“Mr. Williamson, in a subsequent letter, addressed to your Barl on the 1st of December last, to which I have alread alluded, has taken a very different view of these subjects. amsar from presuming to contend against the fair principle of allowing to every man the right of changing his opinion, wherever roarch and experience may induce him to alter it; but it must becoded, as oually true, that much of the weight of authority issors ited to him, upon either side of a question, whose opinion is found to be recorded on both. I o be sorry, however, if Mr. Williamson were to consider me as failing in personal consideration for him, although I may feel it a duty to myself and to the country, upon a subject of so much interest to both, to animadvert with freedom upon those parts of his statement in which he materially differs from me and from himself. The gentlemen of the linen trade of Ireland are the only fair umpires between us; and to them I appeal. At a meeting held at the White Linen Hall, of Belfast, on Friday and Saturday the 5th and oth of January last, which was attended by a number of the most respectable bleachers, dealers, and manufacturers of that county, the whole process was shown; and the sentiments of the meeting having been officially communicated to you by the Manuis of Downshire, I consider them suitable to me here, and therefore, I have annexed a copy of them to this letter. Now, let us look to that part which relates to the subject before us. ''We, the subscribers, conceive it but justice to those exo which were made by Mr. Lee in our presence, from *ginning to end, as well as to remove any prejudices which might have been adopted by persons who have no idea of the nature of the process, to state—lst. That there is no necessity fo water-rotting flax, to make it in any wise better, than, if !"Prily pulled and safely stacked, it will be without so doing. 2nd. That by avoiding i. process of water-rotting the seed is *son our own flax, equal, as we saw this day, to any im: }. a) The solubility of the colouring matter of unsteeped * in water, or soap and water, and the facility of bringing it, * Washing, to a pure and brilliant white, without the aid of to themical agent, comes next into consideration. Mr. Williamson considers the solubility of the natural colour of the flax tolong in common to all flax, namely, that which has on either steeped or dew-rotted, as well as that which has **mitted to neither process. I hardly know what is meant by the colouring matter of flax that has been steeped or oted; its natural colour is obviously lost by the steeping, * *ngth of the fire is reduced, and the flax itself has * the colour of the animal, or vegetable, or mineral qualities which impregnated the water in which it was immersed, "long with it aly, from whatever quality prevailed, so much o," or of the bleacher, that he can only get rid of it, as ... Williamson once truly said, by the means of a tedious, *ult, and dangerous process.' To show, were it possible, the general solubility of the colouring matter of all flax prepared on every manner that is practised, Mr. Williamson has laid "To you, as he states, the following samples:—No. 1. A of water-rotted flax, perfectly white, that was bleached ""only four hours with water, soap and water, and diluted '*iatic acid, without the intervention of alkali.' ‘No. * of dew-rotted flax, made white in the same time, and with the like materials." No. 3. A sample of Irish flax, "ol after the manner of Mr. Lee, treated in the same way, * with similar success.' No. 4. A sample of flax imported from Perman, apparently dew-rotted, treated in the same way, **ith the same success." And No. 3. A sample of ho made white in the same time, and with the same success.” . on these several samples; they are indeed made white, but tly are of a pale deadly colour, differing from that pure i. "miliant white which shows the wholesome condition of the * As well as its beauty. The staple of these specimens has on destroyed by the strength of the acids employed in whitenlog them, and I only wish i. were of sufficient quantities to .* to the test of manufacture oxygen (says Mr. on whether from the atmosphere, or from the direct "splication of the oxymuriatic acid, is necessary to the whitening "all lax. I am not of that opinion; and I must appeal, from on more strongly put than' well considered, to the *litation of the gentlemen of the linen trade in his own ood at the meeting to which f have referred. The of their ings is annexed; but their last resolution in spea the flax prepared after the new manner, thus o opinion of those present:— The said flax, after **ing through the refining machine, and being washed T-- ?

