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complain of in the quality of the water supplied to them, and that if they obtained it constantly fresh it would be all they could require. He believed that one meter would be amply sufficient even for Buckingham Palace, whilst he could not conceive that one cistern would be of the slightest use in keeping that edifice supplied with water, and therefore there must be a great saving between the first cost of meters and cisterns. In conclusion, he begged to propose a vote of thanks to Messrs. Glynn and Fothergill for their very valuable papers, which, by the discuscussion they had elicited, he felt convinced must prove of great benefit to the public. The SecretARY announced that as Wednesday next, the 26th instant, had been appointed as a day of Public Humiliation and Fast, there would
In my paper on the development of the resources of India I had occasion slightly to allude to the existence of schools of industry in the country, and the important ends they may be made to serve, if sufficiently multiplied, in diminishing the amount of crime and in promoting the prosperity of the people. The functions capable of being performed by such establishments in England afford us no idea whatever of the tasks they are competent to accomplish in India. Throughout Europe all trades are learned through the instrumentality of apprenticeships; a lad of fifteen who expects to employ thirty-five years of his life in some handicraft, finds, that by expending five years in apprenticeship, and thirty years in the profitable practice of his profession, he can turn out a larger amount of available work, and realise more money, than if he had 9mitted the apprenticeship and begun at once by attempting to do something that would yield him requital however trifling, but deprive him of the power of ever becoming really proficient in his trade. In India no one over thinks of an apprenticeship; marriage takes place before the period of boyhood is past, and the family requires to be provided for at the age at which in England a lad would be learning his trade; and the whole life of a native tradesman becomes thus one of expedients and makeshifts. With the most incorrect eye imaginable it is next to impossible to make him use a square, a level, a plumb-line, or a rule. The carving of our Bombay furniture can hardly be surpassed in elegance, but itsjoinery ls as execrable as its carving is excellent. Not a mortice is properly cleaned out or sufficiently filled, not a tenon is true or square; the surfaces of the most beautiful of our blackwood tables undulate like the waves of the sea ; yet the time taken to execute work of this sort, with an everlasting correction of errors, a perpetual chipping, scra ing, and chiselling, is at least three times that which would be required by an intelligent English workman, or a native who had served an apprenticeship, and begun methodically by planning and calculating everything, and by laying it off by compass, square, and rule. The same mischief obtains everywhere, and it is a matter of constant complaint at all our seminaries, that it is next to impossible to retain boys at school till they have become anything like decently instructed after they have obtaired just such a smattering of English, reading, and writing, as will enable them to Perform the humblest and worst paid varieties of clerk. work. We have no means of forcibly extinguishing mischiefs of this sort, or of putting them down, in any other way than by showing their folly, and this we can do by demonstrating by practice the soundness of the WAropean principle, by exhibiting the superior proficiency of thoroughly taught apprenticed workmen, whenever
we can secure the means of compelling apprentices —a thing we always can do with orphans and destitute children.--who must accept an apprenticeship as an equivalent for subsistence,—and with juvenile delinquents, who prefer a School of Industry to the House of Correction, the only alternative that is left them. It is almost impossible to conceive the waste of material that occurs everywhere in India in the construction of dwelling-houses and other buildings. Joists and beams of all descriptions are cut out square; trussing of roofs and diagonal bracings are only attempted when European models are imitated; and everything proves the slavery of custom, and exhibits a people who, however neat-handed, are devoid of all instruction, ignorant of the first principles of physics, afraid of innovation, and always endeavouring to copy some standard or established model, without reflection on its applicability to the o in view. In England the best taught pupils of a School of Industry, where paupers and criminals alone are instructed, must, in nine cases out of ten, turn out very inferior workmen to those who have learned by the ordinary method of apprenticeship, in most cases, under the paternal eye, or with every anxiety to learn, knowing that their success in the world depends on their proficiency. In India precisely the reverse of this is the case; and were Schools of Industry general, the best workmen would be their apprentices, and the apprenticing system would come in fashion when its benefits were perceived. In England, where the market is already filled to overflowing with the fruits of honest industry, an apprehension is at all times experienced of injuring a respectable tradesman who supports, as he has always supported his family, by his own unaided exertions, by bringing the work of the reformed rogue and the man, at all events in part, supported by the public purse, into the field against him. In India, again, while we have a profusion of animal effort, of mere theys and sinews at command, there is a prodigious deficiency of anything like skilled labour or tradesmanship amongst us; and Schools of Industry might on these grounds bc, made overywhere self-supporting. The pupils they turned out, as being the most proficient, would always be assured of finding the best paid employment in the country, while