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By Washing, is meant every process which depends Grinders. In California the principal ones in use have for its efficacy upon the superior specific gravity of hitherto been the Mexican Arrastras, and the Chilian MIII
. the precious metal, as compared with the substances with Stampers may be driven either by machinery or by which it is mixed, in a state of such freedom as to allow it hand. There is one apparatus worked by machinery. to subside from thein after being mechanically suspended in which vertical wooden beams are so attached to large in water. Of these processes, that of panning may be masses of cast iron, that when raised by cams, or eccenconsidered the type. The appliance used in this method trics, placed around a moveable axle, and corresponding is a shallow cone-shaped pan or dish, into which the with tongues attached to the lifters themselves, they fall auriferous sand or earth is thrown, and agitated by on the ore placed beneath them, and by repeated blows hand with water. The gold particles subside to the reduce it to a fine powder. A large wooden trough is deep centre of the pan, while the lighter matters pass off placed below, in which are openings filled with gratings with the water, which is allowed to escape over its sides. of perforated sheet-iron. A stream of water flows It is obvious that in such a process small particles of gold through this trough, and carries out with it all the par—too small to be visible to the naked eye-must be lost; ticles that are sufficiently fine to pass through the perfofor, notwithstanding its weight, gold may be so minutely rations in the sheet-iron. The gold contained in the divided as to float upon the surface of the water, or to re- powder is collected and preserved by subsidence, on the main in it, and move with it, in a state of indifference. To principle before described. In the hand apparatus, which is this class of machines belong those in which the auriferous worked by a winch, the stampers are lifted and dropped matter, suspended in water, is allowed to pass down in- by means of an endless chain, which catches into tongues clined planes, meeting in its course, at the bottom of the on the upper ends of the stampers. The links and stream, certain obstructions, which detain the gold, while tongues are so arranged that the stampers are lifted and they allow the lighter matters to pass on and escape. let fall in succession. An inclined table for collecting The machinery employed in the mines of the Ural, the gold by subsidence is attached to the apparatus ; the where the work is done chiefly by stamping and washing, arrangement for carrying off the finely-powdered ore in is an illustration of this process.
water being substan ially the same as in the other maIn another apparatus the hide of animals, with the hair chine. In stamping machinery there is a great loss of power on, and turned against the course of the stream, is em by friction, as there are necessarily numerous rulling ployed to secure the fine auriferous particles as they find parts. There is also another difficulty. When reduced their way to the bottom of the stream. The hides are to the state of coarse sand, the ore begins to pack beneath occasionally withdrawn, and freed from their precious the pestles, and though the first coarse division is effected load by washing in proper vats.
with great rapidity, the subsequent part of the process is The cradle-rocker, or long tom, of the Californian emi- extremely slow and laborious. Simple percussion, more. grant, is another application of the same principle. over, does not seem to be sufficient to reduce such sub
The “ Dolly Tub" may be used either as a washer or stances to the state of an impalpable powder. There is amalgamator. When used as a washer, the dasher or needed, in addition, å rubbing or grinding motion. In. agitator is employed tɔ mix thoroughly with water the deed the ore has to be passed from the stampers to the auriferous sands or earth that may be thrown into the tub mill, before it is supposed to be ready for the amalgaby violently agitating them. It is then withdrawn, and mator. the suspended substances subside to the lower portion of In a rude form of mill, known as the “Mexican Raster," the tub, arranging themselves in the order of their specific or “ Arrastra,” in California, the grinding is effected by gravities
. The water on the top is then drawn off by the dragging or rubbing of stone mullers over a bed stono meatis of a tap in the side of the tnb, when the golden of hard granite, enclosed by a wooden tub. This process is particles will be found at the bottom of the remaining mass of course slow, and the friction is immense. The reducIf used as an amalgamator, the agitator is employed to tion to fine powder is, however, inost effectually accombring the mercury and pulverized ore in contact with each plished. A large rough stone is sometimes rolled over other by the rapid revolution and agitation of the whole the stamped and broken ore, as a modification of the
above apparatus. The process of smelting will not be further alluded to A crushing machine, which has attracted a good deal in the present paper, inasmuch as it is evidently a pro- of public attention, and was thought at one time to Cess not applicable to the general wants of the gold-seekers promise good results, is that of Mr. Cochrane.
In of the present day, because it requires means and ap- this machine the wheels of the Chilian Mill are repliances not within their reach. And as has been before placed by balls, which are worked by the pressure of a shown, it is also a process much more expensive than the revolving dome of iron placed above them. The idea best methods now known of securing gold from its parent was no doubt ingenious, but the
leading defects of the fork.
