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London accompanied by one of his most promising pupils, trial Pathology; or the Injuries and Diseases and for the first time in his life the boy saw a soldier incident to Industrial Occupations." with a bearskin cap, upon which the youth exclaimed, "Here's a man whose hair has grown through his cap."
June 14.-General Meeting to receive the Before he sat down, he desired, on the part of the Council Council's Report and Statement of the Funds of of the Society, to reiterate the statement which had been the Society. expressed that evening, namely, constant sympathy and co July 5th.-General Meeting for the Election operation between the Society of Arts and the Crystal Pa
of Officers. lace Company; and he was proud in thinking that many gentlemen who were most distinguished in that magnificent design were also members of the Society of Arts, just as the original promoters of the World's Exhibition
ASHBURTON PRIZES, 1854. in 1851 were also distinguished members of this Society. He hoped the same friendly co-operation would always the Ashburton Prizes, for proficiency in the teaching of
The following are the questions at the examination for exist, and that they would do all they could to promote - Common Things,” held for Schoolmasters, at Southeach other's success.
ampton, by the Rev. W. H. Brookfield, H.M. Inspector, Mr. ALEXANDER CAMPBELL remarked that it was mat- and for Schoolmistresses, 'at Salisbury, by the Rev. W. ter of great satisfaction to find gentlemen like Mr. Haw- P. Warburton, H.M. Inspector, on 21st April, 185 4. kins and others of the same school, desirous of con- Two Questions to be answered out of each Section, and veying correct ideas through the visual organs in
others as Time may permit. the process of education, which, experience had proved, made a greater and more lasting impression than
SCHOOLMASTERS. could be imparted by the auricular organs. He consi
Morning- Three Hours allowed for this Paper. dered great credit was due to Pestalozzi for the introduction of the system into the schools in Switzerland. But,
SECTION I. during the reading of the paper and the observations that 1. Define the following words and phrases, and illustrate had been made, it occurred io him that there were other your meaning by their usage in matters of social life :circumstances, of even still greater magnitude, and more skill—industry-economy and forethought-wealthlasting importance, in connection with the science of money-value--price-labourers and employers of labour geology, than had been realised that evening, except in a -capital and capitalist. very partial manner. He meant the knowledge which 2. What is the usual consequence of an abundant or was necessary to be communicated, at the same time, in deficient harvest upon the price of food ? and upon the respect to the state or condition of the earth which wages of labour ? had produced these animals. They saw the immense 3. What is meant by division of labour ? and show the magnitude of those animals in comparison with anything importance of this in advancing the wealth and the wellwhich existed at the present time; and science compelled being of a nation. them to the conclusion that the earth was at that period 4. What are the principal conditions of industrial sucin a different condition, with regard to the other celestial cess among the labouring classes, and what kind of trainorbs forming the planetary system, to what it now is. ing in early life is most likely to lead to it. Upon the subject of the zones, Mr. Campbell remarked 5. What are the necessary qualities of the food of a that it was known to philosophers that the earth's zones people, in order that the supply may be permanent ? and are in a constant state of change, because it had been how do foods for man and beast vary in this respect. demonstrated that evening that, at the time those ani 6. What metals are the most useful ? Mention the mals existed upon our own sea-girt isle, this portion of the particular properties which make them so ; and give the earth must have been in the midst of the torrid zone; and outline of a lesson on iron or lead, and its uses, from the it had been demonstrated beyond all doubt that what was state of ore up to a knife-blade, or sheet-lead. now called the north polar zone was at one time the frigid
SECTION II. portion of the other zone ; so that the earth was constantly changing its zones, and changing the productions of 1. Point out the different ways in which the air in a those zones in proportion to the revolutions they expe- dwelling-room is rendered impure, and the best way of rienced. It appeared to him that the mode of imparting ventilating the room? education which had been advocated that evening was
2. What are the best materials for building a cottage; one deserving of especial encouragement by the Society of the necessary conditions of health with reference to the Arts.
building; and which is preferable, a slated or thatched The CHAIRMAX having moved a vote of thanks to Mr. roof, and why? Waterhouse Hawkins for his able and interesting paper; Which do you consider the most nutritious ? and why?