they could be made instrumental in introducing a variety of improved industry, such as under the present system young men will not, and old men cannot, learn. In England, engineers, architects, or builders, and our great capitalist contractors themselves, all thoroughly understand every portion of the work with which they are connected ; in all likelihood they had been trained in some of the trades on which they draw, and are intimate with the principles as well as the details of all. In India all is the reverse of this; no man has the slightest acquaintance with the craft practised by his brother, or the least knowledge of their general principles. Contractors are occasionally mere adventurers, who contract for work with no part of which they have the slightest acquaintance, and let portions of it off to sub-contractors as ignorant as themselves. It has long been matter of complaint amongst the more intelligent portion of the natives that, while manual labour is deemed degrading, and skilled work, with the single exception of ship-carpentery, such as might furnish the means of advancement to a man with a moderate capital at his command, is a thing unknown; and that the bulk of those young men who have been left a tolerable competency by , their parents, instead of occupying themselves or improving their means by honourable exertion, as in England, invest their money in stock, or lend it out at usury, to spend their lives in idleness, ignorance, and indulgence. The only trade pursued or known by those averse to the ordinary handicrafts now existing is that of purvoe or clerk, and this comes to be fearfully overstocked. It is these unhappy arrangements that in India keep the different classes of the community so hopelessly separated from each other, and which, together with the poverty and almost universal indebtedness of the really industrious classes, renders it so difficult to introduce improved varieties of industry, to which, wherever shown their advantages, the natives have always been sufficiently alive; and it would be in exhibiting these that one portion of the value of Schools of Industry would lie. These remarks are somewhat general; perhaps, to a certain extent, they may seem obscure; they will, I trust, presently appear plain enough when I have given a short account of our schools of industry as at present existing, to which they refer; after which I shall be enabled more directly to point out the manner in which such establishments might be multiplied and extended, and the amount and nature of the services to the common wealth they are calculated to perform. The School of Industry at Jubhulpore is the oldest establishment of this description in India, and is, perhaps, the most remarkable reformatory school in the world. Its original inmates were all murderers. Some individuals amongst them had sent some half-dozens of human beings out of the world ; and the accumulated body had probably an amount of slaughter to answer for equal, at least, to that of Waterloo. Not only have they been thoroughly reclaimed from these practicas, but a body of men, before the pests and disgraces of society, have become instrumental in establishing a colony of model workmen, who, but for the school, won!d have followed the miscreant footsteps of their fathers, and of introducing some of the most beautiful of our European manufactures into Northern India. The Thugs, the parties to whom we have been all along alluding, constitute one of the most singular classes of robbers and murderers in the world. They are represented on the frescos of the caves of Central India, believed to be at least two thousand years old, practising their atrocious trade exactly as it is now practised. They belong to no particular class or creed ; the Mahomedan and Hindoo races alike contribute to them. They first became known to us some sixty or seventy years ago. They were scattered over the country in thousands and tens of thousands. Every form of disguise was familiar to them, by which the wary might be entrapped or waylaid. They appeared by the wayside as mendicants, or men suffering from disease, as guides, travellers, merchants, or pilgrims; they joined the traveller on his Journey, offering him their companionship or assistance or seeking his company or protection, and, when the convenient moment arrived, they murdered and robbed him. Death was invariably produced by strangulation, and so skilful were they in concealing the bodies of their victims, and in eluding and escaping detection, that the crime was rarely discovered until its perpetrators had quitted the district, and got beyond the reach of justice. So far from looking at their occupations as infamous or criminal, the Thugs boasted themselves as being the recognised means by which the distribution of property was equalised, and a check imposed on population. They were quite ready to argue the question. They pointed to the extreme antiquity of their profession, and the enomous extent to which it was practised, and said that, as God had created lions, tigers, and other ravenous beasts, so he had ordained the Thugs to assist in the abbreviation of human life. It was answered them that all this might be very true, but according to our notions, God had ordained civilised men, to exterminate the destroyers of mankind; and that if the Thugs in the pursuit of their vocation were hunted down and slain like wild beasts, to whom they compared themselves, they could have no reason to complain. When, however, we once fairly set ourselves to the performance of our task, the multitude of these miscreants who fell into our hands was too great for the hangman. Our difficulty lay mainly with the informers or approvers, as they were called, who had secured themselves pardon by bringing about the detection or conviction of their confederates, but who, having been trained to no trades but those of robbery and murder, of whose services, even had they been able and willing to labour, no man would accept,
‘tute of so much as the vestige of a road.
