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Institution as that which they had this evening met to Grammar School, then moved the resolution : "That the help forward. Government had now recognized the Birmingham and Midland Institute having for its prinecessity of education, and had expended last year mary object the education of our miners and artisans in 400,0001. for purposes of procuring instruction in Science the scientific principles of their daily avocations, and at and Art. As an incentive to exertion, he pointed to what the same time making provision for the literary and was being done by Holland, France, Switzerland, and scientific acquirements of other classes, is entitled to the the United States of America; while France with schools general and cordial support of the inhabitants of this of Manufactures, Polytechiny, and Fine Arts, distanced town and district." He remarked that he (Mr. Gifford) all competitors in the race of supplying high class Indus. believed it would be recognised as a sound rule of the trial Education ; and were they to permit France and the economy of labour to employ in each instrument, and in United States to make greater provision than themselves. each agent, that particular quality which was most rare They had hitherto been the foremost in the march of and valuable, and to apply each machine and each workcivilisation, and if they meant to maintain that position man to those particular branches of work which could not they must unite all their efforts, as by this alune would be performed at all, or could not be performed so well, they be enabled to keep pace with their competitors. by inferior agents. Let them apply that rule to mau, What were the special characteristics of their local indus. and he would venture to maintain that the chief value of try? He was told—and he had taken the trouble to man, viewed thus, lay not in hand or in arm, in bone or carefully ascertain it—that there were about two hundred in muscle, but in that intellect which enlightened and trades in this locality. Amongst them were some which, informed, that moral will and purpose which animated by the excellence of their manufacture and the facilities and controlled every movement of the frame so fearfully possessed in manufacturing, they had made entirely their and wonderfully made. It was perfectly obvivus own; unless, therefore, they gave to the working classes that by rendering the artisan more intelligent, and so opportunities of acquiring a knowledge of mechanical more skilful, we were increasing the industrial resources science, of artistic education, and of the application of and the profitable powers of our country.

He was steam power, no matter what their present reputation not one of those who thought or seemed to think was, one generation would suffice to sweep it away. If that ignorance was the only soil in which religion he rightly understood the objects of the Birmingham could Hourish. Their Institute did not encroach upon and Midland Institute, it would educate the practical the province of general education. By it they now miner, the artisan, and others, in the principles involved sought to give to those who either had been or were still in their daily avocations; it would afford to them a know- receiving a general education in their schools, the opporledge not only of the principles of mechanics, but also of tunity of extending their knowledge by studying such those tools and machines which were best suited for the branches of science as might be useful to them in after working of iron and metals generally. He considered life. that ignorance was a burden to the country, in the shape Mr. S. H. Blackwell, of Dudley, seconded the resolution. of poor and other rates; do away with it, and they would He trusted that as an employer of labour he might be nced fewer poor houses and jails. He then glanced at allowed to congratulate the meeting on the fact that the very the effect of emigration in creating a demand for labour, presence of so large and so important an assembly was, inalluded to the disastrous effect of strikes, such as are at deed, a convincing proof that they were at length arousing present going on, and to the importance of the refor-theniselves to a sense of the necessity of giving to the mation of juvenile offenders. He would remind the working classes a higher class of education thian had working pian that the paths of honour were in this country hitherto been afforded to them. It was no wonder to him open to all; the working classes could point to hundreds that in Birmingham, the centre of a great industrial disof themselves who have risen to the proudest pinnacles of trict, this truth had been discerned. It was, on the conhuman ambition. Rome reconciled the nations. She trary, a wonder that it had not been acted on long subdued by the cultivation of the Arts. This was a ago--for if they regarded the question involved in policy which might be followed with advantage by the establishment of the Institute even in the lowest England. He would urge the working classes to rally point of view—that of self-interest—they would be conround the standard of Education; it would lead them vinced that they could not work more efficiently for their not certainly to territorial conquests, but under the more own interests, or to the advantage of those connected with benign influences of the Arts, it would extend the blessings them, than by the circulation of education over as wide a of education to the remotest limits of the vast empire. range as possible. He would ask those who doubted this

