Oldalképek
PDF
ePub

complain of in the quality of the water supplied to them, we can secure the means of compelling apprentices and that if they obtained it constantly fresh it would be —a thing we always can do with orphans and destiall they could require. He believed that one meter would tute children,- who must accept an apprenticeship as an be amply sufficient even for Buckingham Palace, whilst equivalent for subsistence,-and with juvenile delinquents, he could not conceive that one cistern would be of the who prefer a School of Industry to the House of Correcslightest use in keeping that edifice supplied with water, tion, the only alternative that is left them. It is almost and therefore there inust be a great saving between the impossible to conceive the waste of material that occurs first cost of meters and cisterns. In conclusion, he begged everywhere in India in the construction of dwelling-houses to propose a vote of thanks to Messrs. Glynn and Fother and other buildings. Joists and beams of all descriptions gill for their very valuable papers, which, hy the discus. are cut out square ; trussing of roofs and diagonal bracings cussion they had elicited, he felt convinced must prove are only attempted when European models are imitated; of great benefit to the public.

and everything proves the slavery of custom, and exThe Secretary announeed that as Wednesday hibits a people

who, however neat-handed, are devoid of next, the 26th instant, had been appointed as a all instruction, ignorant of the first principles of physics, day of Public Humiliation and Fast, there would afraid of innovation, and always endeavouring to copy

some standard or established model, without reflection be no meeting of the Society on that day. on its applicability to the case immediately in view.

In England the best taught pupils of a School of In

dustry, where paupers and criminals alone are instructed, ON SCHOOLS OF INDUSTRY IN INDIA, AND THE must, in nine cases out of ton, turn out very inferior work

USES TO BE SUBSERVED BY THEM, IN PRO- men to those who have learned by the ordinary method MOTING MORALS, AND IMPROVING THE of apprenticeship, in most cases, under the paternal eye, PRODUCTIVENESS OF THE COUNTRY. or with every anxiety to learn, knowing that their success B: Dr. Buist, F.R.S.