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in cold water, did, in a short space of time, part with all the impure matter it containcq, or very nearly so; and it was rendered completely pure and very nearly white, by being boiled in soap and warm water about twenty minutes. All this was without any exposure to the atmosphere. None is necessary to the whitening of the flax, however desirable it may be at a favourable season of the year.' It will, perhaps, surprise you to hear that Mr. Williamson attended this meeting himself. He there saw a parcel of Irish flax taken in a yellow state, and put into a course of being made white: he left it for a while undergoing that operation, but in the care of persons whose veracity is known to him. He returned before it was finished, and witnessed its conclusion, whereby the flax was brought to a brilliant white in less than an hour from the time it was begun, by the simple means of soap and water only, and without any exposure to the atmosphere... But supposing, which I cannot admit, that the oxygen of the air is necessary to bleaching a good white, is it nothing to have removed the necessity of resorting to those caustic materials which have been hitherto used in the course of a process at once dilatory, dangerous, and expensive. “THE MACHINERY.—It remains only now to report to you whatever fell under my observation connected with the mechanical part of the new process. The introduction of new machinery, into any country, has disadvantages to encounter from ignorance or prejudice, or both; but, much to the honour of Ireland, I will say, that, so far from finding any hostile disposition to a system that threatened a subversion of all the ancient habits of the people, in respect to the great staple manufacture of their country, I met everywhere a kind and encouraging o all professed to feel an equal interest with myself in the welfare of the new process; and all were desirous of understanding it. A complete set of machinery comFo machines:–1. A Thrashing Machine; 2. A Breaking Machine; 3. A Cleansing Machine; 4. A Refining Machine. Objections were made to the machinery in many places where it was not understood, and the substance of them was these,_ First, That it consumed too much time, and, therefore, cost too much labour; and, secondly, that it occasioned great waste. Experiments are stated to have been made by Mr. Williamson, with a view to ascertain the extent to i. those objections were found to exist; and, therefore, it becomes necessary to advert to his report of the results. ... In the series of samples, he has sent you as he states, the following:— No. 6. A sample of unbleached flax, prepared according to the new method, 32 ounces of which produced, on Mr. 's machinery, 3} ounces of unrefined flax, with more than one hour's labour of one man.’ ‘No. 7. A sample of the same growth, prepared in the same way, without steeping, but cleaned at a flax-mill, roduced 7 ounces, unhackled, with less than fire minutes' abour.” “No. 8. A sample of the same growth of flax, steeped or water-rotted, a like quantity of which, cleaned at a flax-mill, roduced 7 ounces, unhackled, with less than five minutes' bour.’ Mr. Lee, after a long defence of his machines, next refers to his visits to different parts of the country, and concludes with a tribute of thanks to the Marquis of Downshire for the kind attention he at all times received from his lordship.(a);

grottings of 31stitutions. —o

CLAPHAM.—On Friday evening, Nov. 18th, Mr. Joseph Simpson, of the Islington Institution, delivered an interesting and instructive lecture before the members of the Literary Institution, on “The Times we Live in.” Reverting to periods antecedent to the age of railroads, steam, electricity, gas, and other manifold necessities of the present day, the lecturer drew a picture of the manners and customs in the so-called “good old times,” and forcibly contrasted the disadvantages under which our ancestors laboured, with the advantages enjoyed by the present generation. . To the progressive spirit of the art of printing he justly attributed the great advances made during this century, and truly 8°id that, through its me

