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which has been found to agree with the experiment was not made from any motives of economy ence of others who have given attention to the in the first instance. Its success led to its applisubject ; that any plan requiring additional at- cation to a second boiler of the same form. In tention on the part of the stoker—such as the the same year the probability of its success under opening or closing of air-valves-- or giving him a brewing copper was discussed. There was no extra labour, which was required in some cases, doubt, from the former experiments, as to its was found in practice to be unsuccessful, although capabilities for raising steam or for evaporation ; a single experiment, carefully conducted, might but with a brewing copper provision had to be seem to prove the contrary.
made for a process in the manufacture almost In 1847 the writer's attention was first drawn peculiar to it. The contents of the copper have to Jucke's Patent Furnace, which consists of a to be turned out several times in the course of a strong cast-iron frame of the full width of the brewing, rendering it necessary to “bank up" furnace, and about three feet longer. The fire- the fire thoroughly, to protect the bottom of the bars are all connected together, forming, when copper, until refilled with wort or water. It complete, an endless chain, and are made to was feared that the machinery would interfere revolve round a drum, placed at each end of the with this being done effectually: it was tried, frame. The front of the frame is provided with and with the same success as with the steam a hopper, in which the fuel is placed, and a boilers. It was found that a fire of fifty feet or furnace-door, which opens vertically with a sixty feet area, could be worked for any number worm and pinion. The height to which this of hours, without the slightest appearance of door is raised by the stoker, regulates the supply smoke from the chimney-shaft; but the process of coal, which is carried into the fire by the of “ banking up," before referred to, required gradual motion of the bars. The whole machine the whole principle of the machine to be put in is placed upon wheels, to facilitate its removal abeyance, during which time smoke escapes from for repairs to the boiler, brickwork, or furnace. the shaft, sometimes in large quantities, and The speed of the furnace-bars is determined by no plan has been discovered for its prevention. the draught. It varies from one inch and a half Considerable difficulties were encountered in the to three inches per minute, the object being to application of the principle to the furnace last-menkeep the whole of the bars covered with fuel, tioned. Owing to no provision having been made with a small accumulation of fire at the bridge. for its great size, the side frames and the drivingThe bridge is suspended by a pipe three inches gear were too weak, and the machine generally or four inches in diameter, fixed about one inch was imperfectly put together. The stop carryabove the level of the bars; this allows the ing the bridge gave a great deal of trouble. All clinkers formed to fall into the ash-pit, but will these difficulties were, however, removed by not allow the fire to pass. A small stream of experience; the frame was strengthened, the water must be supplied to the pipe or stop, or furnace was re-made with greater exactness, and it would soon be destroyed. All the air ad- an important alteration was made in the drivingmitted to the fire to support combustion, is made gear, which was removed from the side of the to pass through the furnace-bars. The consent furnace, attached to a small crab-frame, and conof Messrs. Truman, Hanbury, Buxton, and Co., nected to the former by a small intermediate was obtained to the application of this plan to shaft. The “ banking up was found to be as one of their engine-boilers—a cylindrical boiler, effective as with the old bars. The remainder of with two tubes—driving a forty-horse engine. the coppers and boilers were afterwards altered, It is due to them to state that the costly experi- I as shown in the following table :
The total cost of the fourteen furnaces, including brick- vention of smoke, for he has reason to believe that the work, has been about 3,0001. The consumption of coals eminent firm of Messrs. Price and Co. have been equally in the establishment is about 6,000 tons per annum. The successful with other plans as well as with the one to saving in the coal account, since the introduction of the which he has drawn attention ; but he has confined his patent furnaces to July 1st of the present year, has been remarks to his own immediate practice, leaving inventors as follows:
and others to give the result of their own experience. July 1, 1818, 269 40 1849, 631 4 0
DISCUSSION. 1850, 1606 00
Mr. John LEE STEVENS said, he could not venture to 1851, 1925 12 0
open the discussion, without bearing the strongest testi1852, 1906 00
mony to the ability and integrity of purpose which had 1853, 2200 00
been shown by Mr. Fraser. All inventors of smoke
consuming apparatus were indebted to Mr. Jucke as a £8338 00
great pioneer in their cause, and if such constructive From which is to be deducted for casualties, which have genius had not been exhibited by him, the public might been referred to, and sundries, say 3501. The above have waited a long time before the smoke nuisance would sconomy has not arisen from less weight of fuel con- have been abated by legislative enactments. But not fumad, but owing to the screenings or dust of coal only only was the inventor to be thanked, but thanks were being required for the furnaces. Should the difference of also due to Messrs. Truman, Hanbury, and Co., for the price between large and small coals be reduced, the eco-manner in which they had disabused the public mind of nomy will be less in future years. There is a consider the impression that the smoke from furnaces could not be able loss in weight in using the dust of coal, but the fol- prevented. He (Mr. Stevens) was himself an inventor of lowing extract from a report by Messi's. Easton and Amos, a means of consuming smoke, but he would not allude to who have made some interesting experiments with one of the circumstance further than to state, that, judging from these fumaces, shows a saving of 11 per cent. in weight the pressure of work on his hand, there was ample room of fuel, when the ordinary steam coals are used. They for twenty inventors. If he understood the inatter at say "the boiler with which the experiment was made all, he thought the vocation of inventors was not to is of a cylindrical form, with spherical ends" (without find fault with each other, but to sustain each other. tubes); its length is 20 feet; diameter 4 feet; and when Besides the invention of Mr. Jucke's, there was used with the common furnace, the rate of 'evaporation equally clever by Mr. Samuel Hall. The machines was. 7.73 lbs. of water by the consumption of llb. of invented by both of those gentlemen were moveable Ord's Redhugh coals. We began to make experiments machines, but if a more simple and less expensive and to ascertain the exact degree of saving effected by the pretending apparatus were required, he would be happy patent furnace on the 12th of September, and continued to exhibit his; and if it was not approved of, there were them throughout the week, the engine working 62 hours. many others in the field from which a selection could be During this time we evaporated 47,520lbs. of water by made. He thought they ought to put the public in the the consumption of 5,4881bs. of Ord's Redhugh coals ; best position to judge for themselves. In reference to the the cost of which was 178. 6d. at the furnace mouth. The invention which had been brought forward on this occaevaporating power in this case is equal to 8.65 lbs. of sion, he contended that it had not been shown that it was Water with llb. of coal, being a saving in fuel of nearly anything but a slow combusting apparatus. It had not 11 per cent."
been shown that it was equally applicable to all purposes, for It will be noticed in the Table of Furnaces erected at getting up steam to a higher power than usual, or for any the brewery, that a considerable reduction has been made other exigency. It had been stated that the saving in in the area of all the new furnaces, varying from 20 to 30 fuel by the substitution of slack coal was considerable, per cent. with an increase of water or wort evaporated of but he (Mr. Stevens) had been disappointed that the 15 per cent. in one of the large brewing coppers. This saving in the consumption of coal that actually took place, arises from the fire-door not requiring to be opened, and was not greater than had been stated. He expected from the movement of the
bars which prevents any scoriæ Mr. Fraser to have said, that the saving in fuel would stopping up the air spaces of the fire. It will be evident have approximated 20 per cent. Mr. Fraser had also said, that this plan, which has been successful on land, would that the highest evaporative capacity was 8.61b. of water require some modification to make it equally so on the to llb. of coals. This was the only good test for ascerwater. M. Tailfer, of Paris, in 1845, gave his attention taining the capability of a furnace. With respect to his to the subject, and the French government placed a
own invention, he had applied to the eminent firm of steamboat at his disposal for the experiment.