Chilian Mill are retained, in addition to which there is Next in order is the method of amalgamation, which is the friction between the balls and the dome, which, as it the one most relied upon by practical men for securing the is the source of power, must be at least equal to the work desired product. The process of amalgamation involves, of done.
The basin remains horizontal, and the ore, after course, the previous reduction of the ore to a finely-divided being pulverized, has to be amalgamated in a separate state, in which alone the mercury can seize upon the gold apparatus. The wear of a machine, depending for its and secure it ; and the great object hitherto had in view has power upon the friction of iron surfaces
, must obviously be been to produce machinery capable of bringing the rock very rapid, and the resulting powder mußt have a very to such a state of powder as to allow the mercury to be considerable
admixture of iron in a state of fine division> brought into complete contact with every particle of the the result of the wearing away of the superincumbent precious metal. This has been attempted by means of dome. machinery for crushing, stamping, and grinding:
Rollers are sometimes used for crushing and reduction to a More breaking down of the ore is a comparatively easy powder. The objection to them is that they do not crush the process. The question between the machines hitherto ore sufficiently fine. They only act at a single line of contact, invented is simply one of the quantity of work done with and as there is an apparatus for imparting elasticity to prea given atnount of power; for they all
, at greater or less vent accidents, which allows the rollers to recede from each expense, perform the operation of crushing to a coarse other when a lump of unusual hardness presents itself, powder with about equal perfection. It is between this much undivided ore must pass through along the whole enese division and an impalpable powder that the differ- line of the rollers whenever they are kept apart by such
The machinery for pulverizing used in gold-mining again be lifted and passed through the rollers. And it is districts is chiefly of three kinds: Stampers, Crushers, and found after all that the powder produced is comparatively
coarse; too much so, indeed, to admit of perfect amalga- important improvement in gold amalgamating apparatus,
If these principles thus explained are now applied to the
, and rubbing motious combined. amalgamates at the same operation, and needs but a few 2 and 3. It does not amalgamate at the instant of modifications to become a neat, perfect apparatus crushing or at the bottom of the mercury, because, the for all those processes. In this millo largo and heavy trough being horizontal, and the action of the wheels cast iron wheels move round in a trough, over the being all in the same direction in the trough, a current is ore to be operated upon. A large quantity of quick- created around the trough, which carries mercury and oro silver is placed in the bottom of the trough, and water is around with it, and causes the mercury constantly to supplied at the top. The ore is ground by the double action elude the lower part of the wheels where the crushing is of rolling and grinding, for the outer side of the wheels, going on. which are attached to a centre shaft, must slip as well as 4.—No heat is applied, but the mercury is cold and roll. The action is like that of the mill used in potteries " stiff." for grinding clay and broken earthenware. Amalgama- 5.--In case it is attempted to grind and amalgamato tion takes place simultaneously with the grinding, and with comparatively little water, the mercury is very the refuse is carried off in suspension in water.
badly broken up by the action of the wheels, and inuch Having spoken in terms thus favourable of the old loss is the consequence. With a greater quantity of Chilian mill, this may, perhaps, be the proper place to water the current produced operates as before described, enumerate the qualities which it is thought a perfect gold to carry the mercury away from the crushing point, and ore reducing apparatus should possess.
also to wash the powdered ore away before it has been First, It should grind the ore to an impalpable powder, sufficiently operated upon. In the opposite case the
in order to do which it should have a combined wheels have to do more work than necessary, as they rolling and rubbing action.
pass many times over the ore which has already been Second, - It should amalgamate at the instant of pulverized. crushing.
It is obvious, then, that the Chilian mill, while it fulfils Third, - It should amalgamate at the point of crushing some of the requisites of a perfect apparatus, falls short of
or below the surface of the mercury. In order to others of the greatest importance.
all the five conditions necessary to amalgamating apparaFourth,- It should heighten the affinity of the mercury tus, is what is called at the diggings the miner's assayfor the gold by the application of heat.
a method employed at the mines for determining the Fifth, It should lose no mercury in the process. value of ores which it is proposed to work. In this
The first point--the necessity for fine division-has process the mortar and pestle are employed. Mercury already been sufficiently insisted upon, and is indeed too is put in the mortar, the ore to be tested is thrown obvious to need further remark.