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dium, what would formerly have required ages to complete, was now effected in a single lifetime. The lecture afforded considerable satisfaction. Durham.—On Friday evening last, the twenty-eighth anniversary meeting of the Mechanics' Institute was held in the reading room. The president, Mr. J. F. Elliot, occupied the chair, and opened the proceedings with a few remarks, The secretary, Mr. W. Hutchinson, then read the IReport, from which it appeared that at present the number of members was 336, exclusive of life members. Of this number 163 are members of both the reading-room and library, whilst the remaining 173 are members of the library only. The income for the year ending September 30th, was £168 15s. 9d., and the expenditure £159 5s. The library has been increased by the addition of fifty volumes, and a large selection of parliamentary papers has just been received from Mr. W. Atherton, M.P. LYMINGTON.—On Tuesday week, Mr. John Haas delivered a lecture on “Fables,” to the members and friends of the Literary Institution. The lecturer traced the origin of parables and fables from remote antiquity to the present period; and proved beyond a question that the truths thus circulated were calculated not only to amuse the young, but, as in the days of old, to afford lessons of caution and instruction to those of maturer years. READING.—Mr. J. Boorne, the Honorary Secretary to the Literary, Scientific and Mechanics' Institution, delivered a lecture “On the Poetry and Genius of Longfellow,” to the members and friends of that Institution last week. After some introductory remarkson poets and poetry in general, Mr. Boorne said that he thought it would be no injustice to Dana, Emerson, Bryant, Whittier, and other noble sons of song in America, to style Longfellow the poet of that country. In his writings, richness of imagery, wideness of sympathy, a manly earnestness of purpose, with a mildness and felicity of expression, were the qualities which struck the most casual reader. He did not excel in the profound or sublime, in the majestic or philosophic; but in the beautiful, the feeling, the sympathetic, and the descriptive, he was scarcely to be equalled,—certainly not surpassed. He had done very much to supply a demand—which he had greatly assisted in creating—for a class of pure and pleasant poetry, such as was referred to, and at the same time illustrated by that piece of his “The day is done.” A few years since, Longfellow spent much time on the con: tinent of Europe, in pursuit of his profession : and Sweden, Holland, Germany, and Spain had supplied him with many subjects of verse, and he had translated much of the poetry of those countries. In his writings, there were no idle tales, no song without a healthy sentiment, no piece without a lesson. These remarks were illustrated by “The Belfry of Bruges,” “The Psalm of Life,” “Footsteps of Angels,” “The Village Blacksmith,” &c., which were appropriately and effectively recited. “Evangeline” was next spoken of as the best and most artistic of Longfellow's compositions. It was written in the old Latin hexameter, a metre seldom attempted by modern writers, but in which Longfellow had been most happy. , Longfellow was no literary thief; he never appropriated the words or ideas of others; we therefore the more readily pardoned the occasional repetition of his own. There was throughout Longfellow's writings a tinge of sorrow, if not of melancholy—a melancholy, however, which did not depress downward, towards death, but served only to stimulate to life and action. He did not cast, a strong summer sunshine on our path, but shed a chequered autumnal ray. With him there were no o pleasures. The lecturer recited many pieces during his discourse, concluding with those which might be described as heroic, as “Excelsior” and “The Light of Stars.” Romford.—On Tuesday evening a lecture on “The Manners, Customs, and Habits of European Turkey,” was given by Mr. Percy St. John, in the hall of the Literary and Mechanics Institution.—The lecturer traced the his

tory of this country through several ages, remarking upon the deeds of valour and heroism of its former inhabitants, and its present position; touching upon its form of Government, which he designated as a very bad one, he pointed out the abuses and corruption which were practised by every person in authority—from the Sultan down to the lowest officer of Government. He gave some amusing anecdotes of the low state of civilization, the education of the inhabitants, and their ill success in attempting to follow the other countries of Europe in the great march of progress, as also the wretched state of their army and navy. He depicted in forcible language, the low moral state of the people and the practice of infanticide, and the slavery carried on at Constantinople, which he believed to be worse than that of America. SALISBURY.—The lecture on “Nineveh,” delivered on Wednesday last at the Literary Institution by the Hon. and Rev. S. Best, of Abbot's Ann, attracted a very large audience. The hon. and rev. lecturer contrived to compress within the limits of a single address a highly instructive and interesting epitome of the results of the valuable discoveries of Layard, Botta, and others; pointing out the antiquity and splendour of the buried cities, the power of the commercial states of which they were the capitals, the striking evidence they afford of the literal truth of many passages of Scripture, which sceptical philosophers had previously regarded as either mythical or allegorical; and deducing from the fall of Nineveh those lessons of warning and watchfulness which are so peculiarly applicable to a great commercial nation like England, which worships wealth like a deity, which lies midway in that stream of civilization and greatness which has uniformly flowed from the South-East towards the North-West, which has overflowed Assyria, Greece, Rome, the Netherlands, and Britain, and left all but the latter dry; and which is now setting full upon the shores of North America. At the conclusion of the lecture the Lord Bishop of Salisbury, patron of the Society, proposed a vote of thanks to the lecturer, and took the opportunity of expressing his own sympathy with the objects of the Institution, which, in its twofold aspect, afforded opportunities to its members for the enjoyment of the pleasures of taste and imagination, and for the cultivation of the best feelings of the heart, by familiarizing their minds with literary studies, while in . other department of it—the scientific—it might be brought to bear upon the material arts and manufactures of the country, and thus encourage studies which were as delightful to those who pursued them, as they were beneficial to the country at large. The Very Reverend the Dean seconded the vote of thanks, which was carried by acclamation. The foregoing lecture was illustrated by thirty diagrams belonging to the Hants and South Wilts Lecturers' Association, which already possesses a large collection, illustrative of the following subjects:—Nineveh, 30; Solar System, 23; Physiology, as regards Health, 10; Eastern Habitations, 10; Catacombs of Rome, 21; Paganism, 6; Nebulae, 6; Optics, 6; Microscope, 6; Mechanics, 3; Missionary, 20; Australian, 10; Manufacture of Glass, 3; Ditto of Gas, 1 ; Smelting of Iron, 1; Phantasmagoria Lantern and Microscope—Natural History Sliders, 56; Botanical ditto, 14; Astronomical ditto (plain), 30; Ditto ditto (rackwork), 10. STIRLING.—Taking advantage of the Exhibition of Photographic Pictures, from the Society of Arts, London, Mr. Rae, the Secretary to the School of Arts, delivered a lecture on Wednesday week to the members and friends of this Institution “On Photography, or the Production of Pictures through the Agency of Light.” The lecturer referred to the first researches made by Neipce, Daguerre, Fox Talbot, Wedgewood, and Sir Humphry Davy, and said that the whole art depended on a very simple fact or principle—the blackening action of light upon certain salts of silver. He familiarly explained the photographic printing-press—the production of negatives and positives—the fixing process—the various chemical