and whose presence was an abomination everywhere, and who must either be permitted to return to their former occupations or suffered to starve. It was wisely resolved, mainly on their account, to establish a colony at Jubhulpore for these men and their familes, where the criminals. themselves should be kept under such restraint as to render escape hopeless; where they should be provided with food and compelled to labour, and the rearing of their families in honest courses be seen to. The foundation of the establishment was laid by Colonel Sleeman and Capt. Brown, and their good fortune in securing the services of Mr. Williams, the superintendent, on whom everything depended, has been the great secret of its success. Commencing with the simplest sorts of manufactures, such as were practised in the neighbourhood, for which a market could always be found, and where raw material was at command, they soon perfected themselves in weaving in cotton and wool, and afterwards in carpetmaking. They became proficients in dyeing and printing, and commenced a large manufactory of tents, which now find abundant sale in all parts of India. Along with these things they have betaken themselves to carpetry, blacksmith and brass work in all departments, turning out in each such superior kinds of work, and at such moderate prices, as everywhere secures sales. By 1850, such had become their proficiency in rug and carpet making, so far as these arts could be acquired in India, that they obtained workmen from England to instruct them in the manufacture of Kidderminster and Brussels carpets. In the lapse of twenty years a vast number of those forming the original components of the school had passed away; those who remained behind had become so thoroughly reclaimed and civilised, that none would have dreamt that in the quiet, ordinary, industrious, middle-aged, or elderly men who constitute the seniors of the factory, he saw those who had spent the springtime and prime of life as professional murderers and robbers, and who had only escaped the gallows which they had deserved, by bringing others within the reach of justice. Their families, meanwhile, had grown up from childhood and youth to maturity. Thoroughly well educated in the elements, and trained in the respective trades and handicrafts, they not only formed a body of artisans superior in industry and skill to any to be met with in India, but some dozen or two of them were, in 1852, sent out to establish factories at the principal towns in the north-west provinces, and provide at the spot o: of goods, which hitherto could only be procured at the parent establishment, and the cost of which was sometimes nearly doubled by requiring to be carried many hundreds of miles on the backs of bullocks or of camels in a country utterly desti'I he Jubhulpore School of Industry, one of the most singular and meritorious establishments of the kind in the world, affords an excellent illustration of what may be done in India in the way of improving the handicrafts and skilled industry of the country by institutions originally established for purely reformatory purposes. The Friend of India, one of the last papers likely to be censorious on Government, mentions it as one of the most extraordinary incidents of the love of mystery-making and concealment which cven the animals of oriental mystery-mongering contain, that the utmost care seems to have been taken by Government to keep back all information regarding that which it ought to have been their pride to make as notable as possible. Some remarks having a few years since appeared in the Bombay Times on the wretchedness of the requital received by Mr. Williams, to whom the prosperity of the establishment was mainly due, that gentleman was understood to have been threatened and severely censured as the supposed author of some of the notices of the estsblishments under his charge. (a)
o The following list of the descriptions of the Schools of Industry in England and India may assist those who are desirous of further enlightenment on the subject:—
School of Industry at Bombay.—In my paper on the Resources of India, (a) I have noticed generally the establishment of the Bombay Polytechnic linstitute, of which the School of Industry was meant to have formed a part. An explanation of the delays which kept it back from 1847 to 1850 will be found in the “Annals of India,” and need not here be further enlarged upon ; they furnish illustrations of that fearful procrastination and endless waste of time which, unknown throughout the rest of the world, are in India (where it is most to be deprecated) the grand source of the retardation of progress, and prevention of improvement. In the year just named the Court of Directors granted the services of a second-class engineer from the Indian navy to superintend the school, on the condition that he should return to his duty the moment the navy required him ; his emoluments were to be continued to him unimpaired, Government contributing this much to a reformatory establishment brought into existence purely for the public good by the contributions of the benevolent. In 1846 the draft of an Act was brought before the legislative council of India, authorising the Inanagers of orphan schools to act as parents to those under their charge, and to indenture them, with their own consent, to parties willing to accept their services as apprentices. Magistrates of police were vested with like authority in reference to the juvenile delinquents that were brought before them. The original promoters