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or pipes outside the meter, communicating with the in- which he believed had this advantage over all others, that, side and round the drum for the delivery and exit of the being air tight, it would register any quantity of water water, and for causing a rotary motion in the water, used, however small, up to 1000 gallons per hour, which thereby causing the drum, in addition to its buoyancy other meters would not do. and vertical position, to be more certain of its liability to
HANSOX AND CHADWICK'S WATER METER, revolve under the slightest pressure of water.
Fig. 2. struction of valves from the thoroughfares for the ingress of tho water, which are so shaped that they bring the immediate action of the stream passing through the meter on the drum. The eqnal distribution and division of the stream (however small it may be), at each side of the drum, rendering its liability to wear and tear very slight, and whatever the pressure or power of the stream may be, by the above arrangement it is rendered neutral in causing more or less friction upon the axles or pivots of the drum, that friction being the same under any pressure and only sufficient to keep the drum in its position.
The above-inentioned valves are constructed after the plan of the common clack valve, which closes the apertures of the inlet, excepting a small tube fixed in the centre of the clack, and projecting so as to come into immediate contact with the buckets of the drum; the clacks are closed by a simple arrangement of a self-acting weight or lever above the valve, such weight being regulated by drawing it backward or forward on the lever (which being once regulated becomes a fixture and needs never be altered), so as to give more or less pressure on the clacks. The use or utility of these valves is occasioned by the fact that, although the drum may be neutral, yet there is necessarily a slight amount of friction to overcome in working the train of wheels to the indicator, which is done by the weight closing the clack and causing a com. pression of the stream, so that no water is allowed to pass but what forces through the clack tubes. This valve is only brought into requisition when a very small quantity of water is passing through the meter, and as the stream increases the leverage of the weight decreases, beyond
Fig. 3. which the valve is not required to ensure correct measurement. If, however, on the contrary, the weight should not decrease in its power upon the valves when the stream becomes greater, and there was an increased pressure upon the clacks (as would be the case if a spring was in place of a weight), the resul: would be that the measurement would be incorrect, which has been discovered to be the case after repeated experiments with the spring in place of weights.
Its certainty of registration, its non-liability to wear and tear, and its certainty of working under the highest or lowest pressure, is caused by the buoyancy of the drum, its vertical position and the adaptation of the inlet pipes and compression valves to bring the stream, however small, into immediate contact with the druin and causing it to revolve.
The Waterworks Committee have ordered a variety of meters from Mr. Taylor, and, no doubt, as the merits of this invention become known to water companies, they will be generally adopted, and will be found to be a regulator of great economy, and will be estimated by the public as a protector of their just rights.
In saying this he did not wish to detract from the merits Mr. Chadwick wished, in making a few observations on of Mr. Siemens' and Mr. Taylor's inventions, to which he the subject, to disclaim in the first instance being the in- was willing to give all praise. The first objection that would ventor of the meter last brought under notice by Mr. be raised by most persons to Hanson and Chadwick's meter Glynn, the design of it having been brought to hivi by a would be as regarded the durability of the material used working plumber, George Hanson, of Huddersfield. He for the bags through which the water had to pass. He (Mr. Chadwick) was officially connected with the water was assured by Mr. Mackintosh, the patentee of the vulworks at Salford, and therefore it was that he had been canised India-rubber, that however long it was exposed to led to take an interest in the subject, the Corporation being especially desirous that the quantity of water used should the specification. Since the patent was taken out, several alter
* These wood-cuts were made from the drawings attached to be correctly registered. They had tried various meters, ations have been made in the details ; the spiral spring has been but none of them had acted with the regularity and accu- dispensed with ; the bottom of the cylindrical vessel has been made racy of that now upon the table (Figs. 2 & 3), with which he Aat instead of inclined ; three rollers are used in place of onehad been experimenting for the last 18 months. Mr. Glynn and a wire gauze or sieve has been introduced between the had very correctly described the construction of the meter, I supply-pipe and the inlet-passages.
