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admit of the charge of fresh coal being placed on daily call a great many things by their names, without them. By this means the fresh coal was intro- even inquiring into their nature and properties, so that in duced under the incandescent fuel. All the air reality it is only their names, and not the things them
selves, with which we are acquainted.” If this remark required to support combustion had to pass was and is still applicable to our superficial knowledge of through the fire-bars from the ash-pit. On every-day objects, how much more literal it becomes the walls were exhibited a collection of sixty when applied to that branch of science and truth (for Photographic Views, by Mr. P. H. De la Motte, Palace Company have so boldly undertaken to lay before
science is only a synonyme for truth) which the Crystal of the Crystal Palace, showing the progress of the multitude; there we shall reverse that order of the building itself ; of the different Architectural teaching which is described as the names and not the Courts ; of the Natural History Department; things with which we become acquainted ; it will be the of the Ancient and Modern Sculpture, &c. things with their names that we shall present to the These views had been most liberally presented to the word, but to the million, including the well-infornied
people ; and not only the people in the restricted sense of the Society by the Directors of the Company. and those above the average in education and acTwenty-two Photographic Views in Glouces- quirements; to the majority of these the geological tershire, presented by Mr. Joseph Cundall, were quaintance, for, with reference to the true form and size
restorations will present all the novelty of a first acalso shown.
of the extinct animals, little more than the name was The Paper read was
known to many who had an earnest desire to acquire some
knowledge of geology, but whose scanty leisure would ON VISUAL EDUCATION AS APPLIED TO not allow of their pursuing their inquiries sufficiently far GEOLOGY,
to realize that life-like interest which becomes almost ILLUSTRATED BY DIAGRAMS AND Models OF THE GEOLO- essential for the successful continuance of any pursuit. GICAL RESTORATIONS AT THE CRYSTAL PALACE.
Our natural sympathies are with life. That which does or By B. WATERHOUSE HAWKINS, F.G.S., F.L.S.
has lived, will always be found to interest far beyond any
inorganic object, however brilliant or beautiful. It has been truly said, that the highest function of the Of course it is not my intention to offer you on the Society of Arts must be its endeavour to promote the present occasion a lecture on Geology, or Palæontology, general advancement of education ; and in the belief but only simply to describe in a few words the foundation that such are the practical views of this Society, s presume, upon which I have constructed and restored these great that its members cannot view with indifference any part animals, and how I have obtained that truth and accuracy of that great undertaking at the Crystal Palace, which which may entitle my restorations of the extinct animals may be so justly called a grand-child of the Society of to be viewed as useful and trustworthy lessons to all Arts. It was here that the Great Exhibition of 1851 first classes, and which we hope will render the appearance saw the light, and, under the happy auspices of our Royal and names of the ancient inhabitants of our globe as President, was brought to maturity—a giant born of peace familiar as household words. and good-will to men; of such parentage how much is to Geology and Palæontology, though deeply interesting be hoped for!
to all who have had the opportunity for study, has hitherto In this the 100th year of our existence as a Society, it been restricted to the professed anatomist, or to those whose is most happily conceived to lay before the whole world great resources enabled them to make collections and to an exhibition of all the materials of education collected bring around them the costly requisites of their enthusifroin all nations; therefore, in the hope that you will con-astically followed pursuits. Sir Philip Egerton, Lord sider my attempt at least seasonable, I shall endeavour, Enniskillen, Sir Roderick Murchison, Mr. Bowerbank, very briefly, to lay before you this evening a slight sketch and other 'distinguished names illustrate the limited of part of one of those great efforts in an cdncational number to whom the study of Geology and Paläontology direction which the Crystal Palace Company are making was practically within reach. We have public museums for the benefit of their fellow-men of all classes; and no it is true, but even our national collection at the British Muless is it a benefit (to, their fellow men because it is being seum, though containing some of the finest fossils that have done commercially, which, if properly analysed, will be been collected throughout the world, from their detaehed found to be the most truly independent system and most state, there being only two or three skeletons for comcongenial to the feeling of every right-minded English parison, offers little more than objects of wonder, lite
rally only dry bones or oddly shaped stones to the The whole of the great scheme now working to com. majority who see them. The inevitably fragmentary pletion, known as the Crystal Palace, might be properly state of such specimens of course ieft much to the imdescribed as one vast and combined experiment of visual agination, even to those who looked at them with some education; and I think it would be easy to show that its little knowledge of comparative anatomy, and as that educational powers and design constitute its legitimate amount of knowledge is not found among the average claims to the support of all civilized Europe; but like its acquirements of the public at large, it was a fallow field, great parent, the Exhibition of 1851, it is too extensive to which nothing less than the great enterprise and resources allow of even a short catalogue in the brief space of one of the Crystal Palace Company could have attempted for hour ; I therefore confine myself to a hasty sketch of part the first time to illustrate and realise-the revivifying of of the attempt to apply the active principle of teaching the ancient world—to call up from the abyss of time and directly through the eye that branch of the truths of from the depths of the earth, those vast forms and gigantic creation upon which I have been engaged for the last beasts which the Almighty Creator designed with fitness year and half.