in the world depends on their proficiency: In India pre

cisely the reverse of this is the case; and were Schools of In my paper on the development of the resources of Industry general, the best workmen would be their apIndia I had occasion slightly to allude to the existence of prentices, and the apprenticing system would come in schools of industry in the country, and the important ends fashion when its benefits were perceived. In England, they may be made to serve, if sufficiently multiplied, in where the market is already filled to overflowing with the diminishing the amount of crime and in promoting the fruits of honest industry, an apprehension is at all prosperity of the people. The functions capable of being times experienced of injuring a respectable tradesman who performed by such' establishments in England afford supports, as he has always supported his family, by his own us no idea whatever of the tasks they are competent to unaided exertions, by bringing the work of the reformed accomplish in India. Throughout Europe all trades are rogue and the man, at all events in part, supported by the learned through the instrumentality of anprenticeships ; a public purse, into the field against him. In India, again, lad of fifteen who expects to employ thiriy-five years of while we have a profusion of animal effort, of mere thews his life in some handicraft, finds, that by expending five and sinews at command, there is a prodigious deficiency of years in apprenticeship, and thirty years in the protitable anything like skilled labour or tradesmanship amongst us; practice of his profession, he can iurn out a larger amount and Schools of Industry might on these grounds be of available work, and realise more money, than if he had made everywhere self-supporting. The pupils they turned omitted the apprenticeship and begin at once by attempt. ont, as being the most proficient, would always be assured ing to do something that would yield him requital of fivding the best paid employment in the country, while however trifling, but deprive him of the power of ever they could be made instrumental in introducing a becoming really proficient in his trade. In India no one variety of improved industry, such as under the present ever thinks of an apprenticeship; marriage takes place system young men will not, and old men cannot, learn. before the period of boyhood is past, and the family re. In England, engineers, architects, or builders, and our quires to be provided for at the age at which in England great capitalist contractors themselves, all thoroughly à lad would be leaming his trade; and the whole life understand every portion of the work with which they of a native tradesman becomes thus one of expedients are connected ; in all likelihood they had been trained in and makeshifts. With the most incorrect eye imaginable some of the trades on which they draw, and are intimato it is next to impossible to make him use a square, å level, with the principles as well as the details of all. In India a plumb-linc, or a rule. The carving of onr Bombay all is the reverse of this ; noman has the slightest acquaintfurniture can hardly be surpassed in elegance, but its joinery ance with the craft practised by his brother, or the least is as execrable as its carving is excellent. Not a mortice knowledge of their general principles. Contractors are ocis properly cleaned out or sufliciently filled, not a tenon casionally mere adventurers, who contract for work with no is true or square; the surfaces of the most beautiful of our part of which they have the slightest acquaintance, and blackwood iables undulate like the waves of the sea; yet let portions of it off to sub-contractors asignorant as themthe time taken to execnte work of this sort, with an ever- selves. It has long been matter of complaint amongst the lasting correction of errors,--a perpetual chipping, scraping, more intelligent portion of the natives that, while manual and chiselling,—is at least three times that which would be labour is deemed degrading, and skilled work, with the required by an intelligent English workman, or a native single exception of ship-carpentery, such as might furwho had served an apprenticeship, and begin methodically nisl the means of advancement to a man with a n.oderate by planning and calculating everything, and by laying it off capital at his command, is a thing unknown; and that by compass, square, and rule. The same mischief obtains the bulk of those young men who have been left a everywhere, and it is a matter of constant complaint at all tolerable competency by their parents, instead of our seminaries, that it is next to impossible to retain boy's occupying themselves or improving their means by at school till they have become anything like decently in- honourable exertion, as in England, invest their money structed after they have obtained just such a smattering of in stock, or lend it out at usury, to spend their English, reading, and writing, as will enable them to lives in idleness, ignorance, and indulgence. The perform the humblest and worst paid varieties of clerk only trade pursued or known by those averse to the work. We have no means of forcibly extinguishing mis. ordinary handicrafts now existing is that of purroe chiefs of this sort, or of putting them down, in any other or clerk, and this comes to be fearfully overstocked. It is way than by showing their folly, and this we can these unhappy arrangements that in India keep the difdo by demonstrating by practice the soundness of the ferent classes of the community so hopelessly separated European principle, by exhibiting the superior proficiency from each other, and which, together with the poverty of thoroughly taught apprenticed workmen, whenever and almost universal indebtedness of the really indus

trious classes, renders it so difficult to introduce improved and whose presence was an abomination everywhere, and varieties of industry, to which, wherever shown their who must either be permitted to return to their former advantages, the natives have always been sufficiently occupations or suffered to starve. It was wisely resolved, alive; and it would be in exhibiting these that one mainly on their account, to establish a colony at Jubhulportion of the value of Schools of Industry would lic. pore for these men and their familes, where the criminals. These remarks are somewhat general ; perhaps, to a themselves should be kept under such restraint as to rencertain extent, they may seem obscure; they will, I trust, der escape hopeless; where they should be provided with presently appear plain enough when I have given a short food and compelled to labour, and the rearing of their account of our schools of industry as at present existing, families in honest courses be seen to. The foundation of to which they refer; after which I shall be enabled the establishment was laid by Colonel Sleeman and Capt. more directly to point out the manner in which such Brown, and their good fortune in securing the services of establishments might be multiplied and extended, and Mr. Williams, the superintendent, on whom everything the amount and nature of tho services to the common depended, has been the great secret of its success. wealth they are calculated to perform.