substances used, and the means employed for taking portraits and views from nature by the camera obscura. He proceeded to describe the various processes, such as the talotype on paper, the collodion on glass, the daguerreotype on silver plates, and the albumenised process, which was a substitute for the collodion on glass plates. Nature was herself the photographic painter; and although we had views innumerable of our ancient buildings and hoary-crested piles, yet no labour of man, however great his genius, could equal in faithfulness and delicacy of touch the graphic delineations of Nature's artist—the light of the sun, the crowning beauty of morning and the glory of the day. He considered that the art of photography was only in its infancy, and that it was impossible to conceive to what purposes it might not still be applied. He rapidly sketched the new system of photo-printing, the application of photography to astronomy, and to the value of this art as a means of collecting truthful examples of architectural details; and, in conclusion, exhibited the stereoscope, an instrument for illustrating binocular vision. -MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. Mox, Inst. of Actuaries, 7. British Architects, 8.-Mr. C. Winston, “On the application of Painted Glass to Buildings in various styles of Architecture.” Geographical, 81–Lieut-Gen., A. Jochmus, communicated through Sir Roderick Murchison, “Journey into the Balkan, or Mount Haemus; with a description of the defiles through this celebrated mountain range, and a comparison of the routes pursued by Darius, Alexander the Great, and Marshel Diebitch.” TUES. Civil Engineers, 8–Resumed discussion “On Ocean Steamers,” and paper by Mr. J. Leslie, “On Inclined Planes for Canals.” Botanical, 8–Anniversary. Web Society of Arts, 8–Mr. A. Fraser,” On the Consumption of Smoke.” Geological, 8.-Messrs. W. R. and H. Binfield, “On the Occurrence of Fossil Insects in the Wealden Strata at Hastings, Sussex;” and Mr. D. Sharpe, “On * § and Character of the gravels at Farringdon, rks.” Royal, 81–Anniversary, Thisks, %. 3. y *::::::: 8. otographic, 8, o, or Medical, 8.

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—o* Arrucation of Giass. The Prussians have put * to a novel use. A column, consisting entirely of glass, *** Pedestal of Carrara marble, and surmounted by a ** Poace, six feet high, by the celebrated sculptor Rauch, i. to be erected in the garden of the palace at Potsdam. **ast will be ornamented with spiral lines of blue and white. **Royal Observatory at Brois injust been placed in o: ommunication with the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, or the #. of facilitating the determination in a direct *her of the difference of longitude between the two establishments. This operation is one of extreme delicacy, as well as of ... "Portance to geodesy. The electric communication is # **th manner that every oscillation of the pendulum *ls will be represented with accuracy at Greenwich, and "...”. The observations are to commence this week. P *RAPHY ON TExtile FAbrics.-Messrs. Wulff, of . * Placed before the French institute some specimens of to: on linen, oil cloth, chintz, &c. This discovery

. " *at importance for architectural ornamentation and '*' Poposes. Such pictures can be cleaned by wiping,

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Fish ING STEAMER.—The Deep Sea Fishing Association are about to introduce a novelty—a fishing steamer: it has just been launched in the Clyde. The steamer citn carry four fishingboats to the fishing-ground, where they will be lowered into the sea, while fishing will also go on from the stcainer. The machinery of the vessel is of a new kind—there are neither paddles nor screw ; and the vessel can be stopped, turned, or backed, almost instantaneously, without stopping the machinery or letting steam off.

