuse information, with a view to excite an interest respecting them. The Institutes ought to represent the intelligence of their neighbourhood, and to act as pioneers of improvement. They ought to collect and diffuse information on the subject of vaccination, to point out to the poor how much the recent statute for compulsory vaccination was calculated to benefit them, and so to smooth the way for its satisfactory working. Museums were then briefly touched upon. It could not be expected that there should be five good museums in Brighton; but the five institutions might contribute to one common museum. How much would education be promoted if, in every town where there was an Institute, there was also a museum, rich in all the natural and artificial products of the locality Exchanges of specimens might now be made between the institutions in union with the Society of Arts. Every Institute should form a collection of local prints and antiquities. They should have exhibitions of useful inventions, for which arrangements might be made through the Society. The exhibition of photography, which the Society lent to the institutions in union, was highly popular. It was first sent to Woburn, where it was exhibited for ten days, at the expiration of which the Institute there had cleared a profit of 100l., and had obtained one hundred new members, Attention was called to the Journal; and the address—of which the above is a very ineagre account—was concluded by a reference to the laws which injuriously affect institutes, and to ...the probability of their being amended in the next
HEREFord.—The first soirée for the season of the Literary and Philosophical Institution was given on Friday last. The Venerable the Archdeacon of Hereford presided; and in his inaugural address referred to the progress which the Institute had made during the past year. Mr. Jelynger Symons then read a paper on “The Nature and Capabilities of Milford Haven,” the peculiar mercantile and military capacities of which were, he considered, unequalled by any other harbour in the world. , Rio and St. Francisco might rival, but did not surpass it. Cork and Naples were no more to be compared to it than the Wye with the Thames as navigable rivers. The peculiar features of Milford were that the entrance was nearly due south. From the mouth of the haven, lying between St. Ann's Head on the west to Sheep's Island on the east, the width was two miles and a furlong, which narrowed to one mile and three furlongs at the narrowest point between the east and west blockhouses. Over three-fourths of this entrance (with the exception of a few rocks, easily blasted or buoyed,) there was water enough to float the largest vessel at the lowest point of spring tides—varying in depth from fifteen fathoms at the west to seven fathoms at }. east side; and the depth of the main channel, and of the greater part of the entire width from shore to shore, continued up the whole course of the haven, ranging from sixteen to nine fathoms up to Weare point, where it shallowed to five fathoms, thus affording an area no less than eight miles in length, and ranging from half a mile to a mile and a half in breadth; deep enough and large enough to contain nearly all the fleets in the world, with a good bottom for anchorage throughout. Nor was this all, for, owing to the turn to the N.E., which the harbour took almost immediately above its mouth, ships, once entered, lie sheltered from every wind that blew. This immense advantage was enhanced by the nature of the shores, which were sufficiently high on all sides to protect the loftiest ships, and were peculiarly free from gullies and eddies which could disturb the lake-like calm which reigned perpetually on its deep and placid waters. As to the topographical position of Milford Haven, it was several days' sail, even in ordinary winds, nearer to America and most of our colonies than Liverpool, with which it was impossible to avoid comparing it. Without exaggerating the difficulties of the navigation up St. George's Channel, round Anglesey, and up the Mersey, it will not be denied that they were formidable, both as regards time, cost, and actual danger. As regarded internal transit, Milford Haven was but about 15 miles further from London than Liverpool; and it was for all England, incomparably the best starting point for the entire western hemisphere. The Rev. Dr. BARTLETT then read an elegantly written paper on the drama of ancient Greece. Having observed that the word Ópapua meant “action” and its motives directly, and that in it the course of the story and the feelings of the parties concerned were judged of by what was said and done by the actors, rather than from any description of circumstance or sentiment, he went on to trace the origin of the drama to the love of imitation, and to point out its elements in the war dances of the savage tribes, and the representations of religious events which were common to almost all nations. Europe, however, owed her drama to Greece; and that circumstance had induced the lecturer to limit his remarks that evening to the Greek stage. The origin of tragedy, to which he should particularly refer throughout, was very simple, consisting only of a choral ode, accompanied by music and dancing, at festivals held in honour of Bacchus, and at the close of the vintage. Of these odes, some were grave and lofty in style, and these gave rise to tragedy; some less refined and more licentious, forming the precursors of comedy. The theatres of the Greeks were open to the skies; the performances took place in broad daylight, and no female actors were
Thanks were voted by acclamation to the
allowed. The performances were a species of religious ceremonial ; they commenced with sacrifices, and the professed aim of the author was to render amusement subordinate to moral instruction. Whatever the execution might be, the aim was noble. The requisite scenery of the ancient tragedies was extremely simple—the outside of a temple, a mansion, or a palace, or the interior court of either, sufficed for most of the incidents, The lecturer went on to describe the interior arrangement of the Greek theatre: the tiers of seats for the spectators of various ranks; the orchestra, or position of the chorus, identical with the modern pit; the altar in front of the stage, called the OvueMs, a sacrifice to the gods upon which generally commenced the performances; the permanent stage, usually o: the front of a temple or palace; the scene, and the proscenium. He then explained the nature of the chorus, whose office it was to utter moral reflections or comments upon the action or the speeches of the characters, but never to actively intersere, although never permitted to leave the stage. They heard plots, but might not tell of them; witnessed crimes, but were not permitted to stop them.