Coinmencing with the simplest sorts of manufactures, The School of Industry at Jubhulpore is the old- such as were practised in the neighbourhood, for which est establishment of this description in India, and is, a market could always be found, and where raw material perhaps, the most remarkable reformatory school in the was at command, they soon perfected themselves in world. Its original inmates were all murderers. Some weaving in cotton and wool, and afterwards in carpetindividuals amongst them had sent some half-dozens of making. They became proficients in dyeing and printing, human beings out of the world; and the accumulated and commenced a large manufactory of tents, which now body had probably an amount of slaughter to answer for find abundant sale in all parts of India. Along with equal, at least, to that of Waterloo. Not only have they these things they have betaken themselves to carpetry, been thoroughly reclaimed from these practices, but a blacksmith and brass work in all departments, turning out body of men, before the pests and disgraces of society, in each such superior kinds of work, and at such moderate have become instrumental in establishing a colony of prices, as everywhere secures sales. By 1850, such had model workmen, who, but for the school, would liave become their proficiency in rug and carpet making, so far followed the miscreant footsteps of their fathers, and of as these arts could be acquired in India, that they obtained introducing some of the most beautiful of our European workmen from England to instruct them in the manufacmanufactures into Northern India. The Thugs, the ture of Kidderminster and Brussels carpets. In the lapse parties to whom we have been all along alluding, consti- of twenty years a vast number of those forming the origitute one of the most singular classes of robbers and mur- nal components of the school had passed away; those who derers in the world. They are represented on the frescos remained behind had become so thoroughly reclaimed of the caves of Central India, believed to be at least two and civilised, that none would have dreamt that in the thousand years old; practising their atrocious trade quiet, ordinary, industrious, middle-aged, or elderly men exactly as it is now practised. They belong to no parti- | who constitute the seniors of the factory, he saw those who cular class or creed; the Mahomedan and Hindoo races had spent the springtime and prime of life as professional alike contribute to them. They first became known to us murderers and robbers, and who had only escaped the some sixty or seventy years ago. They were scattered over gallows which they had deserved, by bringing others the country in thousands and tens of thousands. Every form within the reach of justice. Their families, meanwhile, of disguise was familiar to them, by which the wary might had grown up from childhood and youth to maturity, be entrapped or waylaid. They appeared by the wayside Thoroughly well educated in the elements, and trained in as mendicants, or men suffering from disease, as guides, the respective trades and handicrafts, they not only formed travellers, merchants, or pilgrins; they joined the traveller a body of artisans superior in industry and skill to any to on his journey, offering him their companionship or assist- | be met with in India, but some dozen or two of them were, ance or seeking his company or protection, and, when the in 1852, sent out to establish factories at the principal convenient moment arrived, they murdered and robbed towns in the north-west provinces, and provide at the him. Death was invariably produced by strangulation, spot supplies of goods, which hitherto could only be and so skilful were they in concealing the bodies of their procured at the parent establishment, and the cost victims, and in eluding and escaping detection, that the of which was sometimes nearly doubled by requiring crime was rarely discovered until its perpetrators had to be carried many hundreds of miles on the backs quitted the district, and got beyond the reach of justice. of bullocks or of camels in a country utterly desti

So far from looking at their occupations as infamous or tute of so much as the vestige of a road. The Jubcriminal, the Thugs boasted themselves as being the hulpore School of Industry, one of the most singular and recognised means by which the distribution of property meritorious establishments of the kind in the world, was equalised, and a check imposed on population. affords an excellent illustration of what may be done in They were quite ready to argue the question. They India in the way of improving the handicrafts and skilled pointed to the extreme antiquity of their profession, industry of the country by institutions originally estaband the enormous extent to which it was practised, lished for purely reformatory purposes. The Friend of and said that, as God had created lions, tigers, and India, one of the last papers likely to be censorious on other ravenous beasts, so he had ordained the Thugs Government, mentions it as one of the most extraordinary to assist in the abbreviation of human life. It was incidents of the love of mystery-making and concealment answered tem that all this might be very true, but which cven the annals of oriental mystery-mongering according to our potions, God had ordained civilised men, contain, that the utmost care seems to have been taken to exterminate the destroyers of mankind; and that if the by Government to keep back all information regarding Thugs in the pursuit of their vocation were hunted down that which it ought to have been their pride to make as and slain like wild beasts, to whom they compared then- notable as possible. Some remarks having a few years selves, they could have no reason to complain. When, since appeared in the Bombay l'imes on the wretchedness however, we once fairly set ourselves to the performance of the requital received by Mr. Williams, to whom the of our task, the multitude of these miscreants who fell prosperity of the establishment was mainly due, that into our hands was too great for the hangman. Our diffi- gentleman was understood to have been threatened and culty lay mainly with the informers or approvers, as they severely censured as the supposed author of some of the were called, who had secured themselves pardon by bring- notices of the estsblishments under his charge. (a) ing about the detection or conviction of their confederates, but who, having been trained to no trades but those of (a) The following list of the descriptions of the Schools of. robbery and murder, of whose services, even had they Industry in England and India may assist those who are debeen able and willing to labour, no man would accept, sirous of further enlightenment on the subject :