ANotion ARCTIC SEARCH.-It was unanimously agreed at the meeting of the members of the Geographical Society, on Monday se’nnight, that the chairman, Sir Rođerick Murchison, should solicit the Admiralty to send out another expedition to the Arctic regions, in the summer of 1854. The new Arctic expedition is intended to proceed in quite a contrary direction to any of those previously sent out from this country in search of Sir John Franklin and the officers and crews of the Erebus and Terror discovery ships, now upwards of cight years absent from England.

A NEW Discovery.—The Official Venice Gazette states, in a special article, that the Olympic Academy of Vicenza, having carefully examined the discovery made by their fellow citizen Tremeschini (mentioned about six months ago) of electric telegraphy by secret transmission, has publicly declared it to be a most successful invention. The commission appointed to test its efficacy was composed of the Councillor-Delegate of the Podesta, the Superior Commissary, and the Academic Council. The first experiment consisted in sending and receiving a dispatch in the common way, without secrecy. In the second experiment, a dispatch was sent secretly, and the answer received in the same manner, by the aid of the new apparatus. In the third, a dispatch was sent openly, and the answer received secretly, to show that the secret apparatus might be used or suspended at will...The results of the inquiry show:—1st. That the apparatus of Tremeschini may be applied to Morse's telegraph. 2nd. That when the dispatch is sent secretly it can only be received so, any fraud in that respect being subject to immediate detection. 3rd. That secrecy may be suspended or applied at pleasure...The report of the commission is highly eulogistic of the invention.


PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852. Applications Fost PATENTS AND PROTECTIox ALLOWED. From Gazette, 18th November, 1853.

Dated 5th September, 1853. 2042. J. So, Jnn., Liverpool-Construction of iron houses, vessels, -C.

Dated 22nd October, 1853. 2443. J. F. Mermet, 23 Red Lion street, Holborn—Elastic spring in a tube, the lid of which moves down and up, according to pressure. Dated 1st November, 1853. 2521. J. Crowley, Sheffield–Construction of ovens and furnaces. 2523. J. Hansor, Wandsworth road–Illuminating gas. 2525. A. Elliott, West Houghton, Lancashire–Looms. 2527. H. Tylor, Queen street, London–Chair bedstead. 2529. W. R. Palmer, New York—Spike threshing machines. 2531. J. Heywood, Ratcliffe bridge, Lancashire — Machines for printing yarns. 2533. R. Circhbutt, King's road, Chelsen—Woodcutting machines, Dated 2nd November, 1853. 2535. F. A. Gatty. Accrington—Bath for heating and distining. 2337. W. A. Gilbee, 4 South street, Finsbury-Levelling apparatus. (A communication.) 2539. W. Maltby, Cawborough—Preventing collisons on railways. 2541. F. Lipscombe, 233 Strand–Steam power, and regulating same. 2543. H. Brierley, Chorley, Lancashire–Spinning and knitting machinery. 2545. R. G. Hedges, Southampton row, Russell square-Fastening ends of India rubber springs. Dated 3rd November, 1853. 2547. P. McGregor, Manchester-Spinning and doubling machinery. 2548. W. Wood, 120 Chancery lane-Abstracting and consuming smoke, &c. 2549. J. Moffatt, Birmingham-Candlesticks. (Partly a communication. 2550. C. Reeves, jun. Birmingham–Swords, bayonets, &c. 2551. T. Irving, Dueton, Yorkshire — Preparation of wool for spinning. 2552. B. F. Duppa, Malenagner Hall, Kent—Colouring photographic ictures. 2553. w" l'atterson, Edinburgh—Chairs. 2555. G. Duncan and J. Boyd, Liverpool, and J. Backy, Knotty Ash, near Liverpool–Cask manufacturers' machinery. 2556. E. Goddard, Ipswich–Gasburners, 2557. J. H. Tuck, Pall Mall—Motive power, and for raising liquids. Dated 4th November, 1-53. 2559. G. Nasmyth, of Brabant Court–Steam boiler furnaces. 2560. W. Hindman, Mauchester–Steam boilers, and fixing saune.