to inhabit and precede us in possession of this part of the This direct teaching through the eye has been recog- earth called Great Britain. nised as a principle and a facility of education for some Geology has been aptly called the science of nature's years past, even in the limited sphere of schools ; and I antiquities, for, however fresh, renewed, and vigorous in all believe the name of Pestalozzi deserves the most honour- her operations, yet even nature has had her olden time; able mention in connection with its first enunciation as a her early days must have seen fierce struggles, contentivus recognised facility upon principle. Flis, and his followers', storms, fire and water, like the modern theories, struggling lessons on objects were urged upon the public some for the mastery; then her epoch of calmer subsidence twenty years ago, and a writer who was quoted at the time, and gentler rule, each state leaving its indestructable in support of the principle, shrewdly observed, that “ we monuments, with their carvings and inscriptions, for man
to decypher. Nature's pyramids are mountains of granite, periods and formations, which, though often found to have slate, and limestone;jher aqueducts majestic rivers, leaving been disturbed by some vast convulsive force, can yet be regigantic boulders for land-marks; but more to our im- traced to its natural order of succession and super-position. mediate purpose, the geologist, like the morden anti The diagram (page 446) shews those forinations which quarian, finds his richest stores of information, in nature's constitute the secondary epoch, or, if described in ascending cemeteries, where the bones of byegone generations lie order, the commencement of that vertebrate existence which embalmed with proof of how they lived and where they left unequivocal evidence of its inhabiting the earth, by died.
leaving the imprint of its footmarks, which, at one time, was The science of Palæontology (or, as the literal transla- all we knew of the extraordinary inhabitants of the New tion of the name indicates), the study of ancient beings, Red Sandstone, when it was called Chirotherium, from the treats of the history of fossils; and its principal end is to hand-like shape of the foot-marks, until the mighty genius make known the forms and the zoological relations of the of Professor Owen placed the teeth and head before us, beings which have inhabited the globe at divers epochs with such indisputable characters as united them to the anterior to our own. It has also to fill one of the inost footmarks, and thus, by induction, the whole animal remarkable pages in the history of the carth, by retracing I was presented to us. the successive phases of the organization of the animals Next, in ascending succession, we have the Tethyosaurus, that have peopled it. It has two principal applications :- Platgodon, Tenuirostris, and Communis, the Plesiosaurus 1st to Zoology, by making known those new or rather un- Dolichodirus, as restored by Dean Conybeare, the Plesioknown forms and conditions of existence which are often saurus Macrocephalus and Hawkinsii, the latter named by wanting in living nature. It may, sometimes, by offering Professor Owen after Mr. Thomas IIawkins, who with new transitions, demonstrate natural relations of which we great enthusiasm cleared it from its matrix of lias, and were ignorant; it reacts also upon the general laws of made the first great collection of fossils of the lias which comparative anatomy, and has contributed much to its were purchased by the trustees of the British Museum, researches and discoveries, and it is connected with all the where they are now, and form the most striking features questions relative to the origin and development of or- of the national collection of fossils. ganised beings. 2ndly to Geology :-Paläontology again It next illustrates the upper portion of the lias, sometimes applies to geology, by furnishing the only certain basis known as the alum shale, so well developed at Whitby, for the determination of the stratified earths, and by in which remains of the Telcosaurus have been so freclearing up several essential points relative to the ancient quently found. This animal will be recognised by its limits of Seas and Continents. The study of fossils is near resemblance to the crocodile of the Ganges called destined to throw a great light upon the determination of Gavial, or Garrial, as it should be called : to the casual the order of succession of the beds or strata, and of their observer the principal difference consists in its greater relative age. The study of fossils may also enlighten size. The next formation above the lias is the