School of Industry at Bombay.-In my paper on the weighed them, and made a note of all the circumstances Resources of India, (a) I have noticed generally the es. we could learn as to their health, habits, birth, parentage, tablishment of the Bombay Polytechnic Institute, of which caste, country, and previous occupations. They were then the School of Industry was meant to have formed a part. permitted to select any trade they might prefer, being in An explanatiou of the delays which kept it back from most cases, however, placed for some weeks in the brick1847 to 1850 will be found in the “Annals of India," and field to mix or carry clay, lift water, or perform any need not here be further enlarged upon ; they furnish variety of light slopwork, with a view of inuring them illustrations of that fearful procrastination and endless to habits of industry, method, and punctuality, without waste of time which, unknown throughout the rest of the much regard to their learning at first any handicraft world, are in India (where it is most to be deprecated) whatever; the time for this came by and bye. The the grand source of the retardation of progress, and pre- whole of their previous lives had been spent in such utter vention of improvement. In the year just named the disregard of time, and in such unspeakable idleness and Court of Directors granted the services of a second-class irregularity, that there was a vast deal of what was misengineer from the Indian navy to superintend the school, chievous to be unlearned before anything profitable could on the condition that he should returu to his duty the be taught. Having surmounted the difficulties at the outa moment the navy required him; his emoluments were set, and got some fitteen or twenty boys steadily employed to be continued to him unimpaired, Government contri- in useful work so as to furnish examples to new-comers, buting this much to a reformatory establishment brought those who came afterwards, after being a few weeks or into existence purely for the public good by the contribu- months at the School, soon learnt to select for themselves tions of the benevolent. In 1846 the draft of an Act was the occupation prescribed by their caste, and found most brought before the legislative council of India, authorising congenial to their dispositions. The professions taught the managers of orphan schools to act as parents to those were weaving of coir mats and carpets, of common cotton under their charge, and to indenture them, with their own cloth, of twills, towelling and damask partly by the consent, to parties willing to accept their services native partly by the English loom, the latter being an as apprentices. Magistrates of police were vested entire innovation; carpeting, cabinet work, coach making with like authority in reference to the juvenile and turning in all their simpler forms, blacksmith work, delinquents that were brought before them. The both forging, fileing and finishing, brass work, the ordioriginal promoters of the scheme had, at the nary forms of tailoring, with brick making, and the outset, cast about them for a site and piece of coarser kinds of pottery manufacture. European methods ground near the sea-shore sufficiently, supplied with of working being, as far as possible, engrafted upon fresh water, ample enough to provide room for a the native, and European tools made Use of when brick-field and wood-yard for workshops, schools, and found expedient. A few of the boys who exhibited dormitories, and, ultimately, for places of residence for a taste that way received instructions in drawing, and those who had completed their apprenticeship, and might they were all taught the simple kinds of gardening and feel disposed to continue as workmen at the school. The agriculture on a small scale as practised around, in gardens place fixed upon, six miles up the harbour from the fort, provided for them, and of which the produce was excluand about three from the nearest suburb of the town, was sively theirown. A good native schoolmaster was procured, 60 selected as, besides fulfilling the other conditions, was who gave instructions, both in English and the vernacusufficiently remute from the more populous portions of lars, in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The apartment the island to secure the safety of the boys, who were in used as a schoolroom by day serving as a reading and play reality, neither prisoners nor freemen. "It was deemed room in the evenings and mornings, being supplied with essential to get rid, as far as possible, of the idea that the sufficient store of pictures, maps, and books, such as were school was either a place of punishment or of restraint deemed suitable for the attainments of the pupils. The beyond what the simple interests of discipline required; boys rise at daybreak, or between five and six o'clock; the but it was not to be forgotten, at the saine time, while morning is spent in their gardens, they then bathe and this was impressed upon the boys, that we had no magic dress and cook their meals; exactly at nine the workshops amongst us to transform their habits or dispositions at are opened, when the muster roll is called over, after once; that we had no reason to imagine that they became which the boy who acts as foreman in each department penitents, or saw the errors of their ways on being in- sets his pupils to work. We have, usually, from five to dentured; or that, for many a day to come, they would ten, sometimes as many as twenty, regulaily-bred tradesnot greatly prefer returning to their former manner of men in our employment, the number depending on the life, unless prevented by fear of the police. Although our state of our funds and the demand for work. We find great object was to provide a place of refuge or reforma- this the only way of making the apprentices proficient, tion for the two hundred boys picked up annually by the or of turning out work not superior in price or inferior in police, betwixt the ages of ten and sixteen ; we were quality to that to be found in the bazaar-our difficulty anxious to admit all orphan or pauper children without being to act on the apathy with which India is afilicted, making a criminal trial an essential preliminary, so soon and induce householders requiring the articles we produce as our funds permitted. On the boys being apprenticed to give us a preference of their custom. When I l.ft to us, au indenture was formally drawn up betwixt the Boinbay in June last there wero seventy boy's under my magistrate of police, and myself as head of the establish-charge, the majority of these were Mahomedans, nearly ment, a copy of this remaining with me, another being all the rest Hindoos; we had never more than two or lodged at the police office; the term of apprenticeship three Parsces or Portuguese amongst them. Eight or ten, varying from three to five yeurs. The apprentices, on including two much the finest boys of the school, were being received, were washed and provided with such an volunteers, quite fit to support themselves in the second amount of clothing and bedding as is customary in their year of their apprenticeship; about a dozen of them exrank of life--the requisites in these matters being mode pressed the utmost anxiety to come home with me; they rate enough in all conscience; we next measured and had made great proficiency under our charge, and would,