51. W. G. Ginty, Manchester–Manufacturing of combustible gases from water, &c. . W. Crosland, Hulme—Governing speed of engines. 503. W. Racksterr, Royal Military Academy, Woolwich–Buffers. 2564. W. E. Newton, 66 Chancery lane—Machinery for crushing ores. (A communication.) 2565. H. H. Higginbottom, Ashby de la Zouch—Water closets. 2566. not, 13roughton street, Worcester—Kneading dough, clay,

C. 2567. W. Foster, Lister place, Bradford—Looms. 2508. J. H. Johnson, 47 Lincoln's inn fields—Malleable iron manufacture, &c. (A communication.) Dated 5th November, 1853. 2569. J. Smith, Bradford—Millstones. . J. Harrison, Crewe–Steam engines. . J. Hyde, Sheffield–Furniture castors. . C. Carr and W. K. Horsely, Seglich, Northumberland—Steam machinery and pumps for mines, &c. 2574. R. W. Jerral, 17 Upper Eccleston place, Eccleston square— Steam boiler furnaces. 2575. J. Rubery, Birmingham—Open caps for sticks of umbrellas, &

C. W. B. Johnson, Manchester–Steam engines, and pressure indicator. E. Kestcrton, Long acre–Springs for carriages. Dated 7th November, 1853. . II. Pershouse, Birmingham–1)eposition of metals. 0. J. Todd, Fish street hill–Spindles and bearings for lathes, &c. . M. L. J. C. V. Falconi, Paris, and 4 South street, Finsbury— Composition for preservation of the dead. 83. J. Grindrod, Liverpool—Steam engines. 584. H. Wiglesworth, Newbury—Coupling railway carriages. 585. It. Roughton, Woolwich–Steam boilers, &c. . T. Walker, Birmingham—Railway signal apparatus. A. V. Newton, 66 Chancery lane—l’reventing fraudulent abstraction of property. (A communication.) Dated 8th November, 1853. 2588. J. Onions and S. Bromhead, Peckham—Machinery for paper and papier maché. 2589. J. Gardiner and W. W. Wynne, Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire–Gas stoves. 2590. E. H. Grahan, Maine–Firearms. 2591. H. Chamberlain, Kempsey, near Worcester—Brick tubes and - tiles. 2592. G. F. Parratt, 27 Victoria street, Pimlico—Life rafts. 2593. E. L. Hayward, 196 Blackfriars road—Rozer of door and other locks. 2594. J. H. Johnson, 47 Lincoln's inn fields—Machinery for preparing and combing wool, &c. (A communication.) Dated 9th November, 1853. 2596. B. Dangerfield, and B. Dangerfield, Jun., West Bromwich— Steam boilers. 2597. T. Dunn, Windon Bridge liron Works, Pendleton; J. Bowman, Plaistow, Essex ; and J. Dunn, Bellevue terrace, Pendleton —Machinery for raising, &c., heavy bodies. 2598. J. A. Driew, Patricroft–Cutting velveteens, &c. &c., to produce piled surfaces. 2599. J. Brown, Darlington—Coke ovens. 2600. W. Dicks, Floore, Northampton—Wheels for carriages.

WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. Sealed November 16th, 1853. 658. John Talbot Ashenhurst, of Upper John street—Improvement in pianofortes. 1206. Jean Jacques Joseph Janin, of Gerrard street, and Alexander - Seymour, of the Strand–Certain improvements in the manufacture of boots and shoes. 1733. George Spencer, of Manor road, Walworth—Improvements in springs for carriages. 1780. George Katz Douglas, of Chester—Certain improvements in the permanent way of railways. 1870. Richard Farmer Brand, of South terrace, Willow walk, Bermondsey—Certain improvements in firearms and ordnance. 1897. John Perkins, of Manchester—Improvements in the manufacture of oils. 1920. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery lane—Improvements in the distillation and purification of resin oil. (A communication.) 2016. Astley Aston Price, of Margate—Improvements in treating wash-waters containing soap, oils, saponified or saponifiable materials, and in obtaining products therefrom.