in and covered with hot water, when the operation 2nd,—The necessity for amalgamating at the instant begins. The pulverization is perfectly effected by the of crushing, will be apparent on reflecting that the parti- rolling and grinding, or rubbing action of the spherical cles of gold may be so small, or so flattened into flakes end of the pestle; the mercury is kept at the point of or leaves as to rise in the water and pass off with it and crushing in the bottom of the mortar, and is kept heated be lost. Or they may, in being mixed with the refuse by the boiling water. Here, then, are all the necessary conmud, become so coated over with it, that the mercury ditions-perfect pulverization, and instant amalgamation, will not seize upon them at all. There is no doubt that by pure and hot mercury. On a large scale, the cost of much loss has occurred in this way.
heating sufficient water to attain the result here indicated 3rd, -Amalgamation at the bottom of the mercury is a would, of course, be a great practical difficulty. Some point which seems hitherto to have escaped the attention other method of heating would have to be adopted. it deserves. The surface of mercury is covered at all Those who have seen Mr. Berdan's machine will at once times with a filin of oxide which must interfere materially perceive that it embraces every principle of the miner's with the perfection and rapidity of its action in amalga- assay, while it avoids the expensive process of heating mating. But in addition to this it is constantly covered water in large quantities. The inventor is a practical in practice with the mud and refuse from the grinding and scientific mechanic, whose attention has long been operation, which much increases the difficulty of bringing directed to the subject, and the invention has been prothe whole of the gold-in its condition of flour of gold-duced at great labour and expense. In order to obtain into perfect contact with its surface. But at the bottom all the information bearing upon the subject, Mr. Berdan of the mercury both of these difficulties are entirely sent two practical engineers to California, with instructions avoided. In order that amalgamation should take place to study the wants of the miner, and all the appliances at the bottom of the mercury, and at the instant of crush- which had been adopted to supply them. It was upon a inz, it is necessary that the mercury should be kept full report of all the facts in the case, that he set about the constantly at the crushing point. There it seizes upon production of this machine, which really seems to have the fine particles of gold the moment they are liberated met the requirements. It performs, at one operation, the from their rocky matrix.
pulverizing, washing, and amalgamating of the ore. The increase of attraction which takes place between The construction of the apparatus is simple. It consists gold and mercury by heat, is a point of great importance. of a cast-iron basin, seven feet in diameter, revolving upon It may be illustrated by a simple experiment." Take a an inclined axis or shaft. In this basin are placed two sovereign and dip it in a spoonful of cold mercury, and cast-iron balls, the larger one thirty-four inches in diaobserve what proportion it will take up. Then heat the meter, and weighing two and a half tons, the smaller one mercury by holding a spoon over the lamp, and notice twenty-four inches in diameter, and weighing one ton. the greatly increased quantity which will cling to the Under the basin, and attached to and revolving with it, coin. It was this simple trial, indeed, that resulted in an is a furnace of conical form. The whole is hung in a
strong framework of timber, and receives motion from constantly urge the contained matters to the top of the hand, horse, or steam power, by means of simple cog. vessels, where they escape through a proper exit spout. gearing. The operation is as follows:- Fire is made in the furnace
DISCUSSION. beneath the basin ; quicksilver is placed in the basin, and The CHAIRMAN said, he was sure they must all feel the auriferous ore is thrown in, in lumps ofconsiderable size. obliged to Mr. Stansbury for his very interesting paper, The apparatus is then set in motion; the balls, by their and he begged to move a vote of thanks to that gentleman. gravity, revolving in a direction opposite to that of the The vote having been passed, basin. The two balls, moving in contact with each other Professor TENNANT being called upon to address and with the inclined bottom of the basin, receive a spiral the meeting, said, he could not give any information as well as a rotary motion—a combination which is found relative to Berdan's machine, not having had an opto possess the greatest efficiency in the pulverization of the portunity of witnessing its working, though he had had ore. The ore is brought under the balls, and instantly many invitations to do so. In reference to the observacrushed to an impalpable powder. The crushing is effected, tions implying that large quantities of gold were to be of course, at the point of contact between the large ball found in this country, he was afraid the public mind and basin, and below the surface of the mercury. Thus, might be led to believe they were about to have a Calithe moment the gold is disengaged, it comes in contact fornia or Australia at home. Now there was no instance with pire and heated mercury, which seizes upon and in which the workings for gold in the British Islands secures it. The refuse powder rises to the surface of the had been ultimately productive. In every case it had quieksilver, whence it is carried off, in the form of a thin been found that it cost 339. or 40s. to obtain one pound's pašte, by a small stream of water, which runs in at the worth of gold. Some years since, gold was found in the npper side of the basin, and escapes through suitable open- Highlands of Scotland, on the property of the Marquis ings, just below its rim, into a trough placed for the pur- of Breadalbane, who proposed to work it, until he was pe. The tailings, or refuse, may thus be preserved for assured it would cost from 30s. to 40s. for every sovereign analysis if desired.