the action of the water it would neither decay nor dete The CHAIRMAN could not allow Mr. Chadwick to riorate; and as regarded wear and tear, from the form of depart without returning the thanks of the Society for the rollers there would be no friction upon the bags by his attendance there that evening. As regarded the which they could be injured. He had, therefore, no hesi- durability of the material of which the bags were contation in saying that it would last in perfect order at least structed, he could in some measure confirm the opinion seven years—Mr. Mackintosh said twenty years. As to of Mr. Mackintosh. He had had something to do with an objection that the bags might get unduly inflated, vulcanised India rubber, having used it for springs in an experience proved to him that that could never happen, as, invention which he had patented, and, though he had when the rollers passed over the valves or openings in the had it at work for upwards of twelve months, not one of bags, they never got an impetus in advance of the water; and the springs had broken, though they had been actually a pressure of 300 feet had no greater influence upon them subjected to the action of oil instead of water. than a pressure of 3 feet, the rollers always going be Mr. FOTHERGILL, in explanation of his paper, pointed fore the water. He might observe that he had not brought out upon a plan the various portions of Mr. Taylor's the meter under notice in his own neighbourhood, and, meter, and stated that a valve had been so arranged as to indeed, the first place in which it had been seen out of the regulate the stream of water, however small, so as to workshop was at the works of the New River Company. He prevent too great diffusion, and thus cause it to impinge believed that this meter was a good contribution towards the directly upon the drum. The meter would register production of a perfect water-meter, and if it led to that re- |75,000 gallons an hour. sult he should feel himself amply repaid for all the trouble Mr. SIEMENS said he had, several years ago, directed and anxiety he had had with regard to it. He believed his attention to the production of an efficient waterthat no meter had yet been made so simple in construc- meter, and Mr. Glynn having mentioned in the paper the tion; and having just been asked what would be the result of his labour, he felt called upon to offer to the meetexpense of it, he might observe that a one-inch meter, ing a brief description of the contrivances he had adopted such as that on the table, would not cost more than £5 with considerable practical success. Fig. 4 was a sectional or £6, and a two-inch meter certainly not more than elevation, and Fig. 5 a plan of one variety of his meter, double that sum.
land Figs. 6 and 7 represented the working parts of another.
Although very different in appearance, the two construc SIEMENS' PATENT BALANCE METER, WITH SPIRAL BLADES TO WORK
UNDER PRESSURE. tions, nevertheless, involved the same principle of action, namely;---the water acted by its impact upon oblique
Fig. 6. vanes that glided edgeways through the moving column, without interrupting or impeding the same, and that communicated their motion to a counter, the difference between the two being, that in the first arrangement the water moved in a direction parallel to the rotating axis, and, in the second, from the axis outwards. The water entered the meter, Figs. 4 and 5, through a grating, and meeting the sides of the inverted cone (6), it was directed towards the axis, from whence it spread again outward over the conical block (c). The object of this operation was to spread the moving column of water uniformly over a measured annular area, after which there remained only to measure correctly the distance through which that column moved, and to register the same in expressions of gallons or other quantities upon, a counter. For this purpose two drums (d) and (f), were provided, which were geared together, but were quite free to revolve in opposite directions, being made hollow, so as to float in the water, and all side strain upon the bearings being carefully avoided. The first drum was armed on its circumference with a set of right-handed, and the second with a set of left-handed screw vanes, of the same pitch, and of correct form, being cast of white metal in metallic moulds, specimens of which were placed on the table. The water was directed by stationary vanes upon the block (c), in a parallel direction against the vaner of the first screw drum, which it would turn in the exact ratio of its onward course, provided there was no friction. In proportion, however, as there was resistance the water would he deflected from its course, and would meet the vanes of the left-handed screw drum in a more obtuse angle, which tended to drive the same at an in. creased velocity, and, reacting upon the first drum, produced a remarkably uniform rate under the most variable circumstances of pressure.