Mr. Scholefield, M.P., in seconding the resolution, spoke truth to compare the past life of the world to that of the of the need of such an institution as that contemplated. present day: He would ask to whom they owed He pointed out the causes of failure in previous institutions the railroads ?—the electric telegraph ?--the steamwhich had been begun in the town. Their efforts, he ships bridging over the vast waters of the Atlantic? thought, had been too isolated and too much scattered. The answer was the same there. These things were the They had failed, moreover, by looking upon these institu- result of the combined wisdom, science, and skill, not of tions too much as things of a class, though those that had individuals but of great classes, in which they saw the been established possessed general advantages to a greater energy and enterprise of the capitalist, and the educated or less extent, but each had been of itself imperfect and hand of the artisan, as well as the rude labour of the uninefficient. There was one feature in it that he regarded skilled workman. And he would ask if the progress which of the utmost importance, that which had reference to the the world had made up to this time was a boon—if tho cultivation of industrial science. They had for a great progress towards a clearer knowledge of the natural laws number of years flattered themselves that this country by which the world was governed was a boon? Who took the lead of the world in manufacturing industry. He would doubt this? And if that progress was the expressaid that the supremacy of this country in manufactures sion of the knowledge which society had acquired, ought was now threatened. Not so much threatened, however, they not to hail every opportunity of making that knowby France and Germany as by the United States. To the ledge as universal as the name of man? working classes, it was a matter of life and death; and let The Ilon. and Rev. Grantham Yorke, in introducing them remember that intellect and skill meant high wages, the third resolution, namely, - meant moral, social, and political elevation. It was “ That the study of ornamental art in this town will be for these reasons he asked all classes--rich and poor, greatly promoted by the proposed association of the Gocapitalist and labourer—to come forward and assist in vernment School of Design with the Institute," dwelt this good work.

more particularly on the value of elementary inSir E. F. Scott supported the resolution.

struction ; if such was not attended to, he felt assured The Rev. E. H. Gifford, Head Master of the Free the proposed Institution would lack students.

was

essentially necessary that education, in its carlier stages, derived one-half from Government, and the other part should be remodelled, and an element introduced into it from low fees (or no fees at all) and charitable subscripat present in abeyance. In this view of the matter he tions. Now this was after sixteen years' existence; but was borne out by the letter of Dr. Playfair and the obser- in Dudley an elementary School of Design had been vations of Sir R. Kane, in respect to the Queen's College founded within the last six months, which, with no subat Cork. They should endeavour to unite the interests sidiary from Government except in the shape of a well. of the Institute with the elenientary schools, from which trained master whom the pupils themselves paid, and yet they would draw from time to time a class of youths more students in it than they had in Birmingham. fitted to receive its class instructions. Now he very The Ven. Archdeacon SANDFORD, then moved, “That heartily supported that resolution ; but it needed some the artisans of this town and district, being especially explanation. He thought that the association of the interested in the success of the undertaking, be invited to Government School of Ornamental Art with the Institute co-operate with the committee in the establishment of would be a mutual advantage; but he could not assent to the Institute." He was glad, he said, that a resolution the proposition that it required that counbination to pro- had been assigned to him that spoke of the artisans of mote the study of ornamental art in the town. They Birmingham, with whom he had every sympathy--the must either teach elementary branches in the Institute, men whose thews and sinews, whose intelligence, inor they must provide that those who came there must dustry and talents had mado Birmingham what it was; have elementary instruction before. It was an absurdity – their cousins across the Atlantic had for their principle, it would never do—to provide elementary schools in the progression ; they could even teach a lesson to the yacht Institute—and he did not see how it could be done except clubs and the Admiralty of England; Belgium could do by giving a sort of premium to the schools below it.

a good stroke of business in hardware; and France, with Mr. Peter Hollins, in seconding the resolution, alluded to whom might they never have any rivalry but that of the importance of Art to Birningham, and explained, at peace-would be glad to outstrip Birmingham in the same some length, the causes which led to the foundation of line. It was therefore of the first importance that their the Society of Artists. By transferring the present School of workmen should be intelligent and well-educated; that Design to the buildings of the Institute, when erected, two those who worked in metals should be well acquainted bodies would be benefited, namely, the School of Design by with chemistry, metallurgy, and the kindred sciences. increased accommodation, and the Society of Artists with rooms better fitted for their annual exhibitions. Nobody believed if the artisans did not co-operate, the Institute