obtained. The condition of the gold in this country, and The novel features of the machine are both mechanical Australia and California, was very different–in the latter and chemical. The arrangement of an inclined revolving places, nature having been at work for many centuries in basin in connection with balls of corresponding size and decomposing the rocks from which the gold was washed weight, produces a rolling and grinding motion, which it down into the rivers and streams, from which it was comis believed has never heretofore been attained. The che- paratively easily obtained. Attempts had been made to mical novelty consists in the heating of the mercury, produce gold from the quartz, but he was not aware which has never been attempted on a large scale before. that either in Australia, or California, results had yet
It is to be observed that this machine is not simply a been obtained to prove it could be worked at a profit. crusher, but that it does all the work necessary to secure
Mr. Moorord, of the Poltimore Mining Company, said, the desired product in combination with mercury. It after the observations of the last speaker he felt bound to crushes, washes, and amalgamates at one and the same make a few remarks. The Poltimore mines, in Devonoperation. The simplicity of its parts, the almost entire shire, had been at work for the last twelve months, and avoidance of friction in its gearing, and the trifling power 40 tons of ore had been sent to Messrs. Rawlings and required to work it, render it an important addition to Watson, of St. Heleny, near Liverpool, for reduction. The miniug machinery, and worthy of being subjected to cost had been : In bringing the ore to grass 3s. per ton, every test that practical and scientific men can devise. It freight 17s., and reduction 30s., whilst the produce had is found that a machine consisting of four basins in one been about 50 oz. of gold. Since that time, 120 tons frame, will pulverize, wash, and amalgamate about forty had been sent to the Messrs. Rawlings for reduction, who, tons of ore, of average hardness, in ten hours, with fifteen- after deducting every charge, had sent them a cheque for horse power. Any number of basins can be used in one 1701. or 1801., as the protit. They had since entered frame, and driven by one main shaft.
into an engagement with Mr. Berdan to erect machines at The peculiarities of this invention do not consist in the the mines, where there was an almost unlimited supply use of balls and basins; but, 1st, — The inclining of the of gossan, from which they expected to obtain gold at an shast on which the basin revolves, which keeps the mer- expense not exceeding 10s. per ton. They had tested the curs always at the crushing point, and causes the balls machines at Mr. Berdan's, in the presence of Mr. John to work by gravity. 2nd, - The production of a coinbineil Wilson, of the firm of Rawlings and Watson, when the rolling and grinding action by the contact of the balls ; | brown gossan, of which there were specimens in that and, 3rd, — The addition of heat to the mercury by means room, produced 13 dwt. of gold to the ton, and the red of the furnace below the basin. No machine which does gossan 32 dwt.--and Mr. Wilson expressed himself pernot combine these three peculiarities, can be considered fectly satisfied with the working, the reduction which, as having a resemblance to Berdan's. This machine
under the system of his firm, would have cost 30s. per
ton, being made at a comparatively trifling cost. Ho 1. Grinds the ore to an impalpable powder.
believed that, in twelve months, they would be in a con2. It amalgamates at the instant of crushing.
dition to prove that gold could be most profitably pro3. It amalgamates below the surface of the mercury.
duced in England. There was one circumstance to which 4. It heats the mercury used in amalgamating.
he wished to call attention, as having a great effect in 6. It has attached to it an auxiliary machine, which discouraging mining operations in England—the right of entirely prevents loss of mercury.
the Crown to a proportion of all the produce. Ho This auxiliary machine is called a separator, and is as trusted, now that free trade was established--the relic of simple in its construction as the principal machine. The feudal times of the Crown claiming a royalty, on all refuse of the tailings from the large machine pass by metals produced in the British Islands, would be done suitable troughs to the funnel at the top of the separator. away with. In reply to questions by the chairman, Mr. Tnence they descend the central tube, and, filling the hol- Mogford said, they possessed miles of gossan, and some low arms, pass out in thin sheets through narrow slots at of it lay close to the surface-they also had quartz, but the bottom of a large mass of mercury. In passing up that principally yielded copper. The utmost depth they thrungh this mass, all the broken mercury is detained by had yet sunk was 40 fathoms. These mines appeared, the attraction between it and the mass. The subsidence from the massive stone works in them, to have been forof the powder in suficient quantity to clog the machine merly worked by the Saxons, as they were certainly not is prevented by the revolving wings, which move just of more modern date. Sir Henry de la Beche had exabove the surface of the mercury, in a direction opposite amined their ores, and pronounced favourably upon them. to that of the hollow arms, and by their inclined position In fact, the only question now to be settled was, whether
they could be worked profitably, and of that he had no son to doubt gold might be obtained and advantageously doubt.