I am satisfied, in England have learned as l'apidly and Jubhulpore. Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, Nov. 1817, page regularly as any boys of their age could have done. On 232. ; Friend of India, January 30, 1851.

one occasion a boy was sent a week's journey into the in. Bombay, Inauguration of. Bombay Times, June, 1850 ; ibid., terior in charge of a fly-shuttle loom, to teach the inmates

Jannary 26, 1851.
Ragged Schools in England.

of a gaol the use of that implement, and having performed

Dr. Guthrie's Plea for, (pamphlet, 1846); London Quarterly Review, 1846-47, and fulfilled his task most faithfully, he returned to us of vol.79; North British Review, vol. 10, 1849; Edinburgh his own accord, when he might have got away had he Revicu, vol. 85, page 580.

thought fit. One of the cleverest apprentices we ever had (8) See Journal of the Society of Arts, March 23, 1864.

was so mnischievous and incorrigible that we were compelled to cancel his indentures and have him sent to gaol. to take their ease where ladies are absent.

The dryness Six months afterwards we were surprised to receive a visit of the climate permits this tendency to be indulged in from him, accompanied by a number of respectable look without inconvenience, and a workman squatting on the ing companions of his owa age, who, he told us, liad ground under a tree, with his work-stools around hiin, been brought to see the school to which he was under so finds himself much more in his element than he would be, many obligations. He said that on being released from confined in a workshop and provided with a bench. A gaol he had betaken himself to his own trade of thieving, native becomes so inuch accustomed to use his feet where but he now saw that this was a wretched and unprofitable we employ our hands that he is virtually quadruniinous; profession, practised only by those who knew no better. He bis toes are to him almost as useful as his fingers, and it got put into gaol, whipped, and starved; he was, when is just as absurd to endeavour to deprive himn of the benefit at large, in constant fear of the police ; three-fourths of of these as it would be to try to persuade an English Whatle stole went to his companions or the receivers, and workman to dispense with the use of his right hand he could scarcely make more than food and clothing of it because he might be taught to manage well enough with at the most. The trade that we had taught him, that of his left. Limited, however, hy such consideratiors as carpenter, was in reality less laborious and more lucrative, these, there is still abundant rooin left for innovation and so he offered himself as a journeyman in the dockyard, improvement, to which the demand for skilled labour on where he was employed when he made his visit to us, our railways, and other varieties of work promising to be convinced by experience of the soundness of the maxim, brought into existence by European enterprise, will afford that “ honesty was the best policy."