The motion of the drums was communicated to the upright spindle working in the chamber (9), where the motion was reduced several thousand times hy screw gearing, after which it passed into the upper or counter chamber, through a stuffing box. The counter consisted of two wheels of 100 and 101 teeth respectively, both gearing into the driving pinion-the one carrying a dial with 100 divisions, and revolving under a fixed pointer; and the other carrying a hand upon the dial. A reduction of from one to ten thousand was thus obtained, and registered by the two hands. Of these meters
great number had been used, filled with oil. In like manner the chamber containing and were found to work very correctly for from the reducing gearing was also filled with oil. Of these six to fifteen months, after which time, however, the meters from 200 to 300 had been in operation for upspindles were frequently found to be destroyed by the wards of twelve months, and no deterioration had been corrosive and gritty nature of the water generally supplied observed in their working parts. Both these varieties of to towns. It was, however, necessary that a meter should meters possessed the essential requisite of overcoming work for years without requiring the attention generally casual obstructions, being powerful re-action propellers. bestowed upon mechanism, although placed under the In his experience, he had been struck with the powerful influence of many destructive agencies. These considera- effects of concussions in the water-mains, caused by the tions determined him in favour of the construction with shutting of sluice-valves. In some instances a thick brass spiral vanes, as represented in elevation by Fig. 6, and in plate, dividing the counter chamber, had been bulged upplan by Fig. 7, without the casing and counter, which wards, indicating a pressure of several hundred pounds per latter was the same as before described. The water
inch. For this reason he doubted very much the entered the revolving drum through the inlet (a), and, success of a piston meter, or, indeed, any meter which inspreading outward, impinged upon its spiral sides, which tercepted the flow of the water. yielded to the impact, and allowed the water to issue The CHAIRMAN said that, having heard the explanations through two or more outlets at the circumference. relative to these different meters, the Society would now The compensating agencies in this meter were two flys or be glad if any gentleman present would give them a few wings (cc), which were dragged with the drum through practical hints on the subject, to point out any defects the water, and which retarded the same in a greater mea- there might be in the meters before them. There could sure at high than at low velocities. By this means, and be no doubt that it was of the utmost importance, in by judicious proportions between the inlet and outlets of order to ensure a proper supply of water, that they should the druin, a rate of motion was obtained which was be in possession of a good and perfect meter. If they strictly proportionate to the quantity of water passed went back to the ancients, they would find that the through, either at a high or low velocity. The principal Romans had constructed aqueducts—splendid works of advantage in this meter over the previous one was, that art, of which no description could give an idea-to convey it had but one step or bearing, which was effectually that most important element of comfort, water, to Rome. protected from the water by working in a closed chamber | When he first saw these aqueducts, perhaps he exposed
his own ignorance by expressing his astonishment that should have such a thing as a meter. Water was six times the Romans had been so ignorant as not to know that the price of gas, though the companies did not charge it water would always rise to its own level. Had he tirst so, not being able to prove the quantities used. visited Pompeii, possibly he should never have made that Mr. HARRY CHESTER, as one of the public, expressed remark. In that city water-pipes were laid down on the his conviction that it was highly important to the whole same system as in London at the present time, and it was population that they should have a good meter, applicable remarkable that they had not yet the advantage of a to every house, as by that means alone could they ever good meter, by which every person could tell the quantity expect to get an improvement in the quality of the water of water he consumed, and without which they would supplied to them. In his opinion nothing was more absurd never get a good and constant supply of water at high or unjust than the system of charging for water according pressure in any town.