Messrs. Easton and Amos, seven or eight months ago, to It would appear at first sight that the wear and tear induce them to take it up, but they said they preferred a of a machine, apparently so complicated, must exceed the moveable to a fixed apparatus, and that they had no expense of the common fixed bars. This, however, has faith in his invention. Notwithstanding this he was happy not been found to be the case, and it need not be so if to say that one of his furnaces was now burning on their ordinary care is given to the machine, and a periodical ex- premises, side by side with that of Mr. Jucke, and that examination is made, such as any other machine of equal the comparison was not unfavourable to the less complex value and producing equally important results would re- and less costly machine. ceive. Within the last week a set of bars have been re Mr. TOMLINSON suggested that a definition of smoke newed, for the first time, which have been in use since May,
was wanted. The expressions “ consumption of smoke," 1849; and three fourths of the old bars are being again and“ prevention of smoke," were not very accurate, for, ased for another furnace, where the boiler is of less im- wherever there was combustion, there must also be pro portance than the one from which they have been re- duets of combustion, and the visible portion thereof, or moved.(a)
that which was commonly called smoke, was only one , In conclusion, it must not be understood that the writer and not the most noxious of those products. Smoke con considers this the only plan for the combustion or pre- sisted of nitrogen, carbonic acid, carbonic oxide, sulphu
retted and carburetted hydrogen, hydro-carbons, vapour of bars would have been used, which at £8 or £9 per ton, would which was decomposed by the heat, but, owing to a de () During the four and a half years, about 18 tons of fixed water, and some other matters. The black visible portion
was, chiefly, the carbon from the carburetted hydrogen Leave a considerable margin for repairs. It should be stated, at the same time, that there are facilities for repairs at Messrs. ficiency of oxygen, did not undergo combustion, but was Truman's which many others have not, workmen being always poured into the chimney, and so into the air in black, on the premises ready to execute them.
cloudy masses. The problem was to convert this visible
carbon into invisible carbonic acid ; and, having done resumed. Any one who had taken the trouble to read the this, to trust to the diffiisive powers of the atmosphere letter through, must have found this difficulty staring him in for getting rid of it. So long ago as 1785, Watt indi- the face,why, ifthis statement was correct,were not these cated the true principle on which this carbon was to be furnaces in more general use. He would try to show got rid of, and the smoke rendered invisible. His patent reasons for this, in addition to those stated in the letter. of that date was for constructing furnaces in such a way Inventors (and being an inventor himself, and knowing as “to cause the smoke or Aame of the fresh fuel in its the class well, hc had a right to speak) were a most way to the flue orchimney, to pass, together with a current troublesome class to deal with; and the smoke consumers, of fresh air, through, over, or anong the fuel which had with whom they had had dealings, deserved in this already ceased to smoke, or which was converted into respect, to rank as highest of their class. Besides, the coke, charcoal, or cinders, and which was intensely hot ; earlier-made furnaces were very imperfect. Jucke's bars by which means the smoke and grosser parts of the flame, were not deep enough, and therefore soon burnt through by coming into close contact with, or by being brought to the pins that connected them to the furnace sides; and near unto, the said intensely hot fuel, and by being mixed these sides were too slight, the strength being put in the with the current of fresh or unburncd air, were consumed wrong place. Jucke's apparatus looked so pretty that or converted into heat, or into pure flame, free from they took it for granted that all its parts had been prosmoke."
perly considered and calculated. It was not until two Mr. ECKSTEIN called attention to the valuable inven- sides had broken down in the saine place that they looked tion of Mr. Cutler, forty years ago, to consume the smoke into the matter, and added strength to the weak part. in private houses. Mr. Cutler, however, had been un- The sides and bars as at present made, were, of course, able to get a patent, as it was absurdly argued in a court very greatly improved, and the furnaces were now quite of law that his invention was “not novel." About fifteen successful. Mr. Hall, to the furnace he put up for them, years ago Mr. Jucke thought he had discovered a machine added what he called a “boiler protector.” This was so applicable to private dwellings, but on showing it to him, highly effective, that it not only prevented the boiler from he told him that he was twenty or thirty years too late, burning, but prevented the fire likewise ; the “ protector" because Mr. Cutler had long since carried out the same was soon removed, and a brick arch put in its place; the idea. Mr. Juckes, however, like & clever, persevering furnace then acted perfectly, and continued to do so to workman as he is, went on, and ultimately produced the the present time. Hazeldine was eqnally judicious, but present ingenious machine. A friend of his had two of in a different way. He first put up his furnaces to work Mr. Jucke's machines at work, and he found that he right, altered them to improve them, and so made them saved forty per cent. in the price of his coals by burning work wrong. The last furnace he made for them, howsmall coals, and that of these he was enabled to use fifty ever, he having profited by his experience, worked admi. per cent. less