oolite, of questions of detail. Certain sorts of fish and of mollusca which at present that singular reptile, the Pterodactyle, are known to be essentially belonging to rivers, and others represents the inhabitants, while the intermediate forinato inhabit the seas. If the fossils of an earth belong to tion, called the Stonesfield slate, bears the great discovery the fresh-water species, we may legitimately conclude of Buckland, the Megalosaurus, or the great lizard. This, that such earth has been deposited by rivers or by lakes the upward strata of the great polite, brings us to the of fresh water. If, on the contrary, the beings that have formation called the Wealden, which Professor Owen, in there left their remains belong to the marine species, it one of his elaborate descriptions of the British fossil repmay be presumed that such deposit owes its origin to the tiles, calls the metropolis of the Dinosaurian order, which waters of the sea.
I have here represented by the best known and most In latter years iossils have revealed remarkable facts typical species, the Hylæsaurus or lizard of the inud, with concerning the state of the globe at various epochs. Some its extraordinary dermal covering and long range of authors have sought to make use of them to define the dorsal scutes, of which the bones were found by the late shores and the configuration of the ancient seas; at Dr. Mantell, whose persevering researches in Wealden least, we know that in the deep sca we find fewer molluscs formations first gave the idea to science of the former than near the coasts ; the depth and absence of vegetation existence of the Iguanodon. cause the greatest part of the species to avoid the centre These restorations of the Iguanodon I made from the of the seas; the shores, on the contrary, which fur-measurements of the great Horsham specimen, as the nisl a more abundant nourishment, and the rocks near largest is called, from its having been found and carefully the surface, serve as shelter to a much larger number of preserved by Mr. Holmes, surgeon, at Horsham, who has individuals. The presence of numerous fussils, and bestowed much care and attention on the development of above all that of species which belong to the kinds essen- the great fossils found in his neighbourhood, among tially fluviatile, may then serve to indicate the shore of which are the largest known specimens of the bones of ancient seas, whilst rare fossiis of species from the deep Iguanodon, having also the greater value of being found sea prove, on the contrary, that the earths where they are altogether, evidently belonging to one individual. These deposited have been formed far from the coasts of seas at he kindly placed at my service for comparison with the divers epochs. Thus it will be seen that geology would better known Maidstone specimen now in the British be but à barren study without some knowledge of the Museum, which was so admirably extricated from its fossil remains of those beings who apparently first peopled matrix and preserved by Mr. Beusted. the waters of the earth.
This Iguanodon was ihe animal the mould of which I An inspection of the various strata in which fossil re converted into a salle a manger, and in which I had the mains have been deposited serves to prove that, in general, honour of receiving Professor Owen, Professor E. Forbes, a constant order has existed in their formation. The sea, and twenty of my scientific friends to dinner on the last by which the entire earth appears to have bee: covered, day of the year 1953. This circumstance will best illus, having rested in certain situations a sufficient length of trate the great size of these animals, the restoration of time to collect particular substances, and to sustain the which has involved soine of the greatest mechanical diflife of certain genera and species of animals, has been ficulties that can come within the sculptor's experience: afterwards replaced by another sea, which has collected and, if it will not be considered out of place, I will briefly other substances, and nourished other animals, whose re. state the process by which I have constructed these large mains are found in each stratum, and are generally limited models. to one formation, or, if reappearing in a successive stra In the first week of September, 1852, I entered upon my tum, much modified in size or structure. I have prepared engagement to make mastodon, or any other models of here a diagram (page 416) which will give you an idea of the the extinct animals that I night find most practicable; such successions of epochs ; each epoch containing a succession of was the tenour of my undertaking, and being deeply im.