an abundant stimulant. A school of industry, comprising I trust that as our establishment increases in size, all the leading objects here set forth, once well organised and our resources improve, especially if the endowment at the Presidency, will form the model and the germ of Sir Jamsetjee* becomes located in our neighbour- for numbers of other schools in the district, such as have hood, the general plan of the Polytechnic Institute emanated from Jubhulpore, each spreading around it will be restored in its integrity. So far from there improvements of al descriptions in every department of being any aversion on the part of the native trades- industry in the district in which it was located. Dr. Royle, man to employ better tools than those now at his com- the other evening, referred to the improved varieties of mand, or resort to improved modes of industry, he is wheat introduced by Mr. Williams at Jubhulpore; and quite as much alive as his Englislı fellow-workmen to the the annexation of a considerable farm to the school, where desirableness of anything that will improve profits or circumstances permit it, might be the source at once of economise labour ; but, then, he has little invention, excellent occupation for the pupils, of great improvement scarcely any reliance on himself, and no faith whatever in in agriculture, and of making the produce desired at home what he is told. With him, seeing alone is believing; become familiar to purchasers. At statious of European but then no man is more easily satisfied of the suitableness regiments instruction might be obtained with advantage of anything, or more ready to resort to it after he has seen from soldiers who had been tradesmen before enlistment, its advantages, and the fact is well illustrated by the ra- and the unspeakable benefit conferred on the army, of pility with which cart wheels of the English form have having some portion of that idleness disposed of which is been substituted for tho:e of the native shape all over at present the parent of such countless mischiefs could Western India within the past thirty years. So soon as scarcely be estimated. the natives saw the value of steamboats, they formed Schools of Industry in India could be best brought into Joint-Stock Steam Navigation Companies amongst them- existence and kept in operation by the joint efforts of selves, and there are now nearly twenty steamers plying Government and the community. Natives always keenly from the port of Bombay almost all the private property on the watch to see what meets with favour from the of natives, and all brought into existence within the past authorities, are in general ready to favour any philantwelve years. The railway was resorted to by them with thropic enterprise Government countenances, but are to the utmost eagerness the moment it was opened, and they turn their backs on whatever Government looks on with exhibited the utmost docility in the construction of coldness and coldly enough it has, for the most part, those parts of the work on which they were engaged. looked on these things heretofore. The School of Industry From their extreme poverty, and the small amount of at Bombay would at one time have fallen to the ground, money they are disposed to pay for tools, those only of the but for the cordial assistance and muniticent subscriptions cheapest and poorest description are sent out from England of the Chief Justice (Sir Erskine Perry), who was for sale in India, and an Englishı workinan would prefer its chairman, the Chief Magistrate of Police (Mr. Spens), the rude, simple, inefficient, but strongly formed tools and the Secretary to the Government in the Judicial of the native, to those of the shapes to which he had been Department (Mr. J. G. Lumsden, now member of council); accustorued, were no better within his reach than the rub- and the kindly and cordial interest these philanthropic bish the bazaar supplies. When the workmen from men took in the welfare of their pupils was scarcely less Rajpootanah, Goog erat, and Kotalı, referred to in my important than the pecuniary contributions they made former paper, were with me, I obtained first-rate English to the school. The uneducated part of the natives tools, partly from the Railway Company, partly from the can never realise the idea of a judge being bound Government stores, and found them intinitely preferred by rules, and merely administering ihe law. They by them to those with which they were familiar; and it look upon him as the independent and self controlwas a part of our plan to have a supply of first-rate ling fountain of justice, of rigour, or of inerey; and English impleraents always beside us, to be disposed of at when those who, as they supposed, might have inflicted wholesale prices to those who had been trained to use on them stripes or banishment, consigned them to prison them.