3. What vegetables are usually cultivated in a garden ? that gentleman acknowledged the compliment, and stated What rotation of crops would you recommend in a garden his readiness to lend his aid in carrying out the sugges- of one rood in extent? tions made for multiplying the models in a form which would render them attainable and useful to society at
4. What is the difference between porous and retentive large, and also his readiness to contribute any models he soils, and
how would you treat them? Explain the prinhad to the forthcoming Exhibition.
ciple on which soils pulverize after frost, and the advanThe SECRETARY announced that the following 5. Explain what is meant by a proper rotation of crops arrangements had been made for the remainder / -by exhausting and non-exhausting plants. How would of the present Session :
you ascertain what substances plauts draw from the soil ?
and, having done this, how would you manure the land ? May 21.-Mr. S. W. Leonard, “On the Mi
SECTION III. roscope, as applied to Art, Science, Manufac
1. What are the essential properties of matter? Define tures, and Commerce.”
and explain some of them. May 31.-Mr. R. A. Slaney, (late M.P. for 2. Explain what is meant by the attractions of cohesion Shrewsbury,) “On Limited and Unlimited Lia- and gravitation, and exemplify by giving instances of
each. bility in Partnerships."
3. Give Newton's three laws of motion, and illustrato June 7.-Dr. T. King Chambers. “ Indus- the last by experiment.
tages of this.
4. What is meant by centripetal and centrifugal forces? 3. Explain the principle and construction of the comand show how in different latitudes the weight of bodies mon barometer; when the mercury stands at 25.7 inches, is affected by the latter.
at what altitude would the water stand in a winter 5. A body let fall from the top of a tower is 3 seconds barometer? before it reaches the ground; how far did it fall in each 4. Describe a common Suction Pump or Syphon; and second? and what was the height of the tower? If the explain the principle of their action ? action of gravity ceased at this point, how far would it fall 5. A vessel will float on water whose specific gravity is in the next 3 seconds.
1, with a burden of 200 tons: what weight of cargo would
it carry if floated on sea-water, whose specific gravity is SECTION IV.
1.035 —or on mercury? 1. To which of the mechanical powers do the following
SECTION IV. implements belong : :-a spade and fork in digging--the plough-the saw—the axe--& pair of scissors--a pump
1. What is meant by the terms “ warm” and “cold :** handle--the screw? Give your reasons in each case.
and why do not all substances of the same temperature 2. Explain the principle of a pair of scales, and of a feel equally so when touched ? common steel-yard.
2. What is the general effect which heat has upon 3. Explain the principle of the wheel and axle, and matter; and what are the different ways in which solid show how it is applied in raising up water from a well.
and fluid bodies are heated ? 4. Show the use of the plumb-line, the square, and the 3. What are the phenomena attending the meltspirit-level to the bricklayer and carpenter.
ing of ice, and heating the water till it boils away in
steam ? Afternoon— Three IIours allowed for this Paper. 4. Explain how dew is formed, and its effects on Srction I.
vegetable life. Why does it not fall equally on grass and
gravel? 1. What are the principal bones of the human skeleton? How are they kept together at the joints; and of what fall during the year at any particular place; and how is
5. What is meant by the number of inches of rain which substance are they composed ?
this ascertained ? 2. Explain the construction of the spine, or of the hand, and the mechanical contrivances for the different move- Enumerate the substances you know to be solvent in it.
6. What is meant by the solvent power of water ? ments which they are intended to perform.
3. How would you judge of the habits and food of How does it affect the growth of plants and animals ? animals from their jaws and teeth? Illustrate your answer
SCHOOLJISTRESSES. by examples. 4. What are muscles and tendons, and their uses in
Murning- Three hours allowed for this paper, the animal frame? And in the movement of one bone
SECTION I. against another in the joints, how is it they are not worn 1. Define the following words :-skill-industryaivay?
economy, and forethought-wealth-money--and illus5. What is the cause of a defect in vision in what are called short-sighted and long-sighted persons, and what social life.
trate your answer by their application in matters of kind of glasses are required to correct it in each ? What
2. What are the principal conditions of industrial are the purposes of eyelids and eyelashes?
success among the labouring classes, and what kind of 6. Point out any differences in the eyes and ears of animals which "show_adaptation to their respective training in early life is most likely to lead to it?