to the number of rooms contained in a house. He did Mr. YATES had only heard of the intended discussion not say that the Water Companies were conscious of acting that morning, or he would have been better prepared to unjustly, because they had not yet found out the means make some observations on the subject. He held in luis by which they could charge every individual according hand one of Harrison's water and spirit meters, which was to the quantity consumed. It wonld appear perfectly distinguishable by its extreme simplicity. The peculiarity ridiculous were a butcher to charge for his beet, or a bootof this meter consisted chiefly in employing the pre-sure maker for his boots, according to the number of rooms a of the fluid to act against two flexible diaphragms placed man had in his house; and, in his opinion, the principle between chambers, into which it was admitted alter- upon which water was so charged was equally ridiculous nately, and which diaphragms yielded to the pressure and unfair. It was highly important to the hcalth of the alternately in opposite directions, displacing at every community, that water of the best quality should be supmovement from thoone chuber a quantity of water equal plied to the public, but there was nothing to tempt water to that admitted into the other. lotion was thus given companies to improve their supply. Sometimes, under to spindles, which was ultimately communicated to the the temporary influence of parliamentary inquiries or slides for the inlet and outlet of the water spirit, and to other agitation, they heard of various attempts being made the registering and indicating apparatus.
to improve the water supply, but when the pressure passed Mr. CARLES, the manufacturer of Mr. Siemens' ineter, away the promised improvements passed away also. produced a small meter, capable of registering 300 fillons Under the present system competition was altogether out of water an hour, which he took to pieces and explained. of the question, and the consumer was obliged to iake his He stated that the great difficulty which existed in the supply of water from any company which hul the monoconstruction of a good meter was, to prevent the water poly of the district in which he resided. He believed that getting to the clock-work, which it was liable to do, and the water supply would never be placed upon a proper thereby destroy its efficiency. In Siemens' meter this footing until a good and cheap water-meter was intro. was accompiished by the clock-work of the dial being en- duced into the house of every consumer, when the comclosed in a chamber filled with oil, the oil having the panies would have this inducement to improve the supplyeffect of preventing the deposit of calcareous or other that the quantity consumed would be increased according matter from the water. The price of the meter he held to the quality of the article supplied. He did not expect in his hand would be 735.; one measuring 600 gallons an that the water companies would exert themselves in the hour, 945.; 1,200 gallons an hour, £5 55., and larger matter, and therefore the public ought to take it into ones in a similar proportion. In conclusion, Mr. Chrimes their own hands, and agitate for the production of a perfect stated that 300 of these meters had been at work during meter, by which they could have a good supply of water the last year, and that there had been no fracture in any of the best quality at a fair and equitable price. one of them, with the exception that eight or ten had been Mr. FoTHERCILL was in no way interested in Mr. Taylor's burst during the late severe frost.
meters beyond being consulted by that gentleman, but he Mr. Greaves, of the East London Water Works, knew that in Manchester the proprietors of steam-engines had attended that meeting rather to learn than to in- had found the meters very valuable as a means of testing struct; but he might observe that, knowing the value the quality of the coal consumed by the quantity of water of securing a correct measurement of water, he had evaporated. A friend of his who had three meters, told made various experiments, with a view of ascertaining him he was saving more than £100 per annum by the
o that object might be accomplished. Hitherto the experience he thus gained of the quality of coal from difmeters produced had been of two descriptions—the piston ferent colleries, which enabled him always to obtain a and the screw-to which an addition had lately been supply from that colliery the coal from which he found to made by Mr. Siemens' re-action meter, on the principle of be most economical. Barker's mill, and by that of Messrs. Hanson and Chad Mr. G. Cape, Secretary to the Lambeth Baths and wick, produced that evening, neither of which he had as Wash-houses Company, would not offer any observations yet tested. The results of his own trials had led him to upon the merits of the various meters upon the table, as the conclusion that for the measurement of small quanti- he was not an engineer, but would remark thatone of the ties of water, at a low