or to death, came amongst them as their parents, protec. The disappointments that have arisen from the failures tors, and instructors, a feeling of affection and reverence so often complained of in this species of innovation, have was excited amongst them, such as can only be imagined been occasioned mainly by want of attention to the pecu- by those who witnessed it, and considered the circumliarities of the climate of the country, and constitution stances out of which it arose. The whole of our discipline and habits of the natives. In warm latitudes everyone was based on the principles of parental affection, and noresorts to a sitting or recumbent posture as often as pos- thing was so effective for the ends of reformation as to sible, and the peculiarity Mrs. Trollopo ascribes to the show the boys that they were no longer desolate, no more Americans of sticking their feet on the tops of tables, and to suppose themselves outcasts, wanderers, or vagabonds throwing their legs over the backs of chairs, may be upon the earth ; that there were those who cared for them, found exhibited in any mess-room by gentlemen disposed and wished only for their welfare, and whom it behoved

them not to offend. * See Journal of Society of Arts, March 23.

Having lost no opportunity of visiting the reformatory schools wherever I have been since my return to England, considered so superior in most places, that viewing refor. it has occurred to me that on several points the arrange- matory schools as from henceforth a portion of the instiments of that of which I have charge surpassed those of tutions of the country, I have sent i copy of it to the most that I have seen; and our mode of registration was Secretary of State.

[merged small][graphic][ocr errors]

The machine represented in the above cut is for the plate which forms the bed of the mortar. By this action purpose of pulverizing sugar, gum, and other substances a fresh surface is constantly presented to the blow of the which cannot easily be ground without clogging. The stamper, and the ingredients to be pounded never can get inventor, Mr. Chase, of Boston, Massachuset:s, is a manu-l beaten into a hard, compact mass, as is often the case facturer of confectionary upon a large scale in the United with fixed stampers, and thus a very large amount of States, and the above is one of a series of machines which their power

is rendered ineffective. he has invented for business purposes.

The machine has just been provisionally protected by The machine consists in a novel and ingenious applica- patent in this country. tion of stampers affixed to a revolving plate attached to the central shaft, and acting within a circular chamber or

POSTAL ANOMALIES. mortar. Within this mortar is a circular dish, which If you want to send a periodical cheaply from Calcutta occupies the centre space, and is furnished with projec- to Delhi, send it by London; it will be charged eightpence tions or wings on its edge, which divide that part of the for the 8000 miles home, and as much for the saine dismortar nearest its outer edge into a number of rotative tance back; while for the 800 miles direct it will be cells or chambers. In each of these cells one of the charged two rupees, or four shillings. The land carriage stampers is placed. When the machine is set in motion from Calcutta is the same in both cases, only in the the stampers and dish are carried round together, and the cheaper one the periodical has the advantage of 16,000 former are alternately lifted and dropped by means of the miles sea voyage. gearing and cams placed around the centre shaft. Each stamper thus makes eighty beats during a single revolu

To Correspondents. tion of the shaft. The cells are fed by the hopper through the spout inserted into the side of the mortar, and, having made one revolution, are emptied, throngh ERRATA.— In Dr. Royle's paper, in last number, at page 370, another hole at the bottom of the mortar, into the bolting

column 1, line 37, for "He had also, &c., to Italian sieve placed in the chamber beneath the hopper.

hemp," read “ Cord 14 inches in length of Italian hemp,

broke with 165 lbs. ; Petersburgh, broke with 180 lbs.; and There is one peculiarity in the action of the stampers Rheea fibre cord with 325 lbs." Also in same page and in this machine which deserves notice. The sides of the column, in 3rd line of table, 5th column, for “ 30,488," read cells in which the pounding takes place being constantly “ 20,488." in motion, the material to be pounded is carried round by Owing to the length of the articles in this week's number, them, and pushed along or turned over upon the fixed Several letters and other matter stand over till next week.

« ElőzőTovább »