2023. Henry Jeremiah Iliffe, and James Newman, both of Birmingham—Improvements in the manufacture of buttons. 2070. William IIall, of the Colliery, Castlecomer–Jmprovements in the conversion of peat into charcoal. 2121. William Smith, of Little Woolstone, Bucks—Improvements in implements for titling and preparing land for crops. 2136. George Spencer, of Cannon street, west—Improvements in supporting rails of railways. 2149. Sydney Smith, of Hyson Green Works, near Nottingham.— Improvements in governors for steam engines. 2203. Hiram Tucker, of Massachusetts, U.S.–Improvements in the art or process of applying colours to a surface by means of a liquid. 2205. William Farmer, of Fulham Brewery—Improvements in apparatus for preserving provisions. Sealed Norember 17th, 1853. 1215. John Lee Stevens, of King William street, City—Improvements in grates and stoves. 1217. James Thomas George Vizetelly, of Peterborough court, and Henry Itichard Vizetelly, of Gough square—Improvements in printing machines. (A communication.) Sealed Notcomber 18th, 1853. 1222. John Haskett, of Wigmore street.`improvements in anchors, to be called the “Ferdinand Martin Safety Anchor." (A communication ) 1224. Wharton Rye, of Collyhurst, near Manchester – Certain improvements in kitchen ranges or fire grates. 1227. John Ryan, of Liverpool street—An apparatus for purifying liquids in a ready and economical manner 1231. George Sant, of Norton Lodge, Mumbles, Swansea—Improvements in clocks or timekeepers. 1327. John Macdonald, of Henry street, Upper Kennington laneImprovements in and applicable to lamps; also applicable to apparatus for lighthouse signal purposes; part of the invention applicable to other useful purposes. 1601. John Fell, of Chorlton upon Medlock—Improvements in the treatment of certain oils. 1864. William Edward Newton, of Chancery lane—Improved preparation or composition to be applied to pigments, for the purpose of facilitating the drying of the same. (A communication.) 2064. James Gascoigne Lynde, jun., of Great George street-A pressure governor or self-acting apparatus for regulating the flow of water. 2124. Richard Laming, of Millwall, Poplar—Improved process for purifying gas. 2150. John Barsham, of Kingston upon Thames—Improvements in the mann facture of bricks, tiles, and blocks. 2186. George Peabody, of Warnford Court—Improved machinery for dressing and warping yarns. (A communication.) Scaled November 19th, 1853. 1239. William Edward Newton, of Chancery lane—Improved machinery or apparatus applicable for pumping water, and supplying steam boilers with water, and maintaining the water therein at a proper level. (A communication.) 1244. William Fulton, of Paisley—Improvement in the treatment, and scouring or cleansing of textile fabrics. 1246. St. Thomas Baker, of King's road, Chelsea—Improvements in revolving shutters. 1251. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle street, Holborn —Improvements in rotary engines, to be driven by steam or any vapour, fluid, or gas; and in boilers or generators to be used in generating steam or gas for driving the aforesaid or other engines, or for other purposes. (A communication.) 1252. Thomas Isaac Dimsdale, of Kingstown, near Dublin–Improvements in purifying coal gas, and in disinfecting sewage or other fetid matters, and in absorbing noxious gaseous exhalations. 1251. William Carr Thornton, of Cleckheaton—Improved machinery for making wire cards. Sealed Norember 21st, 1853. 1260. Henri Joseph Scouttin, of Nactz, France—Improved plastic compound, applicable to various ornamental and useful purposes. 1262. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle street, Holborn —Improvements in navigable vessels, to be employed in all waters, and to be propelled or impelled by sails, steam power, or other means. (A communication.) 1289. Thomas Singleton, of Over Darwent—Improvements in looms. 1945. John Webster Cochran, of Gower street—Improvements in machinery for crushing, grinding, and pulverizing stone, quartz, or other substances.


Date of No. in the - --
Registration. Register. Title. Proprietors' Names. Address.

Nov. 16 3530 Improved Paletot or Cont ... H. J. & D. Nicoll Regent street and Cornhill.
,, 18 3531 Sugar Mould or Sugar Funne Edward Morris. Birmingham.
** ** 3532 A Table Bedstead. Charles Symons... ... 1 Prince's street, Fitzroy square
,, .22 3533 Candlestick ..] Albert Robert Cunningham | Kensington

- George Brewer ............... 10 Paradise place, Hackney

,, 23 3534 Improved Flexible Tube Self-acting Level

and Charles Suffell ...............! 132 Long Acre



SOCIETY OF ARTS. [Dec. 2, 1853.