3. What are the advantages of paying ready money wants.
in your dealings, and the disadvantages of the contrary SECTION II.
practice ? 1. What is the difference between an artery and a What are the advantages of clothing-clubs for the vein, between arterial and venous blood; and why is labouring classes, and how ought they to be conducted ? the cutting or rupture of an artery more dangerous than
SECTION II. a vein? 2. Give your reasons for thinking that exercise is
1. What are the necessary conditions of a cottage, in necessary, and generally beneficial to all the animal order that it may be healthy and comfortable? What functions.
is the use of a fire-place in a bed-room? 3. What is meant by respiration ? Explain how the
2. Give some of the various ways with which you are chest expands and contracts in this process? And in acquainted of preserving meat or vegetables, so as to lay what does the air breathed out from the lungs differ from them up in store for future use. common atmospheric air ? What experiment would show
3. Of the modes of cooking animal food-roasting, this?
boiling, stewing-which do you consider the most econo4. Does the blood undergo any and what change mical, and why? in circulating through the body? And explain the
4. What are the putritive properties of milk? Explain functions of the heart, arteries, and veins in this circu- the processes of making butter and cheese, and the way lation.
in which they must be treated in order to make them 5. What are the properties of milk as a food, and the keep. sub-tance it contains ? Is it equally good at all periods of
5. What do you consider a proper and economical dietlite?
table for a week for a family, consisting of a man, his 6. What analogy is there between the blood of animals wife, and 4 children, earnings 12 shillings a-week ? and the sap of vegetables? In cach case mention as many
SECTION III. substances as you can for forming which they must contain 1. What is the difference between an artery and a the matcrials?
vein-between arterial and venous blood ?-and why is SECTION Ili.
the cutting or rupture of an artery more dangerous than a 1. What are the constituent parts of the atmosphere ? vein ? How are they combined, and in what way are they sub 2. Does the blood undergo any and what change in servient to the wants of animal and vegetable life? circulating through the body ? and explain the functions
2. What is meant by the specific gravity of bodies : of the heart, arteries, and veins in the circulation. and under what conditions is water taken as the standard ? 3. What are muscles, tendons, and nerves, and their How would you ascertain the specific gravity of substances uses in the animal frame? heavier and lighter than water?
4. How would you treat a scald or burn ?
5. Give your reason for thinking that exercise is sical and other laws upon which their various industrial necessary and generally beneficial for health.
occupations depend. -6. What are the advantages of cleaning the teeth These examinations will give a more practical and useful daily? and what are the disadvantages of loosing them character to Institutions, they will advance the education of or of their decaying in carly life?
the working classes, and develope the idea which first called
thesc associations into existence. During the past fourteen Afterno.n— Two hours and a half allowed for this Paper. years the character of Institutions has entirely changed, the
word, " lecture,” is changed to the more attractive word SECTION I.
"entertainment"; and light literature takes the place of more 1. Draw ont a series of lessons on domestic economy, solid and useful reading. The educational character of Instisuch as you thing would prove useful to the elder girls of tutions is almost lost. The middle classes will not associate your school, and describe one lesson in the way you judge with working men, and in this respect they are much worse necessary to impart it. 2. In what respect do you perceive the homes of your hands with a labourer, but a respectable tea dealer is above
than the aristocracy; I have scen noblemen talk and shake scholars to be deficient, and the teaching of your school
this sort of familiarity. Hence we often find in small to act as a remedy?
3. Describe the manner in which you conduct the towns an Atheneum and a Mechanics’ Institution. The needle-work of your school. What distinction do you
former is a kind of middle-class club, the other a place make between the useful and the fancy work which the where knowledge is often pursued under many difficulties. children do?
The first Mechanics' Institution with which I was connected 4. Give an outline of a lesson on soap, and its uses.
numbered about 200 members, all working men chiefly
We had a course of lectures 5. Give your reasons (if any) for regarding a popular belonging to the same firm. knowledge of the atmosphere, water, heat, gases, animal on chemistry, the steam engine, and mechanics; admission economy, &c., as not unsuited to girls ?
to these lectures for non-members was twopence. I never
heard of any complaint about these lectures not being well SECTION II. 1. What is meant by * hard and soft” water? what is in one season, because the lecture-room was not large
attended; on the contrary, we were obliged to move twice the cause of it? and what are the effects of hard water in enough. It is but right to remark that most of these men cooking and washing ? 2. What kind of substances are removed by filte ng had been previously taught, but they never had an oppor
had attended classes where the elements of these subjects and by boiling water? Explain the process in both cases. 3. Why do woollen things shrink when washed ?
tunity of obtaining more information at these classes than
what is within the reach (where there is the disposition) 4. What are the advantages of woollen and cotton things as clothing for the labouring classes over linen? of every boy in our elementary schools. Although I never
had the advantage of a regular and systematic course and why is cotton preferred in warm climates? 5. What is the best teapot to use,
of study, the information I obtained at these classes and lectures has been very useful; I can recollect
the experiments and trite sayings of the lecturer ENGLISHI WORKMEN IN FRANCE.