pressed with its important and perfectly novel character, the Crystal Palace, and he therefore hoped that specimens without precedent of any kind, I found it necessary like those before them might be rendered attainable by earnestly and carefully to study the elaborate descriptions those in remote and secluded districts, who would not of Baron Cuvier, but more particularly the learned writings have the advantage of witnessing the splendid and giganof our British Cuvier, Professor Owen. Here I found abun- tic illustration of the extinct creation of the early ages of dant material collected together, stores of knowledge, the world which would be there exhibited. He would from years of labour, impressing me still more with the also express a hope that specimens like those might be in. grave importance of attempting to present to the eye of the troduced in connection with the approaching Educational world at large a representation of the complete and living Exhibition of the Society, as it would be of great imforms of those beings, the minutest portion of whose bones portance in an educational point of view, and school. had occupied the study and research of our most profound masters and teachers of the young might thereby have an philosophers; by the careful study of their works, I qualis opportunity of seeing what had been done, and what they fied myself to make preliminary drawings, with careful might do for themselves, if they could purchase those measurements of the fossil bones in our Museum of the models at a moderate price. It would be doing for the College of Surgeons, British Museum, and Geological extinct world what they had not done for the existing Society ; thus prepared I made my sketch-models to scale, one, because, in many of the rural districts the young either a 6th or 12th of the natural size, designing such were taught the nature and habits of elephants, lions, and attitudes as my long acquaintance with the recent and living tigers, and yet had never seen either a living specimen or forms of the animal kingdom enabled me to adapt to the even an accurate model of those animals. He should now extinct species I was endeavouring to restore. These be glad to hear the observations of any gentleman upon sketeh models I subunitted in all instances to the criticism the subject of the paper which had been brought before of Professor Owen, who with his great knowledge and them that evening, and as he saw Professor Tennant pre. profound learning most liberally aided me in every diffi- sent, perhaps he would favour the meeting with a few reculty. As in the first instance it was by the light of his marks upon a matter with which he was so intimately writings that I was enabled to interpret the fossils that I acquainted. examined and compared, so it was hy his criticism that I Professor TENNANT observed, that he had but little to found myself guided and improved, by his profound learn- say after what had been stated in the paper, because to go ing being brought to bear upon my exertions to realise the through the various models exhibited in detail would octruth. His sanction and approbation obtained, I caused cupy several hours. Having had on more than one occathe clay model to be built of the natural size by measure-sion an opportunity of witnessing the process of building up ment from the sketch-model, and when it approximated to the nodels of these monster aniuals, it was astonishing to see the form, I with my own hand in all instances secured the the skill with which Mr. Hawkins built up, piece by piece, anatomatical details and the characteristics of its nature. those gigantic and extraordinary representations. When
Some of these models contained 30 tons of clay, which they looked at the bones on the table, and compared had to be supported on four legs, as their natural history them with the thigh-bones of the largest animals with characteristics would not allow of my having recourse to which they were now acquainted, they were taken by any of the expedients for support allowed to sculptors in surprise, and it required the learning and erudition of a an ordinary case. I could have no trees, nor rocks, nor Conybeare or an Owen to re-create these extinct animals foliage to support these great bodies, which, to be natu- from detached fossil remains. Most persons present had, ral, must be built fairly on their four legs. In the no doubt, seen the fossil Ichthyosaurus in the British instance of the Iguanodon is not less than building a Museum, which was 22 feet in length; but these beauhouse upon four columns, as the quantities of material of tiful models carried the mind back in time to the periods which the standing Iguanodon is composed, consist of 4 when these creatures were living in the seas which washed iron columns I feet long by 7 inches diameter,
our own coasts. They were now standing upon an ancient 600 bricks,
sea-bottom, and the race of animals which then existed 650 5-inch half-round drain tiles,
had been brought to light, for the most part, only in a 900 plain tiles,
fragmentary state, like the specimens upon the table. 38 casks of cement,
They reminded him of a circumstance which occurred a 90 casks of broken stone,
few years since, when a sailor brought home a small fragmaking a total of 640 bushels of artificial stone.