Mr. Geo. Wallis seconded the resolution, because he would tell him that the manufacturer did not need educa- would be established in vain; anal as to how much tion as well as the artizan; they must educate the em- they could do, he would merely instance that the workpaver and the public to.

ing men of Manchester raised £3,000 towards a public Mr. H. Cole, C.B., said the proposer of the first resolu- park ; and the artisans of Cincinnati had contributed funds tion had reminded them that the year 1831 was memora- sufficient to put up a splendid observatory: The artisans ble in connection with the Reform Bill, and that the of America were the most intelligent of their class to be praent year would in times to como be regarded as an found in the world. In the city of Philadelphia £120,000 equally important epoch in the history of the Education was spent in primary education, and £50,000 in the city questión. Now, he (Mr. Cole) would say, that as Bir- 1 of Boston. They could not suppose that a people so alive mingham took perhaps the lead in the political movement to the importance of such instruction would be very long of 1831, so he thought he might fairly say that it was now behind in the question of secondary education, in the the first town to take the lead in the movement for pro- question of the application of science and art, in the moting industrial education. It seemed to him perfectly question in which they would ere long bo very much fornatural that it should be so, for if there was any one town warder than they now were. in the kingdom where mind, and hand labour, and machinery, were all so united together-where machinery felt great pleasure in supporting the resolution, believing

Mr. Thomas Preston said, that as a working man, le alone did not bear a preponderance, as it did in many that the proposed Institution would confer a great and la ttowns-where, in fact, the human agent guiding that machinery and guided by it, was able to produce the de- ing benefit on this great and important town. tails of his work in exact proportion as he was educated opinion it would fiil up a gap in the measure of scientific then that town was Birmingham. It therefore seemed to knowledge which had hitherto been so sparingly dealt (ut him that they were consulting exactly their own interests to the working meu of Birmingham ; for his own part lie in endeavouring to procure the best possible industrial could say that he looked back with pleasure to the instruceducation—but he would bo misleading them if he did tion he derived from the lectures at the old Mechanics' not show that there were difficulties to be overcome Institution; and he hoped soon to find a similar source of before they could hope tu attain succesz. After they pleasure and usefulness in the new Institution. He thought haul got their Institute erected-let their building be as

that Birmingham was badly off in this respect; at present spacious as it might, their professors the most eminent the working man had no means of employing his leisure men that could be found, their capital not at all stinted— hours in such a manner as would most conduce to his it would undoubtedly prove a lamentable failure unless instruction and advantage; and if an Institution like the care was taken to sow the seed beforehand in the manner

one now sought to be established were once in existence, which had been explained by Mr. Yorke. The past it would be found to be better not only for the working man filteen years' experience of the department of Government but for society at large. with which he was connected had proved that the plant

The Society of Arts has long had its attention turned ing of institutions such as that, and expecting thein to to this most important subject, as one vitally affecting tho gtuk up in soils where no seed had been sown, was as

future interests of this country, in its trade and material h peless as the expectation that oak trees would grow wealth. In the report on Industrial Education, issued by without acorns being thrown into the ground. Govern

the Council some months since, an education moro ment and individuals had been trying their hand at the artistic, and more scientific, and one more in conformity establishment of Schools of Design, but for want of good with the realities of life than has been hitherto afforded, foundations they had been more or less failures. Birming- is strongly insisted upon, and enforced by a mass of ham must, therefore, in primary education, lay the foun- evidence, collected from meu of all ranks and opinions. dation for their new Institute. He cautioned them against The Council cannot but feel a pride that the initiative in any reliance on the begging box or private munificence this great work has been practically taken up by ove of to the maintenance of the institution. It must be self- the most important centres of manufacturing industry. apporting. Their School of Design, with 500 pupils, bail an income of cleven or twelve hundred pounds a year,

ON THE FOOD OF MAN. (a)

although he admitted, as an anomaly, that the inhabiBy Dr. Lyon PlayFair, C.B., F.R.S.