as though they were of yesterday. The next winter
I had made up my mind to work in regular order; The following notice appeared in a recent number of I was not actuated so much by a love of study, as a the London Gazette:
desire to succeed an old gentlemau who had a very " Home Office, Whitehall, comfortable situation as a lecturer on these subjects, at a May 5th, 1854.
neighbouring college. My hopes were all frustrated. The "Whereas many English workmen havelately proceeded Mechanics’ Institution became a Political Society; lectures to France in search of employment, and having failed in on Steam Engines gave way to subjects of a political obtaining work of any description, have fallen into great character, which were often discussed under painful and poverty and distress, and have suffered much misery exciting circumstances; the thoughtful and prudent left and privation ; all such persons, intending to go over to
the management of the Institution to the young, the en France for the same purpose, are hereby cautioned and thusiastic, and the ignorant. The useful character of the warned of the inconvenience to which they will be expozed, unless they shall have entered beforehand into teachers. I look back upon the three years that followed
Institution disappeared, and demagogues took the place of some contract or engagement with some person in France,
This who is able to employ them; or unless they shall, before with feelings of the deepest sorrow and regret. leaving their own country, have provided themselves with period has happily passed away, and I believe all the funds sufficient to preserve them from want while abroad, really faithful are now turning their attention with great and to enable them to return, if they cannot find the em- sincerity of heart to those social and educational reformas ployment they have sought for."
upon which the true elevation of the working classes is based, Local circumstances will in a great measure de. termine the particular character of Institutions; there will
be a wide difference between an Institution at Battersea Home Correspondence.
and one in a manufacturing town. A large number of the members of our Institution go to London every day on
business. On their return home in the evening they go to the ON THE EXAMINATION OF MEMBERS OF
reading room, to look at the papers, and enquire the latest LITERARY AND MECHANICS' INSTITUTES. news in the City; but in addition to this class (which we
Sir,--The examination of members of Literary and do everything we can to accommodate), we have a conMechanics’ Institutions is of great importance, and the siderable number of working men who would gladly avail Institutions in Union should furnish as much information as
themselves of any opportunity for improvement; and as possible on this subject before the Conference in June next.
soon as such a scheme as that proposed is carried into It would be desirable to know how these proposed examina- operation, it would induce other working men to join the tions would be received by the working classes. It is
Institution. I once belonged to an Institution where a rather difficult to define these classes. I have heard clerks, drawing class was established ; after a lingering existence of linendrapers, butlers, and waiters, call themselves worksix months it failed; now its failure appeared to me attributing men, and so they are ; but by working men I mean
able to a mistake in the kind of drawing. The mechanics that large producing class whose successful industry now
in that neighbourhood required a knowledge of mechanical depends upon a more extended knowledge of those phy. drawing suitable for plans, but they were taught curves
and scrolls. Classes must be formed to prepare men for the ation was adopted in the year 1794, and became the basis
portion of the English nation must soon become more or Every man who presented himself for examination less familiar with them. I know an eminent professor of should first pass a preliminary examination on the fol- | medicine in London, who directs all his students to make lowing subjects-Reading, Writing from dictation, Arith-themselves accquainted with these weights. The reason metic, and the Elements of Political Economy; a fair is, that, besides being in themselves the best, any patient knowledge of these subjects should be considered indis- who went abroad with a prescription drawn up in grains, pensable. Any two or three of the following subjects scruples, and drams, would find it useless as soon as he might be taken for special examination-Geometry and had crossed the Channel. If, therefore, Mr. Miller's proJensuration, Plan Drawing to Scale, Mechanics and the posal be adopted, three different systems, two of them Elements of Mechanism, the Eleinents of Chemistry and new, and the other already established, will be employed; Natural Philosophy, and Physiology, so far as it related and this will produce no small amount of labour and conto the laws of health.
fusion. There are many gentlemen connected with the Society In the earlier part of his paper Mr. Miller favours the of Arts who would be able to select a very good list of idea of considering our own practice independently of the text books on these subjects. The details of the examina- methods of other countries ; but here we find him sliding tion might be easily arranged. As a general principle the into the principle of accommodation; for he argues in method adopted in the examination of schoolmasters favour of the pound avoirdupois, that “it is the weight would answer very well.