rably, and never got out of order. In some cases want of Mr. G. F. Wilson said, that as Mr. Fraser had referred capital, and in all cases want of business experience and to a visit that he paid yesterday to the works of Price's judgment in the inventors, had, he thought, been the Patent Candle Company, where he saw a large number of principal cause of the slow progress of smoke consmoke-consumers in successful operation, he, as a Director sumers; but there was another cause at work. The of these works, might perhaps be allowed to say a few words manufacturers who put up the first of the patent furon the subject. A fortnight back, on being applied to by naces had a direct interest in holding their tongues, the Secretary to the Society of Arts, he had noted down or, what they called in Scotland keeping a calm sough." some of the results of their experience of three different The London small coals were at this time sold at about smoke consumers. When the letter was printed in the 4s. a ton cheaper than they would have been had furnaces Society's Journal, their people at Vauxhall said it was well adapted for burning them been more generally used; correct except as to the number of smoke-consumers, at Vauxhall especially, acting for many others as well as which was twenty-one instead of nineteen. The letter themselves, they had no right to make a stir, or to do should have expressed that all these smoke-consumers more than give such reports of the furnaces as the inwere under steam boilers. They had one sort of smoke-ventors had a claim to ask for. This year, however, circonsumer or other under many kinds of boilers, marine, cumstances had changed ; on account of some small coalwaggon, Cornish, and cylindrical, with two tubes and the consuming furnaces being at work, and from other causes, fire underneath, but still they were under steam boilers London small coals had risen to even above their real only. Of brewers' coppers he knew very little, and had value. It seemed, therefore, that we must look in future never seen the bottom of one; but, from what he heard the to the north for our supply, and that the coming into other day, in conversation with one of the largest brew- general use of the smoke-consuning small-coal burning ers, he should suppose that they had difficulties to contend furnaces, as they would cause a larger demand, would with that we knew nothing of, especially in the necessarily make the supply more steady, and reduce rather than great size of their furnaces. It had been said that the chim- raise the price of small coal. He need not say what pleanies at Price's Works sometimes smoked. They certainly sure it gave him to have a hit, however humbie a one, at did a little, and for a short time, but the fault did not what was in some towns at least an utterly intolerable rest with the smoke-consumers. At the Battersea Works nuisance. they had many other furnaces connected to the same Mr. VARLEY suggested that it was desirable that any shafts. As the smoke consumers on some of these were gentlemen present who had constructed smoke-consuming for purposes requiring an intense dead heat, they burned machines, should explain their principle to the meeting pure anthracite, or even coke, and never smoked, except in a practical manner. when a little bituminous coal got mixed with it by acci Professor BRANDE said, that in his opinion we were dent. The others, for purposes requiring not much heat, deeply indebted to Lord Palmerston, for having successburned Merthyr, or free-burning Welsh coal, which, if fully undertaken the mitigation of the smoke nuisance in stirred, gave off a little smoke. The smoke-consuniers London, and to Messrs. Truman, Hanbury, and Co., could not be substituted to do the work of either of these, who had taken such decided steps for practically carrying as they gave a great, quick heat, which, as he had stated, out the subject in their large establishment. We had was not applicable to the particular work. At Belmont often heard it stated, apparently upon high authority, that Works they had nothing but smoke-consumers, and very the business of a brewery could not be carried on without rarely made any smoke; never, indeed, except when the production of a large quantity of smoke; and that, burning waste cotton or wood, which required stirring up although it might be possible to apply smoke-preventers in the coals to make them burn; or, as was stated in his to the engine-furnaces, they never could be brought letter, when, from any cause, the work employing steam effectually to bear upon the brewing-coppers. Mr. Fraser, had been stopped, the fires had to be made up on its being in the very clear statement with which he had favoured