pressure, the piston meter was the meters upon Mr. Siemens' improved principle was now in best-whilst, for large quantities and high pressure, the work at the establishment of which he was le secretary, screw meter was preferable. With regard to Mr. Chad. and although it had not been tested by Mr. Simpson, the wick's meter, he was himself afraid that there would be Engineer to the Lambeth Water Works, from whence great friction and that a variable supply, through a vary- they obtained their supply, he believed it worked accuing pressure on the bags, would be thereby given. He rately, and he knew it had passed 1300 gallons in the had a tank, twelve feet wide by three or four feet deep, space of one minute. He thought it fair to state, with for the purpose of trying experiments, and though many respect to Mr. Siemens' meter, that one had been in use inventors had brought him their meters for trial he could at the St. Giles' Baths and Wash-houses for some time, not say that he had satisfactory results to communicate to and that it registered to the satisfaction both of the Comthe Society. It appeared to him that nothing was more mittee of that Institution and the Water Works Company easy than to construct a bad meter—but a good one was that supplied it. The great desirability of an effective the difficulty. Nearly every meter he had seen would water meter, that would set at rest the discrepancies beregister the quantity of water consumed with an uniform tween the amount of water that consumers imagined they pressure and draught, but with a varyiug pressure and used, and water companies that they supplied, could not draught the result would be very different.
be uver estimated. As an illustration of the great differMr. MEAD was rather pleased to hear what had fallen ence between the quantity of water supposed to be used and from the last speaker, as his experience of water compa- supplied, he might mention that the Lambeth baths for nies led him to believe that it was not desirable that they some four months were obliged to use water without any
method of registration ; when the calculations came to be the case of gas, bore a nearer relative price to that of the made the Water Works believed the Baths Company had article consumed than it would with regard to the water. He used fourteen million gallons of water, and the Baths had supposed that the average price paid per service pipe by Company, after most carefully going into the matter, felt each consumer of gas was £3, whereas for water it was convinced that, at the outside, they could not have used only half that amount, or 30s., and therefore the watermore than cight million gallons. It'a correct meter could meter ought not to cost more than half as much as the have been obtained this great doubt would not have arisen. gas-meter. He believed that many small cottages did He merely mentioned this fact to strengthen the assertions not pay more than 10s. per annum for their water, and of some of the former speakers, who had shown the great how could the holders of such houses afford to pay an adwant of a water meter.
ditional shilling or two for the interest on outlay, and the Mr. Wright had had more experience with regard to keeping the meters in repair. The fact was, that water gas than to water meters, though he had invented one of was much lower in price than gas, and any addition to its the latter himself. The meters brought before them that cost would press heavily on the smaller consumers, who evening were of two descriptions, inferential and absolute were not also consumers of gas. There was also a greater
Mr. Siemens' was an inferential and not an difficulty in making a cheap water-meter than a cheap absolute measurer, the quantity consumed being inferred gas-meter, as the water would force its way through from that received by the meter. Such an instrument the stuffing-box, and thereby destroy the action of the inwould never do for small consumers, who only required dex. The price of a gas-meter for two lights was 24s., occasional and intermittent supplies, although it would do and 5s, or 6s. for the fixing; and looking at the relavery well for establishments in which large quantities were
tive price of the two articles, the cost of a water-meter used, and where the stream was kept constantly flowing. ought not toexceed that amount. In reply to a question from In order to be beneficial to the public generally, a meter Mr. Chester, Mr. Wright said that the tenant either paid must be an absolute measurer, and he believed that that for the gas-incter or rented it from the company at 4s. could best be accomplished by means of a piston meier. per annum, being an addition of ten per cent. on the Mr. Taylor's meter was also inferential, and would, there lowest charges of about £2 per annum, which would be a fore, be equally inapplicable to the wants of small con
very serious impost on the lower class of water consumers. With regard to Mr. Chadwick's meter, it ap