of all the German nations, and has been so from time The mere possession of a certificate, which stated that immemorial." With respect to the matter of fact, I regret the owner had passed a certain examination in such and to say Mr. Miller is in error. One pound (pfund) is used such subjects, would not be a suflicient inducement to go in the north of Germany, another in the south. The Hans through the labour necessary to acquire it. Few school. Towns have a different pound from the provinces of masters would try year after year for a certificate, were it Prussia. The English pound of 7000 grains, “ a weight," not for the pecuniary advantages belonging to it. There as Mr. Miller observes, entirely new," is probably un. must be some substantial reward. Vacancies in the known throughout all Germany. But, supposing the dockyards and other government establishments should English and German pounds to be any where identical, I be filled up by the appointment of men who had passed would ask, if we are to accommodate ourselves to other these examinations. Unless some encouragement of this nations, why should we not aim at agreeing with our kind is held out, I fear one of the best propositions for nearest neighbours, the French and the Belgians, rather the elevation of the working classes will (at least, for the than with the Germans, with whom we have far less inpresent) be entirely lost. I have thrown these remarks tercourse? I am informed that the Germans themselves hastily together, with the hope that it may induce other are disposed to act upon this principle. Those of them Institutions to give the benefit of their opinion and who are contiguous to France, viz., portions of the experience on this important subject.
Kingdom of Bavaria, and of the Grand Duchies of Baden
and Hesse Darmstadt, are now devising regulations for
3. We now come to the principal design of Mr. Miller's ON THE DECIMALIZATION OF COINS AND essay—the alteration of our money. Here, he says, “A ACCOUNTS.
system of currency should stand upon its merits in rela
tion to all classes: if this decimal system be not good for SIE, I shall esteem it a favour, if you will allow space all, it is good for nothing." Having stated this importin your valuable and widely-circulated Journal, for a few ant principle, Mr. Miller joins in the advocacy of a scheme remarks on Mr. Wm. Miller's essay, published in your which many have condemned, because, though convenumber for Friday, the 5th instant.
nient for merchants and bankers in this country, it would 1. Being an advocate, as Mr. Miller is, for the intro- be injurious to the poor, and almost impracticable among duction of a uniform decimal computation in the measures, the great masses of the people. I cannot better illustrate weights, and coins of this country, I only regret that, as my meaning than by taking Dir. Miller's own example, Mr. Miller quoted a few of the recent English authors viz., the sum of £900 9s. 9td., expressed in three modes, who have recommended and illustrated that method, he the pound (which is his mode), the shilling, and the did not observe, in addition, that the merit of having in- penny; but to these three modes, which exist only in troduced it into modern Europe is entirely due to the idea, I will subjoin the franc mode, which I recommend, French. This important principle engaged the most and which is already in use even to a far greater extent serious attention of the Commissioners who were appointed than our present mode of pounds, shillings, pence, and by the French government to consider the subject in the farthings:latter part of the last century, and these very eminent Present mode
9001 9s. 94d. and most competent judges, having deliberated with the Pound mode
900.4891, utmost care and diligence upon the whole question, re. Shilling mode
18009.785. solved, that a system of measures, weights, and coins, Penny mode
216,117.25d. conformed to the decimal arithmetic established among all Franc mode
22692.328. nations, was preferable to any other. Their recommend- As representations of the original sum of English
money, all these four modes are incorrect except the The farthing to be set down as
1 coin. penny mode, which is supported by the recommendation The halfpenny
2 of Mr. Headlam and Dr. J. E. Gray. According to Mr.
*4 Miller's table of present values, the pound mode ought to The - sixpence"
25 be 900.48948161. He has made it more than half a mil The shilling
50 above its true value. I consider it as one recommenda The florin
100 tion of the franc mode, that, in as far as a centime is The half-crown
125 smaller in value than a mil, it enables us, as in the pre.
250 sent instance, to represent almost every amount with The half-sovereign
000 greater exactness. But my chief objection to the pound
The sovereign ...