PottsEA.—On Wednesday sennight the first lecture of the season was delivered at the Watt Institute, by Mr. J. Spence, “On the Screw Propeller.” The lecturer stated that not less than seventy claims had been registered for different modifications in the form of the screw. Among the most prominent was that by Mr. F. P. Smith, who was allowed the use of a steam vessel by the Lords of the Admiralty, for the purpose of making experiments, which were very satisfactory. Mr. Scott's patent, also Mr. J. Maudslay's, and the boomerang propeller of Sir Thomas Mitchell, were then alluded to, ić the results of a variety of trials of each were given. The lecture was illustrated by a number of models.
Royston.—On Tuesdays, the 22nd and 29th, November, two lectures were delivered at the Mechanics' Institute, by Mr. George Grossmith, on “The Recent Writings of Charles Dickens,” and “English Notions of American Character." On both occasions the audience appeared highly delighted with the humerous and mimetic talents displayed by this popular lecturer.
SHREwsbury-On Tuesday evening, the 22nd ult, Mr. Elsmere delivered his second lecture on Botany and Vegetable Physiology, at the Shropshire Mechanics' Institution. The subjects of this lecture were:—The leaves, which were described as the lungs of plants—the circulation of the sap—the flower—the fruit. The lecturer next treated of the age of trees, and then took a glance at vegetation as it is found in the different parts of the globe, and concluded with some interesting observations on the study of nature. The lectures were both well illustrated With a large collection of preserved plants. A vote of thanks was unanimously accorded to Mr. Elsmere for his instructive lecture.
MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WIEEK.
Mos. London Inst., 7–Mr. J. Phillips, “On the Philosophy of Geology.” Entomological, 8.—Mr. A. R. Wallace, (continuation of a paper) “On the habits of the Butterflies of the Amazonian Valley.” Chemical, 8. TUES. Horticultural, 2. Linnaean, 8. Civil Engineers, 8.-Mr. J. T. Harrison, “On the Drainage of the District to the South of the Thames.” Pathological, 8. WED, London Inst., 2–Mr.T. A. Malone, “On Elementary Chemistry." so of Arts, 8.--Dr. Glover, “On Miners' Safety amps.”
Ethnological,8}.-1. Baron de Bode, “On the different races occupying the provinces of Asterabad and Mazanderan, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea.” 2. The Hon. Secretary, “On an Anglo Saxon skull exhumed by J. G. Akerman, Esq., from an Anglo Saxon cemetery, near Salisbury."
Dated 10th November, 1853. 2601. J. Atkins, Birmingham—Ashpits for grates. 2603. Lieut. W. Rodger, R.N., 9 Stanfield street, King's road, Chelsea—Anchors. 2604. J. Stevens, Darlington Works, Southwark bridge road–Bear ings of axles for gas meters. 2605. S. Mead Folsom, Massachusetts—Instrument for ironing clothes, &c. (A communication.) 2006. P. A. Le C. de Fontainemoreau, 4 South street, Finsbury— Preventing accidents on railways. (A communication.) Dated 11th November, 1853. 2607. W. Parker, Birmingham–Bearings for machinery. 2608. S. Sturm, Carpenter's buildings, London—Machinery for optical lenses. 2609. A. A. N. S. de Montferier, Paris, and 4 South street, Finsbury —Rotary steam engine. 2610. E. G. Banner, Cranham Hall, Essex—Saddlery and harness. 2611. H. Walker, Gresham street west—Communication between ard and driver 2612. J. Willis, Wallingford–Buckles. 2613. R. Dryburgh, Leith—Holding staves whilst being cut. 2614. W. Steel, Glasgow—Machinery for washing malt. 2615. J. Pratt, Heldham—Machine for forging, drawing, &c., spindles, &c., in metal. 2616. H. Hilshaw, Birch, near Middleton, Lancashire—Spinning machinery. 2618. A. Easton, Barnard's Inn–Liquid for producing light. 2619. J. H., Dickson, Evelyn street, Lower road, Deptford—Preparing flax, &c. 2621. J. M., Levien, Davies street, Grosvenor square—Expanding table. (A communication.) Dated 12th November, 1853. 2623. F. A., Délande, Paris, and 4 South street, Finsbury square —New metallic composition. 2624. H., Hilshaw, Birch, near Middleton, Lancashire, and R. Hacking, Bury—Spinning machinery. 2625. J. Gedge, 4 Wellington street, Strand—Consuming smoke. A communication.) 2626. J. Gedge, 4 Wellington street, Strand–Metallic compounds. A communication.) 2627. W. Aoun, 27 Holywell street, Westminster–Manufacture of casks. 2628. T. De la Rue, Bunhill row—Paper manufacture. 2629. W. Austin, Holywell street, Westminster–Sewer trap. . 2630. C. Busson, Paris–Finger-keyed musical instruments. Dated 14th November, 1853. 8632. W. Hadfield, Manchester—Looms. 2634. H. Willis, Manchester street—Organs and free-reed instruments. 2636. M. Gray, Glasgow–Weft forks for power looms. 2640. M. Fitzgerald, Sorrel Island, Clare, Ireland–Communicating between parts of railway train. Dated 16th November, 1853. 