of the scheme had, at the outset, cast about them for a site and piece of ground near the sea-shore sufficiently supplied with fresh water, ample enough to provide room for a brick-field and wood-yard for too. schools, and dormitories, and, ultimately, for places of residence for those who had completed their apprenticeship, and might feel disposed to continue as workinen at the school. The place fixed upon, six miles up the harbour from the fort, and about three from the nearest suburb of the town, was so selected as, besides fulfilling the other conditions, was sufficiently remote from the more populous portions of the island to secure the safety of the boys, who were in reality neither prisoners nor freemen. It was deemed essential to get rid, as far as possible, of the idea that the school was either a place of punishment or of restraint beyond what the simple interests of discipline required; but it was not to be forgotten, at the same time, while this was impressed upon the boys, that we had no magic amongst us to transform their habits or dispositions at once; that we had no reason to imagine that they became Penitents, or saw the errors of their ways on being indentured; or that, for many a day to come, they would not greatly prefer returning to their former manner of life, unless prevented by fear of the police. Although our great object was to provide a place of refuge or reformation for the two hundred boys picked up annually by the Police, betwixt the ages of ten and sixteen; we were anxious to admit all orphan or pauper children without making a criminal trial an essential preliminary, so soon as our funds permitted. On the boys being apprenticed to us, an indenture was formally drawn up betwixt the *magistrate of police, and myself as head of the establishmont, a copy of this remaining with me, another being lodged at the police office; the term of apprenticeship Varying from three to five years. The apprentices, on being received, were washed and provided with such an amount of clothing and bedding as is customary in their rank of life—the requisites in these matters being moderate enough in all conscience; we next measured and
weighed them, and made a note of all the circumstances we could learn as to their health, habits, birth, parentage, caste, country, and previous occupations. They were then permitted to select any trade they might prefer, being in most cases, however, placed for some weeks in the brickfield to mix or carry clay, lift water, or perform any variety of light slopwork, with a view of inuring them to habits of industry, method, and punctuality, without much regard to their learning at first any handicraft whatever; the time for this came by and bye. The whole of their previous lives had been spent in such utter disregard of time, and in such unspeakable idleness and irregularity, that there was a vast deal of what was mischievous to be unlearned before anything profitable could be taught. Having surmounted the difficulties at the out: set, and got some fifteen or twenty boys steadily employed in useful work so as to furnish examples to new-comers, those who came afterwards, after being a few weeks or months at the School, soon learnt to select for themselves the occupation prescribed by their caste, and found most congenial to their dispositions. The professions taught were weaving of coir mats and carpets, of common cotton cloth, of twills, towelling and damask partly by the native partly by the English loom, the latter being an entire innovation; carpeting, cabinet work, coach making and turning in all their simpler forms, blacksmith work, both forging, fileing and finishing, brass work, the ordinary forms of tailoring, with brick making, and the coarser kinds of pottery manufacture. European methods of working being, as far as possible, engrafted upon the native, and European tools made use of when found expedient. A few of the boys who exhibited a taste that way received instructions in drawing, and they were all taught the simple kinds of gardening and agriculture on a small scale as practised around, in gardens provided for them, and of which the produce was exclu. sively their own. A good native schoolmaster was procured, who gave instructions, both in English and the vernaculars, in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The apartment used as a schoolroom by day serving as a reading and play room in the evenings and mornings, being supplied with sufficient store of pictures, maps, and books, such as were deemed suitable for the attainments of the pupils. The boys rise at daybreak, or between five and six o'clock; the morning is spent in their gardens, they then bathe and dress and cook their meals; exactly at nine the workshops are opened, when the muster roll is called over, after which the boy who acts as foreman in each department sets his pupils to work. We have, usually, from five to ten, sometimes as many as twenty, regulatly-bred tradesmen in our employment, the number depending on the state of our funds and the demand for work. We find this the only way of making the apprentices proficient, or of turning out work not superior in price or inferior in quality to that to be found in the bazaar—our difficulty being to act on the apathy with which India is afflicted, and induce householders requiring the articles we produce to give us a preference of their custom. When I left Bombay in June last there were seventy boys under my charge, the majority of these were Mahomedans, nearly all the rest Hindoos; we had