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FRIDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1853. —40– THIRD ORDINARY MEETING. WEDNESDAY, November 30, 1853. The Third Ordinary Meeting of the One Hundredth Session was held on Wednesday, the 30th ultimo, WILLIAM BIRD, Esq., in the Chair. The following candidates were balloted for and duly elected:—

Allan, Thomas Lee, Philip B.
Aston, William MacAlpine, William
Barrett, Richard Marcoartu, Arturo de
Blews, W. H. M. McCormick, William
Boulton, George Merchant, Thomas
Brown, William Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A.
Canning, The Right Hon. Murray, Andrew

Wiscount Newcastle, His Grace the
Coe, John Duke of
Cottain, Edward Norris, John Pilkington
Cunningham, Henry Dun- | Peel, Sir Robert, Bart., M.P.

das Preston, R.N. Pollock, Henry Dargan, William Rae, William Fraser Dawson, John Reid, Hugo Drummond, Henry, M.P. Robinson, Frederick Elliott, George Augustus Smith, William Henry Fergus, John, M.P. Standring, Benjamin, Jun. Fife, The Earl of Stanley, i. M.P. Foley, John Hodgetts | Stansbury, Charles Fred.

Hodgetts, M.P. Fox, Wm. Johnson, M.P. Goode, William James Green, Stephen

Topham, James Tell Towneley, Charles, M.P. Travers, John Ingram Wallenn, William Henry

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Wallis, Thomas Henry
Wells, William, M.P.
Westminster, The Most
Noble the Marquis of .
White, John
White, John Francis
Wilson, John Robert

Jackson, Ralph Ward Winstone, Benjamin

James, Jabez Wovendon, Joseph
Knight, Valentine Zetland, The Earl of
Also the following as Honorary Corresponding
Poins, Professor, of Kasteele, M. Van de, of
Wiesbaden the Hague
The following Institutions have been taken
into Union since the last announcement —
$10, Galway, Royal Institution.

§ll. Hexham, Mechanics' Literary and Scientific Institution.

312. Spalding, Mechanics' Institute.

Previous to the reading of the paper, the Secretary drew attention to some large and magificent Photographs, which had been received to the Imperial Printing Office, at Vienna, *l which, though unequalled in superfices by oritish specimens, had been produced by an *glish lens, made by Ross. Also to a garment * cloak, manufactured from New Zealand flax, P"pared in the native manner, which had been sent for exhibition by Mr. W. Stones, who, in *"ommunication to the Secretary, said, that “it *ld be remembered that this fibre is obtained from the leaf of the plant, and not from the stem,

as in the case of ordinary flax. The leaf is from 4 to 7 inches in length, and from 3 to 5 inches broad; it grows in clumps, from a depressed stem, something like an iris. The leaf is very parenchymatous or fleshy, provision for the removal of which must be made in any machinery intended for the preparation of the fibre. The native mode is to scrape the leaves with a cockle shell, thus tediously separating the fleshy portion from the fibrous; and the peculiarity of this successful but laborious process should not be overlooked. It is stated that, on trial, the strength of this material was found to be much superior to many others in common use, as the following proportions will show :—Silk, 34; New Zealand Flax, 23 4-5ths. ; Hemp, 16 1-3rd. ; Flax, 11 3-4ths. ; Pita Flax, 7.” Specimens of Chinese muscles, containing the Artificial Pearls alluded to in a previous number (Wide Vol. 1, p. 587), were likewise shown. The Paper read was —


In presenting a paper on “Smoke Combustion,” it is unnecessary to premise that, under the prospective alteration of the law with regard to furnaces, the subject, interesting as it is to the public generally, must be particularly so to the Society of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. It is not intended to enter upon the various theories which have been advanced upon the subject, or to discuss the many inventions before the public, still less to bring forward any new theory, but to give the “results of absolute work,” in a successful attempt to remove the smoke nuisance from an extensive London brewery and its neighburhood. Messrs. Truman, Hanbury, Buxton, and Co. have for many years been desirous of removing the nuisance from their densely-populated neighbourhood, and for this purpose had tried most of the plans which previous to 1847 gave reasonable hopes of success. It is unnecessary to allude to the various plans which have been tried, though it may be excused if the writer refers to a partially successful attempt of his own. The boiler (a spherical one, without a tube) was set in the ordinary way, until the return side-flue reached . the fire-bars, when it was made to descend, and was connected with a cast-iron box, placed on a level with the furnace. This was repeated on the opposite side of the fire. The boxes being highly heated by the action of the fire, caused a rapid combustion of the smoke passing through them ; but unfortunately, the consumption of the smoke caused the destruction of the smoke-consumer—the box was destroyed by the heat inside . as well as outside. Fire tiles were afterwards substituted, but shared the same fate.

A general remark may here be made respecting many of the plans tried at the brewery,

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