the Society, had shown that this was a mistake; and with nineteen shillings per ton for our usual engine coals, and due care and trouble the gigantic issues of black smoke only ten shillings per ton for the screenings; but it is from breweries, with which we were but too familiar, most important that the small coal should be of good miglit not only be greatly diminished, but almost entirely quality, for we have frequently been supplied with a very got rid of; and, what was the inost important of mischievous article under that name, being apparently the all, that this might be effected at a very consider- refuse and sweepings of the barges, or of the coal yards, able saving in the article of coals-2 saving so large and consisting of anything but good coal; this, of course, as to cover the cost of the very expensive machinery not only does not burn as it should, but clogs the bars constituting the smoke-consuming apparatus which they with dirt, or clinkers, or in other ways seriously interferes had adopted. Dr. Brande then said, that the office with the smooth and satisfactory working of Jucke's which he held in the Mint had enabled him to acquire machinery. Dr. Brande expressed a hope that Lord Palconsiderable information and experience upon the sub- merston's act would be productive, not only of diininution ject, and that for the last eight or ten years a variety of of smoke, but of various and great improvements in the schemes for the prevention of smoke had been more or construction of furnaces and the economy of fuel ; and less successfully adopted in that establishment, not so that its regulations would more especially put an end to Duch on account of the neighbourhood, which abounded the grievous smoke nuisances of the steamers on the river, in smoke-generating factories of one kind or other, but with which were equally annoying to the passengers, to the & view to decrease the annoyances to those who resided inhabitants of the banks, and to those passing the bridges. in the building. He was glad that the subject would It was much to be regretted, that the act did not extend now be forced upon all smoke-producers, and was certain to the still greater nuisance of the steamers below bridge. that the various inventions already extant for diminishing Mr. Siemens had understood Mr. Tomlinson to say or preventing smoke, would consequently be improved and that, although we might succeed in allaying the emission perfected, and that many new ones would gradually be of visible smoke from chimneys, we should still have to brought forward, not applicable to very large establish- suffer from the pernicious influence of the legitimate proments only, but to the minor nuisances of kitchen chim- ducts of combustion, namely, carbonic acid, aqueous nies, and of the smoke arising from dwelling-houses vapour, and nitrogen gas. Ho did not apprehend any generally--though to effect this end, a quantity of pre- inconvenience from the emission of those gases. The judice and obstinacy had to be encountered, which at carbonic acid gas was a very necessary constituent of our present seemed almost insurmountable. Mr. Brande said atmosphere, upon which the entire vegetable kingdom that, in discussing the smoke question, it was not neces. depended for its growth. The aqueous vapour returned sary to go into the theory of combustion, or to define to the earth in the forio of rain, and the nitrogen, which what smoke is or is not. The dense black clouds of constituted the greater part of our atmosphere, passed carbonaceous matter, in a state of extreme division, through the furnace without undergoing any change. It, constituted the nuisance to be got rid of, and he therefore, appeared to him (Mr. Siemens), that the prewho could effect this in the most ready manner, vention of visible smoke was important in a sanitary point to the greatest extent, and upon the most reasonable of view, and he had no doubt that it was equally to terms, would be the most successful inventor. As far as considered commercially. He considered, however, ihat the present discussion was concerned, Dr. Brande said before entering into the examination of any of the that he should limit himself to Jucke's furnace, as that specific plans which had been brought forward in late was the only one which had been described to the meet- years (and their name was legion), the nieeting should ing, and that in regard to it he should have but little to determine on the essential conditions on which perfect say, inasmuch as his experience and opinion entirely coin-combustion depended. Those conditions were, in his cided with that of Mr. Fraser. Several obstacles had, in opinion, firstly, The greatest attainable intensity of the first instance, occurred at the Mint, in regard to the combustion ; and, secondly, The supply of sufficient successful working of the revolving chain of bars, and air to the fuel in its state of greatest incandescence to also in respect to the feeding of the fire, the bridge, the perfect the combustion. In support of the first probrickwork, and so forth ; but these difficulties had been position he might mention the able experiments of gradually got over, and after using two of these furnaces Mr. D. K. Clark, on the furnaces of locomotive engines, successfully for five years, Dr. Brande obtained permission which went to prove that the economic evaporation of of the Master of the Mint to apply the invention to two a boiler was increased inversely in the square ratio as the twenty-horse power engine boilers, which had lately been grate surface was diminished. More recent analyses of done; in these new machines, the faults of those origi- the products of combustion contained in the smoke boxes nally constructed had been amended; and they appeared of locomotive engines, by the French philosopher, M. to act very satisfactorily. These four furnaces are con. Ebelman, proved that combustion was almost perfect nected with one shaft about 100 feet high, and, except in a passenger-engine with a thirty-inch fire. In goodswhen the fires are lighting, no visible smoke 'escapes. engines, with forty inches thickness of fire, and less But the greatest smoke nuisance in the Mint arose from draught, he found a small per centage only of carbonic the annealing furnaces, which are twelve in number; they oxide. The supply of a suficient quantity of air to the are somewhat of the nature of a reverberatory furnace, furnace might be effected in two ways, namely, either by and at tines a high and continuous red heat is required regulating the depth of fuel on the bars in proportion to to be kept up in them for several hours. Jucke's the available draught, or by admitting air, behind the fire smoke consumers have been applied to two of these, bridge, to the products of imperfect combustion. He and with perfect success, although, at the outset, deprecated the latter mode of proceeding, because the many difficulties presented themselves, more especially temperature of the fire was already considerably reduced as regarded the destruction of the brickwork and behind the bridge; but, supposing even it were not, it of the bridge; but by the adoption of a water-p?pe at
was a well-known fact that combustion ceased altogether the bridge, and the careful construction of every part of in an atmosphere which was already highly charged with the machine and furnace, these difficulties have been suc- carbonic acid. This observation did not apply forcibly to cessfully encountered, and the two furnaces produce Mr. Stevens's furnace, in which the air was admitted scarcely any smoke. As regards the economy of these fur- before the bridge, and in a highly heated state. naces, Dr. Brande's experience again coincided with that The conditions of obtaining perfect combustion, under of Mr. Fraser: the saving in the quantity of coal appears variable conditions of draught, were, he thought, complied unimportant, though certainly in favour of Jucke's con with in the furnaces of Jucke and Hazeldine, which he sumers; but as respects quality, the smoke-consumers considered were ingenious adaptations of Mr. Bodmer's being exclusively fed with screenings, or small coal, the furnace with travelling bars. The expense and liability saving is very considerable ; at one period we were paying to derangement were, however, serious objections.
BY E. T. LOSEBY.
He had had occasion to apply Mr. Hunt's furnace, consisting places mentioned, from a stopper in front of the furnace door of slanting bars, upon which the fuel fell from a hopper by being opened vertically by a rack and pinion. In concluits natural gravity. At the first, the combustion was im- sion, Mr. Fraser remarked that the foregoing plans would perfect, but by providing a means of altering the incli- be effectual in a very large portion of the furnaces at prenation of the bars, and thereby the thickness of fuel to sent in operation, which would come under the regula. the conditions of draught, he had obtained a very perfect tions of the New Act. He had no doubt difficulties would result. This furnace required, certainly, occasional atten- arise in the application to chemical works, and dyers' tion to prevent the fuel from clogging in the bottom of pans, to which it was not practicable to apply these mathe hopper; but this objection, he considered, was amply chines. He thought steam might be advantageously outweighed by its comparative simplicity.
applied, or, where a high temperature was required, a Mr. Robt. RougHTON said that the length of the modification of Neilson's hot blast might be adopted; but furnaces was generally greater than could be managed here, of course, he did not speak from experience. with ease, and that it was extremely difficult to keep a The CHAIRMAN then thanked Mr. Fraser, in the name furnace of a length of eight or ten feet covered with a thin of the Society, forthe excellent, interesting, and suggestive layer of coals. In marine furnaces the engines were paper he had just read, and expressed a hope that the made smaller, and they were much more manageable on number of inventions now before the public would shortly that account. He feared that Mr. Jucke's contrivance cause an almost universal abatement of the smoke nuiwould not work well if subjected to a very great draught sance. of air.