2650. J. Ellerthorpe, Kingston-on-Hull–Stopping railway train. 2652. J. R. and R. and J. Musgrave, Belfast—Hot air stoves. 2654. J. Ronald, Paisley–Fixing colours on yarns, &c. 2656. D. Pratt, Birmingham–Arrangement for raising thimbles. 2658. W. F. Greenfield, Ipswich—Communicating between parts of railway train. 2660. J. Bristow, Bouverie street, and H. Attwood, Holland street. Blackfriar's road–Marine boilers. Dated 17th November, 1853. 2662. J. Clare, jun., 21 Exchange buildings, Liverpool–Manufacture of bar and sheet metals, and machinery for same, and application thereof. 2664. S. and S. V. Abraham, Lisle street—Communicating information to persons in charge of railway trains. 2666. J. Banfield, Birmingham—Railway signal. 2670. A. Hoffstaedt, Albion place, Surrey—Artificial ultramarine.
WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED.
1267. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle street, Holborn —Improved method of treating flax and hemp, whereby they are brought to such a state that they may be carded, spun, and woven by machinery, such as is now employed in the manufacture of cotton and wool into yarn and cloth. (A communication.)
1269. John Harcourt Brown, of Arthur's Seat, Aberdeen—Improvements in apparatus for bottling or supplying vessels with fluids.
1323. Alfred Whaley Sanderson, of Cable street, Lancaster—Improve
1341. Alfred Hardwick, of Liverpool—Improvements in propelling
1271. Henry Turner, of Wilson street, Limehouse—New mode of applying hydraulic power to windlasses, for weighing anchors, and lifting heavy weights. 1276. William Babb, of Gray's inn road–Improvements in the manufacture of hats, caps, and bonnets. 1288. Alexander Porecky, of Bishopsgate street Within—Improvements in the manufacture of umbrellas and parasols. 1311. Illingworth Butterfield, of Bradford, Yorkshire—IInprovements in and applicable to looms for weaving. 1313. Ebenezer Nash, of Duke street, Lambeth, and Joseph Nash, of Thames parade, l’imlico—Improvements in the manufacture of wicks. 1330. William Green, of Islington—Improvements in treating or preparing yarns or threads. 1332. Richard Archibald Brooman, of Fleet street—Improvements in firearms. (A communication.) * 1375. John Chisholm, of Holloway—Improvements in the production or manufacture of artificial manutes. 1382. Thomas Russ Nash, of Leigh street—Improvements in filters. 1536. Noble Carr Richardson, of South Shields—Improved capstan. 1576. William Rice, of Boston, Lincolnshire—Improvements in harness for horses and other animals. 1618. Henry Bate, of New Hampstead road, Kentish Town—A new fire-escape, which he denominates the “Ignevador.” 1688. Charles Goodyear, of St. John's wood—lmprovements in
spreading and applying India rubber, or compositions of
India rubber, on fabrics. 1600. Charles Goodyear, of St. John's wood–Improvements in the manufacture of brushes and substitutes for bristles. 1731. Thomas Gray, and John Reid, both of Newcastle—Improved mode of manufacturing files and rasps. 1772. Benjamin Collins Brodie, Jun., of Albert road, Regent's park —Improvements in treating or preparing black lead. 2026. John Mackintosh, of Pall Mali—Improvements in breakwaters. 2079. Isaac Southian Bell, of the Washington Chemical Works, Newcastle upon Tyne—Improvements in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 2004, Edmund Leyland, of St. Helens, Lancashire—Improvements in apparatus for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 2208. o, Smith, of Law Hill, Perthshire—Improvements in scythes. 2229, John onio, of Birmingham—Improvements in shaping Imetals. * Sealed November 25th, 1853. 1275. William Babb, of Gray's inn road–Improvements in the manufacture of hair trimmings. 1278. George Irlam Higginson, of Meeting house lane, Dublin–Improvements in machinery or apparatus for evaporating or concentrating liquids. 1279. Frederick Hussell, of Regent's park—Improvements in raising windows, shutters, blinds, and similar appendages. 1282. Louis Auguste Deverte, and Charles Eck, of Argenteuil, near Paris—Improved machinery for combing wool. 1325. Joseph Brown, of Leadenhall street — Improvements of elastic spring beds, mattrasses, cushions, and all kind of spring stuffing for upholstery work generally; making them lighter and more portable. 1381. Benjamin Biran, of Wentworth, Yorkshire—Improvements in working and ventilating mines, 1513. Pacifique Grimaud, of Paris—A new aerogaseous drink, which he calls “Grimaudine.” 1525. Charles Topham, of Hoxton—Improvements in apparatus for measuring liquids, gases, and other elastic fluids, and for regulating the flow thereof; which apparatus may also be applied to the obtaining of motive power. 1585. John Getty, of Liverpool—Certain improvements in shipbuilding.