Dir. Abasis was connected with a company for the peared at first sight to be very efficient, and not likely to supply of water to the City of Anisterdam, where they get out of order, but any practical man, with a very little The capital of the company was £200,000, which had
had twenty-four or twenty-five thousand houses to supply: reflection, would see that there was nothing more probable | been sufficient to buy the land, pay for the engines, than that it would do so. In the action of the rollers upon and construct all their works. The authorities of Am. the bags, if any hard substance got under the rollers, it sterdam, being very desirous of having the water supplied would stop the egress of the water, and destroy the action paid for by measurement, he had inspected a large of the machine. They could not make the holes of any number of meters, and he found that the price would gauze or sieve so small as to prevent calcareous and other be about £3 each, which would have caused an addition deposits passing through with the water. There was no of £70,000 to their capital of £200,000. This would have difficulty in measuring the quantities of water supplied to necessitated a greatly increased charge to the consumer. baths and washhonses, or other large establishments; in. He found the inhabitants of Amsterdam very ready to deed, that might be done by a force pump, or by a variety take the water, but there was great difficulty in inducing of machinery of a costly description. What they ought to them to pay for the pipes in their houses, and they would ascertain was, the average price paid for water by each not pay for meters; and the Company was, therefore, individual per service pipe. He calculated it at 6s. per compelled to resort to the old system of the rule of thousand gallons, which was about 50 per cent. cheaper thumb. The company had recently scnt over one of than gas. The average cost of gas to each consumer was Mr. Siemens' meters to be put up at the railway works, about 31. per annum per service pipe, and he did not be and he was quite sure that when an available instrument lieve that the average consumption of water per individual was invented no water company would object to its per service pipe exceeded 30s. per annum, in consequence general application to the houses of its customers. of the large number of small consumers.
Mr. Glynn stated, that Parliament had recently inMr. Greates stated that the price of water was about sisted that there should be a constant and continuous 3s. per 1000 feet,
supply to the houses of the metropolis, and that could Mr. Wnight said that that only carried out his argu- not be done without the assistance of a meter. He bement. The most economical meter produced to them lieved that the discussion of that evening would, by that evening had been stated to cost 73., and to fix it directing attention to the sulject, tend to the production would probably cost 10s, or 20s. more. Now was it likely of an instrument through which justice might be done that any person would go to an expense of £3 or £4 to both to the consumer and to the supplier. measure that which would probably not cost half that The SECRETARY, to show the injustice of the present amount per annum. If fruit was sold in the street and system of charging according to the number of rooms, scales to weigh it were so dear as to double or treble its stated that the Society had to pay £8 8s. per annum for cost, did they not suppose that the scales would be dis- their water rate, notwithstanding that the housa was not pensed with, and the price better adjusted by selling the used as a dwelling, and, consequently, their
consumption fruit by handfuls? In order to make water-meters avail- of water was very small. able to the general consumer, they must be supplied at a Mr. Scott trusted that when a good system of cost not exceeding 15s., whilst the fitting up should not measuring was discovered, no consideration of expense incur a further expense of more than 25. or 3s. As he would stand in the way of its adoption. The neceshad already stated, there would be no difficulty in making sary arrangements for the supply of water would be a perfect machine for large consumers, but the difficulty come a legitimate charge upon the freeholder, as was the existed in obtaining one sufficiently cheap for general drainage of land, and no tenant would object to pay £1
per annum for the benefit of £5. Mr. Yates stated that the meter which he had pro- The CHAIRMAN observed, that the objection to the cost of duced would only cost 35s., whilst it would measure the the meters he thought of little moment, as £3 certainly water with accuracy to half a pint. Mr. CHESTER asked Mr. Wright whether he did not which would be dispensed with by the introduction of the
would not go far towards furnishing a house with cisterns, think that his argument stood equally as much against meter, and they would have the advantage of a constant gas-meters, which were in general use. Mr. Wrigut replied in the negative, as the meter in in the cisterns. He believed that they had very little to
supply of fresh water, whilst it now too often stagnated