The Secretary announced that at the meeting Mr. Lowe remarked that gas companies were less of Wednesday next, the 7th of December, a sinners, in respect of emitting smoke from their works, than, perhaps, any other traders in the kingdom; and paper would be read “On Miners' Safety when he assured the meeting that it was a fine to use one Lamps,” by Dr. Glover. ounce of Newcastle coals in their furnaces, he thought they would agree that not much smoke could be seen
ON RECENT IMPROVEMENTS IN CHRONO. from their chimnies. They only used coke. He would
METERS. (a) just say as an encouragement to those present, that the prevention of smoke was no such difficult matter after all. All that was required was a knowledge of combustion. In the premises of his father, at Derby, who was, 30 years of reading before the Society last session, the train and
In the first portion of the paper which I had the honour ago, one of the most extensive malsters in Great Britain, 200 escapement of chronometers were particularly alluded
to, quarters of malt were dried with the aid oftwo furnacessup- and the following conclusions were drawn from the arguplied with bituminous coal, without a chimney, and with
ments adduced : out a particle of smoke. The supervisors and excisemen
“That timekeepers which go for long intervals with could not understand it, and persons went
down from the once winding up, are inferior in principle to those which Board of Excise to inspect the malting-house, but they go for short ones, and that, consequently, chronometers could not imagine how the heat could be passed through which only go two days, besides being less expensive, are the malt without a chimney; and yet the men employed better than those which go eight days, as any irregularity by his father were men earning 128. or 15s. per week in the wheel-work or main-spring adjusting, would more wages. The way in which it was effected was by passing frequently correct itself; a current of air from the front over the whole, and adjusting the fuel in front, as it was now done in the furnaces not contribute much to accuracy of going, and that the
That perfection of form in the train-wheel teeth does at the Mint. He had often occasion to cross in the steamer hardness of the wheels and pinions, the suitability of the from Holyhead to Kingstown, and he had remarked the materiale, &c., and the smoothness of the acting surfaces
, splendid bow of carbon which the “ Columbia" left in her will
enter quite as largely into the question of durability wake from port to port. He had pointed it out one day as perfection of form in the teeth; and to the captain of the vessel, and he had been permitted to
That the chronometer escapement has not been imtry the experiment of stoking three of the furnaces every proved since it left the hands of Arnold and Earnshaw, in ten minutes instead of every twenty minutes; and the last century, and that experience does not point to the by leaving the furnace door of closed tight; the result was that the smoke all escapement as the source of any remaining error.”
It is not now intended to introduce the subject of disappeared ; and from that day to this the engines of the watchmaking generally, but manufacturers would do well " Columbia” were enabled to make twenty-one revolutions to make themselves better acquainted with the improveper minute instead of nineteen ; and no black smoke was ments which have been made in the higher branches of ever seen from her funnel, to pave the sky with carbon horology, in order to apply them to the cheaper kind of from port to port.
watches so far as expense will allow ; for, taken altogether, Mr. Fraser, after thanking the meeting for their ap. there are probably few arts in which the manufacturers proval of his remarks, expressed regret at the form which and workmen possess so little knowledge of what ally the discussion had assumed. He had confined himself to contributes to excellence as do the generality of persons the details of one successful plan, in the hope that others
; engaged in watch and clock making their attention have including Messrs. Stevens, Hall, and Hazeldine, would have detailed the plan adopted in their furnaces. Mr: cheapness of production, than to the theory and principles
ing been directed more to mechanical workmanship and Fraser then explained the working models of Hall and Hazeldine-which were exhibited both of which he had upon which the various contrivances are based. Had seen in successful operation at Messrs. Price and Co.'s would not have remained coir paratively unemployed in
greater intelligence prevailed, the compensation-balance works on the preceding day, and both of which made a lever watches, nor should we have had such instances as fire and consumed its smoke in a way which left nothing the substitution of gold balances for steel ones-gold, as a to be desired. Hall's consisted of a series of bars, cast material, being in every way inferior to steel, from its the whole length of the fire, which were moved alternately expanding more with heat, and being more easily bent or by an eccentric shaft in front; the movemerit was very scratched. The great liability to error which the comslow, but the effect was to supply the fire with fuel from pensation-balance prevents, should cause it to be univera stopper in front, as in Jucke's. Hazeldine's patent accomplished the same results by a different arrangement of
(a) A Paper on this subject' was read at the Twenty-second bars, which were cast the width of the fire, transversely with Ordinary Meeting of the Society, Ninety-ninth Session, May the boiler. A peculiar motion was given by a cam toeach 25th, 1853, and an abstract was published in this Journal at of the bars, the object being to supply the fire, as in the other the time, vol. 1, p. 313.