tants of tropical climates often show a predilection for

fatty or carbonaceous bodies. He then drew attention to The author commenced by adverting to our very the extraordinary records of Arctic dietaries shown in the imperfect acquaintance with the statistics of Food. We table, which, admitting that they are extreme cases, even are still ignorant regarding the quantity of the different in the Arctic Regions, are nevertheless very surprising. proximate constituents of aliment necessary for man's Dr. Playfair then alluded to the second great class of sustenance, even in his healthy and normal condition. If food ingredients, viz., those of the same composition as the question were asked-How much carbon should an flesh. Beccaria, in 1742, pointed to the close resemblance adult man consume daily ?- there would be scarcely more between these ingredients of flesh, and asked “ Is it not than one reliable answer, viz., that the soldiers of the true that we are composed of the same substances which body-guard of the Duke of Darmstadt eat about 11 oz.(6) serve as our nourishment ?” In fact the simplicity of this of carbon in the daily supply of food.

view is now generally acknowledged ; and albumen, If again the question were asked-How much flesh- gluten, casein, &c., are now recognized as flesh-formers forming matter supports an adult man in a normal con in the same sense that any animal aliment is. After dition ?-no positive answer could be given. Even, as alluding to the mineral ingredients, attention was directed respects the relation between the carbon in the tiesh-forming to a dict-table, which contained some modifications, but matter and that of the heat-givers, we have no reliable was based on the one published in the Agricultural information. It is true that certain theoretical conclu: Cyclopædia under the article Diet; the table as shown tions on this head have been drawn from the composition being used in the calculation of the dietaries. of flour, but no real statistical answer deduced from actual

The old mode of estimating the value of dietaries, by experience exists.

merely giving the total number of ounces of solid food When we inquire into the cause of our ignorance on used daily or weekly, and quite irrespective of its compothese points, it is found that the progress to knowledge is sition, was shown to be quite erroneous; and an instance surrounded with difficulties. Neither chemistry nor was given of an agricultural labourer in Gloucestershire, physiology is in a sufficiently advanced state to grapple who in the year of the potato famine subsisted chiefly on satisfactorily with the subject of nutrition. For example, flour, consuming 163 ounces weekly, which contained we know that albumen in an egg is the starting-point for 26 ounces of flesh-formers. When potatoes cheapened, a whole series of tissues; that out of the egg comes he returned to a potato-diet, and now eat 321 ounces feathers, claws, fibrine, membranes, cells, blood corpus- weekly, although his true nutriment in flesh-formers cles, nerves, &c., but only the result is known to us ; the was only about eight or ten ounces.

He showed this intermediate changes and their causes are quite unknown. further, by calling attention to the six pauper dictaries After all, this is but a rude and unsatisfactory knowledge. formerly recommended, to the difference between the salt Hence, when we approach the subject it is only to and fresh meat dietary of the sailor, &c., all of which, deal with very rough generalities. Admitting that the relying on absolute weight alone, had in reality no relation experience of man in diet is worth something, it is possible in equivalent nutritive value. to arrive at some conclusions by the statistical method-

Attention was now directed to the diagrams exemplithat is, by accepting experience in diet and analyzing that fying dietaries. Taking the soldier and sailor as illustraexperience. Take, for example, the one general line of ting healthy adult men, they consumed weekly about 35 Pauper Diet for the English counties placed in the table ounces of flesh-formers, 70 to 74 ounces of carbon, the at the end of this notice. The mode of arriving at the relation of the carbon in the flesh-formers to that of the result of experience, in the case of paupers, was to collect heat-givers being 1 : 3. If the dietaries of the aged were it from every workhouse in the kingdom, and then to contrasted with this, it would be found that they conreduce it to one line. But the labour of this is immense. sumed less flesh-formers (25—30 ounces), but rather more In the preparation of this one line the following work had heat-givers (72—78 ounces); the relation of carbon in the to be performed in acquiring the data. :

former to that of the latter being about 1:5. The young Number of Unions applied to

542

boy, about ten or twelve years of age, consumed about 17 Number of Explanatory letters sent to them 700

ounces weekly, or about half the flesh-foriners of the Number of Calculations to reduce the results 47,696

adult man; the carbon being about 58 ounces weekly, Number of Additions of the above calculations 6,868 and the relation of the two carbons being nearly 1:54. Number of Extra hours, beyond the office hours,

The circumstances under which persons are placed influence paid to a Clerk for the reduction

1,248
these proportions considerably.