ment of the bone of a gigantic bird from New Zealand. These, with 100 feet of iron hooping and 20 teet of cube This was shown to Professor Owen, who, from the great inch bar, constitute the bones, sinews, and muscles of this anatomical skill which he possessed, was enabled to say large model, the largest of which there is any record of a that the bird a portion of whose bone that small frag. casting being made.
ment was, was so gigantic in its proportions that even the I have only to add that my earnest anxiety to render largest ostrich he had ever seen was as a mere chicken my restorations truthful and irustworthy lessons has made to it
. There were persons present who might, perhaps, me seek diligently for the truth and the reward of Pro. be inclined to criticise the statements laid before them fessor Owen's sanction and approval, which I have been so that evening, as to the ability to reproduce accurate fortunate as to obtain, and my next sincere wish is that, models of the entire structure and correct proportions of thus sanctioned, they may, in conjunction with the visual extinct animals from the discovery of a single bone; but lessons in every department of art, so establish the efficiency they had the fact that Professor Owen was enabled to say, and facilities of visual education as to prove one of many from the internal construction of the fragment of bone of sources of profit to the shareholders of the Crystal Palace only a few inches in length, that it was the bone of a Company.
gigantic bird. “Where did it come from?" asked the Professor. “ From New Zealand.” " Could more be
obtained ?” “No doubt of it.” A request was made DISCUSSION.
that as many of the bones as possible should be collected, The Dean of HEREFORD said he had listened, as he was and in the course of a few years the late Dr. Mantell resure every one present must have done, with great interest ceived a quantity of them, and Professor Owen some to the admirable paper of Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins, who more, and the result was, that they had now in the had brought before them many animals to most ot them Museum of the College of Surgeons a restored bird, probably unknown, and so perhaps they would have re- which measured about 14 feet in height. Happily for mained, had they not been represented in this way. He the researches of science, the bones of extinct animals, should be glad to see those models multiplied at a price such as the gigantic Ichthyosaurus, were not found which would enable them to be introduced into vil- isolated. In some places the bones found lage and ordinary schools, as every one could not visit by hundreds. He had himself been to the quar.
ries in Wells, where the existence of the fossils in cessfully accomplished, as far as he was competent to lias was first discovered by Mr. Thomas Hawkins, jutge, by Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins. He would confine and he Professor Tennant) was astonished to see the his observations to what he conceived to be the more imgreat number of bones in that mass of limestone. In mediate object of his communication, in regard to these this respect, again, he looked upon those models as most animals--restricted in the vast field of Palæontology, but, interesting Oiring to the facilities which now existed of as Ir. Huwkins had said in his paper, interesting as being visiting all parts of the country, and collecting fossils on British. He had thought a great deal of the recon mend. the spot, and afterwards going to the Crystal Palace, and ation which had come from the chairman, and he hoped seeing the restoration of the animals, a more accurate in his position in connection with this Society, he (the knowledge of those wonders of creation was obtained than chairman) might be the means of inducing it-probably in could be communicated by lengthened scientific details. pconnection with the Crystal Palace Company—to construct They were not looking at the anatomical structure only, models of those remarkable creations, reduced to a reasonbut they saw them clothed as it were in their original able, though not, perhaps, in the first instance, to an actual armour, many of them with gigantic scales, which scales scale, that a moderato amount of models of all those ani. had been found in the diferent strata. They found the mals that have been rendered so familiar to the people of fragment of a tooth, and they were enabled to state at London, and would be still more so when the Crystal what age that animal cxisted. A case occurred a few Palace opened, might be made available for imparting years ago, when he attended (accompanied by a Spanish instruction to the inhabitants of less favoured localities. gentleman), a meeting of the Microscopic Society. He He would suggest that some lighter and less brittle matewas introduced to Professor Owen, who told the gentleman rial should be used-papier-maché, or some such material that if he could give him the section of a tooth he would --and the Iguanodon might, for instance, be reduced to give him the history of the animal. The gentleman the proportions of something like two or three feet in looked incredulous, and remarked that he hoped that length, and other animals in like proportion. He was now because he was a foreigner they were not imposing upon speaking of his own locale ; he wished his country neighhim, but he (Professor Tennant) assured his friend that bours to see the forms and models of the elephant, the the learned professor was entirely to be credited in his tiger, the hippopotamus, and the giraffe, in something assertion. Standing a few yards off was Professor Loddage, like their relative proportions. At the present day, in the celebrated botanist. “If” said he “ you will give me the better class of toy-shops, pretty correct models of the tip of the feather of a bird, I will give you the history these animals might be obtained, which gave a very of the birl itself.” The gentleman was still more per- fair idea of their forms, and would serve to convey inplexed, and replied, “ Well, if this is the case, we will say struction in natural history in a school. He was sure he no more about it." Well, therefore, might they say, upon expressed the unanimous feeling of the meeting when he a contemplation of this subject, “ O Lord, how marvel- stated that they owed a debt of gratitude for the interestlous are thy works; in wisdom hast thou made them all : ing information that had been conveyed by Mr. Waterthe earth is full of thy riches;" instances of which they house Hawkins, and that all would concur in the sughad that evening exhibited before them.