1350, Joseph Whitworth, of Manchester—Improvements in machinery for perforating or punching paper, card, and other materials 1352. William Thorold, of Norwich—Improvements in the construction of portable houses, and in machinery fer raising, moving, and lowering the same. 1378. Edward Blackett Beaumont, of Wood Hall, Barnsley, Yorkshire—Certain improvements in bricks and tiles. 1406. Henry Bernoulli Barlow, of Manchester—Improvements in machinery for spinning, doubling, and twisting cotton and other fibrous substances. (A communication.) 1493. James Worrall, Jun., of Salford—Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for washing, bleaching, and dyeing fustians, beaverteens, cantoons, satteens, twills, and other textile fabrics. 1496. George Robinson, of Manchester—Certain improvements in apparatus for roasting and dessicating coffee, cocoa, and chicory. 1629. Jacob Brett, of Hanover square—Improvements in photography. 1874. George Deards, of Harlow, Essex—Improvements in lamps. 1962. Thomas Herbert, and Edward Whittaker, both of Nottingham —Improvements in warp machinery employed in the manufacture of purled and other fabrics. 2087. Robert Drew, of Bath, and John Bayliss, of Birmingham-Improvements in stay and other like fastenings. 2095. Thomas William Gilbert, of Limehouse—Improvements in sewing sails and other articles. 2117. Adolphus Singleton, of Manchester—Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for grinding and setting doctors, used in calico and other similar printing machinery. (A communication.) 2179. Aristide Michel Servan, of Philpot lane-Improvements in dis tilling fatty and oily matters. 2218. Robert Brisco, of Low Mill House, St. Bees, Cumberland, and Peter Swires Horsman, of Saint John's, Beckermet, in the same county—Certain improvements in the preparation of flax and other vegetable fibrous substances. 2219. Moses Poole, of Avenue road—Improvement in the manufacture of pulp for papermakers. (A communication.)
nery for crushing and grinding mineral and other substances. A communication.)
( 2170. Edward Thomas, of Belfast—Improvement in the construction 2188. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery lane—Improved mode of
of looms for weaving. 2340. Nicolas Caslin, of the Roman Catholic College of Maynooth—
constructing steam boilers; applicable also in part to the construction of condensers. (A communication.)
Means of protecting iron of every kind against the action of 2239. Robert Brisco, of Low Mill House, St. Bees, Cumberland, and
the weather, of rain, river, spring, and sea water, so that iron
1312. William Smith, of Salisbury street, Adelphi-Certain improvements in the Inachinery for, and method of making and laying down submarine and other telegraphic cables; which
Peter Swires Horsman, of St. John's, Beckermet, Cumberland–Certain improvements in machinery for hackling flax, hemp, China grass, and other fibrous substances.
2249. Isaac Ambler, of Maningham, near Bradford–Improve
2287. Henry Goddard, of Castle gate, Nottingham—Improvementsin
machinery is also applicable and is claimed for the making 2289. John Rubery, of Birmingham—Improvements in the manu
of ropes and cables generally.
ments in preparing effervescing powders,
1340. Edward Wiikins, of Queen's road, Walworth—Improvements
in pots and vessels for the growth and cultivation of plants.
2311. Charles May, and James Samuel, both of Great George street
ments in preparing or combing wool and other fibrous substances.
stoves and kitchen ranges.
facture of umbrella and parasol furniture. (A communication.
apparatus for compressing or rarefying air or other elastic fluids. (A communication.)
--------- | John Yates.....
vessels. —Improvements in joining the ends of the rails of railways WEEKLY LIST OF DESIGN's For ARTICLES of UTILITY REGISTERED. no. |*::::::: Title. Proprietor's Name. Address. Nov. 26 3535 Portable Lever Boot Front Blocking | Machine, ------------ 249 & 250 Whitechapel road.