In workhouses and The statistical method, besides being very laborious, is prisons the warmth renders less necessary a large amount extremely tedious, and has thus deterred persons from of food-fuel to the body ; while the relative amount of encountering it. In giving, therefore, an example of labour determines the greater or less amount of fleshsome of the results which have been collected within the formers. Accordingly it is observed that the latter are last few years, they will represent much labour, but very increased to the prisoners exposed to hard labour. From little or no originality.

the quantity of flesh-formers in food, we may estimate The lecturer then alluded shortly to the conditions in approximatively the rate of change in the body: Now a nutrition, which must be borne in mind in looking at

man weighing 140 lbs. has about 4 lbs. of flesh in blood, these results. It was now admitted that the heat of the 274 lbs. in his muscular substance, &c., and about 5lbs. body was due to the combustion of the unazotised ingredi- of nitrogenous matter in the bones. These 37 lbs. would ents of food. Man inspires annually about 7 cwt. of oxy- be received in food in about eighteen weeks ; or, in other gen, and about one-fifth of this burns some constituent words, that period might represent the time required for and produces heat. The whole carbon in the blood the change of the tissues, if all changed with equal would thus be burned away in about three days, unless rapidity, which is, however, not at all probable. new fuel were introduced as food. The amount of food

All the carbon taken as food is not burned in the body, necessary depends upon the number of respirations, the part of it being excreted with the waste matter. Suprapidity of the pulsations, and the relative capacity of the posing the respirations to be 18 per minute, a man expires lungs. Cold increases the number of respirations and about 8.59 oz. of carbon daily, the remainder of the heat dimini-hes them; and the lecturer cited well known carbon appearing in the excreted matter. cases of the voracity of residents in Arctic Regions, In conclusion, Dr. Playfair explained how the dietary

(m)This is an Abstract of a Lecture given at the Weekly tables elucidated the various admixtures of food common Evening Meeting at the Royal Institution. Friday, May 6,1853. to cookery, and how they might even be made to bear on

(Liebig states it at a higher amount, but this is a re-calcula- certain national characteristics, which were in no small tion from the new food tables.

degree influenced by the aliments of different nations.

.

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DIETARIES OF SOLDIERS AND SAILORS. English Soldier

Ditto in India English Sailor (Fresh Meat)

Ditto (Salt Meat)
Dutch Soldier, in War

Ditto in Peace
French Soldier
Bavarian, ditto.
Hessian, ditto ,

DIETARIES OF THE YOUNG.
Christ's Hospital, Hertford

Ditto London.
Chelsca Hospital, Boys' School
Greenwich Hospital, ditto.

DIETARIES OF THE AGED.
Greenwich Pensioners
Chelsea ditto
Gillespie Hospital, Edinburgh
Trinity Hospital, ditto

OLD PAUPER DIETARIES.
Class 1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6.
Average of all English Counties in 185i
St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh.
City Workhouse, ditto

ENGLISH PRISON DIETARIES.
Class 2 Males

3. ditto 4, 4, 8 & 9. ditto

5. ditto
6. & 7. ditto

BENGAL Prison DIETARIES.
Non-Labouring Convicts
Working Convicts
Contractors' insufficient Diet

BOMBAY Prison DIETARIES.
All Classes of Prisoners not on Hard Labour
Hard Labour

ARCTIC AND OTHER DIETARIES.
Esquimaux
Yacut
Bosjesman.
Hottentot .
Agricultural Labogrer, England
Ditto

ditto Ditto

20.21
14 96
15.78
19.22
15.49
14.67
22.0
14.80
13.30

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107

3.31
1,74

5.85 i 4.36 i

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250.0 999.0 574.0 424.0 26.64 20,39 14.02

| 1280.0

640.0 368.0 400.0 106.57

72.46 138.27

1125.0p 966.0p 555.Op 604.02

74.709 51.729 61,54r

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163.6 114.6 218.0

1.10
1.18
2.41

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India

a Public Dietaries. 6 MULDER,

c Special Return obtained. m Convicted Prisoners, Hard Labour, for terms exceeding 4 months. OLLEDIG. e Special Returns obtained. f Special Returns obtained. n Solitary Confinement. The 6 dietaries recoinmended as equivalent by the Poor Law o From information supplied from the India House. Commissioners.