never more than two or three Parsees or Portuguese amongst them. Eight or ten, including two much the finest boys of the school, were volunteers, quite fit to support themselves in the second year of their apprenticeship ; about a dozen of them expressed the utmost anxiety to come home with me; they had made great proficiency under our charge, and would, I am satisfied, in England have learned as rapidly and regularly as any boys of their age could have done. On one occasion a boy was sent a week's journey into the in. terior in charge of a fly-shuttle loom, to teach the inmates of a gaol the use of that implement, and having performed and fulfilled his task most faithfully, he returned to us of his own accord, when he might have got away had he thought fit. Que of the cleverest apprentices we ever had was so mischievous and incorrigible that we were compelled to cancel his indentures and have him sent to gaol. Six months afterwards we were surprised to receive a visit from him, accompanied by a number of respectable looking companions of his own age, who, he told us, had been brought to see the school to which he was under so many obligations. He said that on being released from gaol he had betaken himself to his own trade of thieving, but he now saw that this was a wretched and unprofitable profession, practised only by those who knew no better. He got put into gaol, whipped, and starved; he was, when at large, in constant fear of the police; three-fourths of what lie stole went to his companions or the receivers, and he could scarcely make more than food and clothing of it at the most. The trade that we had taught him, that of carpenter, was in reality less laborious and more lucrative, so he offered himself as a journeyman in the dockyard, where he was employed when the made his visit to us, convinced by experience of the soundness of the maxim, that “honesty was the best policy.” I trust that as our establishment increases in size, and our resources improve, especially if the endowment of Sir Jamsetjee" becomes located in our neighbourhood, the general plan of the Polytechnic Institute will be restored in its integrity. So far from there being any aversion on the part of the native tradesman to employ better tools than those now at his command, or resort to improved modes of industry, he is quite as much alive as his English fellow-workmen to the desirableness of anything that will improve profits or economise labour; but, then, he has little invention, scarcely any reliance on himself, and no faith whatever in what he is told. . With him, seeing alone is believing; but then no man is more easily satisfied of the suitableness of anything, or more ready to resort to it after he has seen its advantages, and the fact is well illustrated by the rapility with which cart wheels of the English form have been substituted for those of the native shape all over Western India within the past thirty years. So soon as the natives saw the value of steamboats, they formed Joint-Stock Steam Navigation Companies amongst themseives, and there are now nearly twenty steamers plying from the port of Bombay almost all the private property of natives, and all brought into existence within the past twelve years. The railway was resorted to by them with the utmost eagerness the moment it was opened, and they exhibited the utmost docility in the construction of those parts of the work on which they were engaged. From their extreme poverty, and the small amount of money they are disposed to pay for tools, those only of the cheapest and poorest description are sent out from England for sale in India, and an English workman would prefer the rude, simple, inefficient, but strongly formed tools of the native, to those of the shapes to which he had been accustomed, were no better within his reach than the rubbish the bazaar supplies. When the workmen from Rajpootanah, Googcrat, and Kotah, referred to in my former paper, were with me, I obtained first-rate English tools, partly from the bailway Company, partly from the Government stores, and found them infinitely preferred by them to those with which they were familiar; and it was a part of our plan to have a supply of first-rate English implements always beside us, to be disposed of at wholesale prices to those who had been trained to use them. The disappointments that have arisen from the failures so often complained of in this species of innovation, have been occasioned mainly by want of attention to the peculiarities of the climate of the country, and constitution and habits of the natives. In warm latitudes everyone resorts to a sitting or recumbent posture as often as possible, and the peculiarity Mrs. Trollope ascribes to the Americans of sticking their feet on the tops of tables, and throwing their legs over the backs of chairs, may be found exhibited in any mess-room by gentlemen disposed
* See Journal of Society of Arts, March 23. i