gestion of the very reverend chairman--that specimens of Mr. Evax Hopkins (responding to the invitation of the those models should be attainable for a moderate expenchairman) said the only part to which he wished to draw diture. attention, was that of the division of the zones.
Suppos. Mr. HARRY CHESTER said he felt he had no right to ad. ing, for instance, they could cut a large section of strata dress the Society upon this subject, and indeed all that of some 3000 or 4000 feet in England, they would find all had occurred to him had been anticipated by the very the animals in their particular order, from the Silurian up reverend chairman in opening the discussion, and by to the tertiary formation. They knew the series from the what had fallen from the learned professor who had just organic remains; but when they went to other parts of sat down, namely, that a great service would be rendered the world things were not the same. For instance, take to education by multiplying the casts and illustrations beAustralia, from which country he had just returned, that fore them. But there was one form of illustration which did not present any tropical remains. All the organic re- he hoped this subject would not receive, but which he mains belonged to the south temperate zone.
feared would be the case, that was, that these monsters also well acquainted with South America ; there they would find their way into their carpets and paper havghad a series of organic remains, but all belonging to ings. He would ask what would be the consequence, it a the south temperate zone--none corresponding to the gentleman of not very strong nerves, on plunging into his north. They had the different shells and organic re- bath found the bottom of it ornamented with some of mains belonging to Patagonia and Brazil, but not the these horrid-looking animals. But supposing that they rich exhibition which was found in England. In Cey- kept them off their paper hangings, and out of their carJon, also, there were a variety of organic deposits, pets, and did not stumble over them at their fire-sides, no but the richest were found in the northern hemisphere, doubt much important service might be rendered if and as they proceeded to the south they dwindled away. these models were put into a form in which they He would not now enter into the question of place, be. would be easily attainable by those engaged in education. cause it was one so much of detail, but he wished to see There was not a normal school but might have them. this great science treated with regard to education in He thought it would be highly desirable that a geology, and with that view he would suggest that in stall should be occupied by these casts at the approaching carrying out their splendid designs in this department, Educational Exhibition of the Society, and it would be the Crystal Palace Company should exhibit a division of of great service if Mr. Hawkins would at a convenient the zones: for instance, here the organic remains found period, deliver a lecture or read a paper upon them, for in the south temperate zone, there those of the tropical, the benefit of the large number of schoolmasters and and there those of the north temperate zone. If that were schoolmistresses who, he hoped, would be attracted to that done it would enlighten the mind upon the science of exhibition from all parts of the country. The very regeology more than anything that had yet been accom- verend the chairman had expressed the want in the plished in that way.
country of proper ideas of the forms of elephants, lions, Professor MacDonald said he had listened with tigers, and giraffes. Now, in a town like that of Hereford, pleasure to the paper, and to the views which had been he (Mr. Chester) was sure that upon such an intimation brought forward by the gentlemen who had taken part in being made known, they would be inundated with the discussion, and he fully concurred in the advantages travelling menageries, containing living specimens of to be derived in an educational point of view, from a sub- those animals. He would mention a curious fact, which stantial as well as a visual representation of the remains would illustrate the extent of information on these matters of animals of past existence, which had been most suc-I in some parts of the country. A schoolmaster came to