p These probably represent Extreme cases, mentioned by the folA Specially reduced from all the Unions in 1851. i Special Returns. & Convicted Prisoners, Hard Labour, exceeding 21 days but not Agric. Cyc. article Diet. Convicted Prisoners exceeding 7 days, but not exceeding 21 days: lowing authorities: --Ross, 1835, p. 448. Parry, 1823, p. 413. Coch

rane, p. 255. Saritcheff. Barrow, pp. 152, 259. Richardson, vide more than 6 weeks. Conficted Prisoners, Hard Labour, above 6 weeks and not more

q Gloucestershire and Dorsetshire. See Agric. Cyclopædia. r Dharwar, Bombay-Return in Bombay Prison Dietaries,

than 4 months.

LETTER TY.

Home Correspondence.

“The subject divides itself into two parts; first, that wbich relates to the culture and trcatment of the Flax ; secondly,

that which relates to my new Machinery, intended to preFLAX, AND ITS PRODUCTS, IN IRELAND. pare it for the manufacturer. I will, therefore, endeavour to

confine my remarks, as far as it may be practicable, under the CONTRIBUTED'BY WM. CUARLEY, SEYMOUR Hill, BELFAST. heads to which they respectively belong.

"THE FLAX.—The culture of the plant is so well understood

in Ireland, that very little is necessary to be said in respect to In several of my previous communications, extracts of it, and that little I have condensed into a paper attached to this interesting matter, collected in the published reports of the report, in order to pass, without interruption, to other topics, Linen Board, have been freely made, and in this paper, about which public opinion seems to be less established. It has which is devoted to the elucidation of Mr. Lec's “ patent been contended, that the humidity of the climate of Ireland fax-preparing process," I think I cannot do better than renders it unfavourable to the adoption of a process for preparing allow your readers to have the description of the patent flax and hemp which purports to dispense with either water or written by the inventor himself. This gentleman, though dew-rotting. I am not of that opinion, and I am ready to be greatly unsuccessful, must have possessed a good deal of judged by a reference to the flax which the country produces

.

. I found most of the flax plant talent and ingenuity, as he converted to his views the which was managed according to the instructions of this process, intelligent gentlemen composing the Linen Board. For well saved, both in colour and quality ; its fitness to meet the several years they paid very large sums for the patent machinery was proved by the facility with which it was brought machines, and offered premiunus for cloth made from into that state of softness and whiteness which was so much tax prepared in this new way; but all of no avail, admired in the English flax prepared in a similar manner. thousands of pounds were lavished in vain on this “The seed was in every respect fit for sowing or crushing. I “ dazzling but illusory experiment."

refer you to the two small parcels of flax which I lately sent you The blazing beacon of radical reform burned brightly as they came from the field. Ore, with the seed thrashed out, for a time, but soon subsided, and the gentler light of was taken from some grown by Sir Thomas Foster, near Dunconservative progress happily occupied its place.

In | dalk; the other, with the seed on, was taken from what was everything reforms, to be successful, must be gradual, and grown by Mr. Curtis, near Lisburn; both of them are, like theories, however beautiful on paper, must stand the other parcels that I collected, fit for the finest purposes ; all, to automatic test of practical experience before they can be coloured, which, I am disposed to believe, arose from having been

sure, was not equally good, for some appeared sour and discrusted.