to take their ease where ladies are absent. The dryness of the climate permits this tendency to be indulged in without inconvenience, and a workman squatting on the ground under a tree, with his work-stools around him, finds himself much more in his element than he would be, confined in a workshop and provided with a bench. A native becomes so much accustomed to use his feet where we employ our hands that he is virtually quadrunninous; his toes are to him almost as useful as his fingers, and it is just as absurd to endeavour to deprive him of the benefit of these as it would be to try to persuade an English workman to dispense with the use of his right hand because he might be taught to manage well enough with his left. Limited, however, by such considerations as these, there is still abundant room left for innovation and improvement, to which the demand for skilled labour on our railways, and other varieties of work promising to be brought into existence by European enterprise, will afford an abundant stiniulant. A school of industry, comprising all the leading objects here set forth, once well organised at the Presidency, will form the model and the germ for numbers of other schools in the district, such as have emanated from Jubbulpore, each spreading around it improvements of all descriptions in every department of industry in the district in which it was located. Dr. Royle, the other evening, referred to the improved varieties of wheat introduced by Mr. Williams at Jubhulpore; and the annexation of a considerable farm to the school, where circumstances permit it, might be the source at once of excellent occupation for the pupils, of great improvement in agriculture, and of making the produce desired at home become familiar to purchasers. At stations of European regiments instruction might be obtained with advantage from soldiers who had been tradesmen before enlistment, and the unspeakable benefit conferred on the army, of having some portion of that idleness disposed of which is at present the parent of such countless mischiefs could scarcely be estimated. Schools of Industry in India could be best brought into existence and kept in operation by the joint efforts of Government and the community. Natives always keenly on the watch to see what meets with favour from the authorities, are in general ready to favour any philanthropic enterprise Government countenances, but are to turn their backs on whatever Government looks on with coldness—and coldly enough it has, for the most part, looked on these things heretofore. The School of Industry at Bombay would at one time have fallen to the ground, but for the cordial assistance and munificent subscriptions of the Chief Justice (Sir Erskine Perry), who was its chairman, the Chief Magistrate of Police (Mr. Spens),
and the Secretary to the Government in the Judicial
Department (Mr. J. G. Lumsden, now member of council); and the kindly and cordial interest these philanthropic men took in the welfare of their pupils was scarcely less important than the pecuniary contributions they made to the school. The uneducated part of the natives can never realise the idea of a judge being bound by rules, and merely administering the law. They look upon him as the independent and self controlling fountain of justice, of rigour, or of mercy; and when those who, as they supposed, might have inflicted on them stripes or banishment, consigned them to prison or to death, came amongst them as their parents, protectors, and instructors, a feeling of affection and reverence was excited amongst them, such as can only be imagined by those who witnessed it, and considered the circumstances out of which it arose. The whole of our discipline was based on the principles of parental affection, and nothing was so effective for the ends of reformation as to show the boys that they were no longer desolate, no more to suppose themselves outcasts, wanderers, or vagabonds upon the earth; that there were those who cared for them, and wished only for their welfare, and whom it behoved
! them not to offend.
Having lost no opportunity of visiting the reformatory
schools wherever I have been since my return to England, it has occurred to me that on several points the arrangements of that of which I have charge surpassed those of most that I have seen; and our mode of registration was
considered so superior in most places, that viewing reformatory schools as from henceforth a portion of the institutions of the country, I have sent à copy of it to the Secretary of State.
The machine, represented in the above cut is for the Popose of pulverizing sugar, gum, and other substances Which cannot easily be ground without clogging. The *nventor, Mr. Chase, of Boston, Massachussetts, is a manufacturer of confectionary upon a large scale in the United States, and the above is one of a series of machines which he has invented for business purposes. . The machine consists in a novel and ingenious |. tion of stampers affixed to a revolving plate attached to the central shaft, and acting within a circular chamber or mortar. Within this mortar is a circular dish, which Socupies the centre space, and is furnished with projections or wings on its edge, which divide that part of the mortar nearest its outer edge into a number of rotative cells or chambers. In each of these cells one of the stampers is placed. When the machine is set in motion
the stampers and dish are carried round together, and the
former are alternately lifted and dropped by means of the gearing and cams placed around the centre shaft. Each stamper thus makes eighty beats during a single revolution of the shaft. The cells are fed by the hopper through the spout inserted into the side of the mortar, and having made one revolution, are emptied, through another hole at the bottom of the mortar, into the bolting sieve placed in the chamber beneath the hopper.
. There is one peculiarity in the action of the stampers in this machine which deserves notice. The sides of the cells in which the pounding takes place being constantly in motion, the material to be jo is carried round by
them, and pushed along or turned over upon the fixed