1000 mode, as compared with the three others, is, that although
Since twenty shillings weigh very nearly 4 oz. avoirit does not descend low enough in the expression of the dupois, the coin of account might be defined as the smaller values, it requires three places of decimals, even thousandth part, namely 1; grains, which would be refor the work which it undertakes to do. I believe that presented by a copper token 40 times its weight, i.e. 70 such a method would be found intolerable in practice. grains. The current farthing when new weighs 72 11-12ths The experience of all civilised countries shows that grains, but after a little wear is no heavier than the propersons, even the poorest and rudest, have no difficulty in posed token, so that the existing copper money might eounting by tens. Among ourselves we speak, even by continue in circulation, and the trifling depreciation of its preference, of 13 pence, 14 pence, 15 pence, &c.; and the value as compared with the silver money would scarcely French and Belgians continually reckon their small pay be felt. Indeed by the poorer classes the additional halfments by introducing any number of centimes, such as penny in change for a shilling would perhaps be regarded halt a franc, = 50c. ; a quarter of a franc, = 25c. ; or the smaller amounts of 20, 15, 10c. &c. But I think it said by the Parliamentary Committee about a probable loss
as a bonus on their small purchases. Something has been evident that the pound mode, as proposed by Mr. Miller, to the government, but it should be recollected that at in which the pounds might be followed by any number the Mint, about 9 pennyworth of copper is coined into 24 of mils up to 999, would be perplexing even to good pence, leaving a handsome profit of 166 per cent. or therearithmeticians, and quite unmanageable by all besides. abouts to the government. I here speak not of sums written down, but calculated by
In exchange transactions foreign money would be easily memory, or in the head; and my objection is the same reduced to - English coins,” which from the great comwhich IIr. Miller himself has advanced (p. 418,) in re: mercial importance of this country would probably become ference to weight, that the same quantities would the universal standard of value; a franc, for instance, require three places of decimals to express them.” If I might be reckoned 39 coins, a rupee 98, a dollar 219, a am right in this objection, it follows, as Jr. Miller does ducat 418, a thaler 148, and so on, according to the rate not propose more than two denominations, viz., pounds of exchange for the time being;
The rule of “ Exand mils, that his method must be abandoned. Although change" in arithmetic would then be reduced to an it would have, in a majority of cases, the advantage, as operation of simple multiplication. shovn in his statement, of requiring one figure less than the other modes, I think that the monied interest ought be a synonymous with 1000 “coins," it might be legally
As the term “pound,” when speaking of money, would to sabinit to this trifling inconvenience for the sake of the retained in business transactions, a thousand pounds being immense benefits which would ensue to all classes froin certainly a more convenient expression than a million coins. the adoption of the franc mode.
Silver 10-coin and 20.coin pieces might be issued with adI cannot conclude these observations without expressing vantage, and the threepenny and fourpenny pieces called in my admiration of the diligence evinced by Mr. Miller in
I remain, sir, his historical statements, and of his ingenuity in his pro
Your obedient Serrant, posed management of our copper coinage, and my wish
SAMUEL A. GOOD. that a gentleman of so great acuteness and intellectual activity would pursue the subject in a still more compre Pembroke Dock, hensive and philosophical spirit, and especially that he
15 May, 1351.
Sin,- As a inanufacturer of drawing instruments, I beg Highgate, Jay 13th, 1954.
to make the following remarks with reference to some
cases of instruments examined by me at your office this DECIMAL NOTATION OF MONEY.
day, the price of which is certainly very low, but such
instruments would be dear at any price. The object of the Sie,- In the - Journal” of the 28th April, there is a “ Society of Arts" is very praiseworthy in encouraging notice of a paper on the Coinage, read by me at the Pem- the supply of the poorer class of students in the various broke Dock Nechanics’ Institute, but as there is no account departments of science and art, with drawing materials at of my proposal for a decimal notation, I beg to be allowed a low cost, but it is an established fact that, the less the space for a brief outline.
ability of the student, the better drawing materials he reTo accomplish the desired reformation without disturb- quires. The various government and other large establishing the existing notions of value, or altering the names ments have tried the experiment of introducing cheap of the various pieces of money at present in circulation, instruments without success, and the general conclusion is nothing more would be necessary than for the government that a bad instrument is dear at any price, and does much to enact that henceforward all accounts should be rendered to retard the progress of the student. The competition in terms of one denomination only, according to the following and the demand for all drawing inaterials is so large that table :
the public secures a cheap and good supply; and I regret
to add that the encouragement of the manufacture of * Recent and authorised accounts of the system are contained cheap instruments, &c., has already deteriorated the in the following works :
value of English manufactures in our colonies and America, Poids et Mesures, Monnaie, Calcul Decimal, et Verification. I and the French and Germans are rapidly advancing to Par M. Tarbé. Paris, 1845. 12mo. (Price 3f., a Volume of our former position in the supply of instruments, cutlery, the Encycloj.edie-Roret.)
and many other articles, which already is felt by the Manuel Populaire et Classique des Poids et Mesures. Par working-classes in our business as well as others. With L. Daléchamps, Paris. 12mo." (Price, 3f.)
respect to the instruments examined, the following are the
H. M. Dockrard,