sown too late, and from want of attention after the flax bad No doubt all improvements must have a moderate been pulled. Flax of this description produces but little tibre, beginning, and I am aware of several trials, scientifically and what it gives is of inferior quality, and is not easily preeonducted, that were not at first particularly flattering pared by any process. . I am rather confirmed in this opinion, ventually lead to great results. The truth was in the by observing, that of the large quantities of flax grown in the newly-discovered principle; but it required time for its neighhourhood of London, under my own inspection, whatever clear development from the dark clouds of ignorance in is sown early is uniformly superior, both in colour and quantity, which it was almost entirely concealed. Mr. Williamson's to what is sown late, and I have observed that this difference able letter, a copy of which I intend sending hereafter, has taken place in all places where the land has been equal in with the resolutions of 34 of the leading merchants, the same effects in other parts of England, and in all other coun

quality and condition. The same causes are found to produce agreed to at Belfast, will explain very clearly the main tries where fax is cultivated—but the spring frosts of Ireland objections to Mr. Lee's system.

are said to be inimical to early sowing. I have also been told by an old friend that the quantity

• They are, it is said, “fatal to a plant the native of a warm of tibre Mr. Lee's expensive machinery turned out was so climate. I am not well enough acquainted with the climate of observably small in comparison with the cost and bulk of Ireland to know the prevalence or severity of those frosts, but I his utensils, that this defect in itself would have con- have yet to learn why flax, which is found to grow in so many demned the entire affair. While agreeing in this con- different climates, and to prosper principally in those that are demnation, all but universally pronounced on Mr. Lee's cold, can be said to be the native of a warm one. In England patent, I have carefully looked for some redeeming it meets, without injury, the night frosts of March, and is conquality, the discovery of which might be some compen- sidered a healthy plant in every country where it grows. The sation for the time and money spent.

new process recommends, therefore, early sowing and carly The only point pressed by Mr. Lee that to me appears stated in the annexed paper. It requires, in short, like other

pulling; that is, at the periods and under the circumstances of much value, is the use of soap in bleaching. I have processes, an attention to the directions given, and, with that no hesitation in saying that it saponaceous compounds were attention, all the objects which it holds out to the country may, more applied in our bleaching process than they com. and must be, accomplished. monly are, the strength of the fibre would be greatly The former practice of steeping the fax of Ireland, and the increased. After the many severe and caustic preparations proposed means of avoiding it in future, naturally interest the the linen has to pass through, the soap has the effect, so Irish public. Opinions seem a little unsettled on the subject, in to speak, of balm; it restores the essential oil extracted consequence of a letter from Mr. Robert Williamson, of the by the alkalies and acids, and keeps the fibre in a mellow county of Antrim, dated the 1st of December, 1815. He states, and healthy state. I do not mean to say that Mr. Lee manufacture of fine linens it cannot be cleaned and prepared by

first, That with respect to flax pulled green and fit for the was the inventor of saponaceous applications in bleaching, the new machinery, and that the steeping process is the best yet but in his patent system he advocated their use, and it is discovered for separating its woody parts from its fibre ; and therefore only fair to give șim credit where he is evidently 2nd, that if the unsteeped flax of Ireland be found answerable right. With these prefatory remarks I submit Mr. Lee's for the manufacture of the coarser fabrics, it can be cleaned description of his own patent :

with greater facility by the old method.' Preferring, therefore, " Letter of Mr. James Lee, of Old Ford, in the County

of according to the old modes of steeping, spreading, drying, beet

to persevere in conducting the linen manufacture of Ireland Middlesex, Inventor of the New Process for preparing and Hemp, to James Corry, Esq , Secretary to the Trustces ling, and scutching, with all their manifold objections to the of the Linen and Hemp Manufactures of Ireland.

advantages available to the country from modern discovery. "I beg Jeave to lay before you, for the information of the Mr. Williamson was one of those gentlemen of Ireland who did trustees of the linen and hempen manufactures, the results of my

me the honour of supporting the new process on its introduction, observations during the two visits which I made to Ireland, in

" His fullest approbation of it was expressed in a letter to the course of the last year, for the purpose of introducing and your Board of the 7th of July last, and I was the more flattered establishing there the improved process for preparing and dress- by his opinion from the pains that he took to make himself acing flax and hemp."

quainted with the subject before he pronounced it.' (This

letter of Mr. Williamson's is too long to transcribe here; After some further introductory observations Mr. Lee though cautiously worded, the expressions therein are rather in proceeds :

favour of Mr. Lee's invention.]

66

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