worked in this country: Mr. PERKES said there had been many inventions Mr. MOGFORD wished to observe, in reference to what brought from America, which afterwards proved to be Mr. Perkes had said of the inefficiency of Berdan's maEnglish. He maintained that such was the case with chine, that he had offered to construct those machines for regard to Berdan's machine, which he (Mr. P.) had their Company at 6001. less than Mr. Berdan. publicly advertised to be an infringernent of his patent, Mr. PERKES might observe, in re ence to what had and he was about to take legal proceedings against that been stated about his correspondence with Mr. Berdan, gentleman to prove his rights. He denied that Berdan's that the only reason an injunction had not yet been apmachine would do all that Mr. Stansbury had stated, plied for was the fact that some little matters were overand maintained that the friction of the balls and pan claimed in their specification; as soon as these had been must be immense. The Chilian mills were not the most disclaimed proceedings would go on. perfect, neither were Mr. Berdan's machines, and he Mr. WOOLMER was quite sure the meeting had nothing would challenge them that they could not do with a dozen to do with the law of the question now before them. pans and balls what he would do with his conical rolling He attended there as connected with the Arundel mines machine-one of which would be ready for experimentali- in Devonshire, the “mundic" from which they had every sing with in about three weeks. With regard to what reason to believe contained large quantities of gold. He Mr. Tennant had said, that gold could not be produced now begged to put at the disposal, either of Mr. Perkes or at less than 30s. or 40s. per ton, he was prepared to prove Mr. Berdan, 5 tons of the mundic, to be tried as to its it might be obtained for 5s. per ton, and even, from soft value under any scientific inspection that might be thought gossan, at 3s. 6d. per ton, and he believed the time was desirable. He was informed there was also a large not far distant when they would show as good diggings quantity of valuable gossan at the mine, which might in England as in Australia or California.
open up an important sphere of industry in Great Britain, Professor TENNANT said, it was very necessary, in dis- should the results prove equal to expectation. Should cussing this question, to distinguish between quartz and either or both the gentlemen he had named be desirous of gossan. Gossan was decomposed rock, and of course trying an experiment on the value of the ore, might be reduced at a very small cost. They might, should be placed at his disposal for the purpose, free of however—so uncertain wasit-take upone portion, one-fifth expense; and he believed that that quantity would be of which should be gold, whilst the next and immediately generally considered sufficient to give a fair example of adjoining portion did not contain a particle of the precious what they might expect from the mine. ore. It was generally found in threads, and he had seen Mr. Perkes would at once accept the offer. portions of Australian ore in which the irregularities he Mr. John Calvert said, since his return from Australia, had alluded to were peculiarly marked. Gossan, as he had devoted his energies to seeing whether gold was understood in Devonshire and Cornwall, was a very inde- not to be found in England; as he thought, from its geofinite term, something like mundic—a term there applied logical formation, there was every reason to believe it was to all yellow ore Thus he had asked a mining captain, peculiarly rich in gold. Indeed, he had tested upwards of " What is this ?" and was informed mundic, the substance 300 specimens, and he had no hesitation in saying that richer consisting principally of iron; a similar answer had been was not to be found in the world.
They were too much given him respecting ore containing copper pyrites, and in the habit of thinking that gold could only be found in again upon soino containing arsenic and iron pyrites. hot countries, and Englishmen would not believe that it
The CHAIRMAN said, that in the mining districts parties could be found in the country in which they lived. In who were called streamers were in the habit of collecting the antipodes they searched diligently for their riches, gold in quills which they corked up and sold to the which was not the case in England. He had travelled jewellers.
very extensively, and he had no hesitation in saying that Professor TENNANT was aware of that fact, and that the there was no country so rich in gold as England ; and he gold was generally purer than the standard. The same believed that much quartz would shortly be found, which system was adopted on the coast of Africa, but there they would not only yield halt an ounce, but five or six ounces were also in the habit of filing up brass kettles and a ton. He expected, in a very short time, to see theso mixing the filings with the gold, selling it all for gold riches developed to an enormous extent; the only diffidust.
The imposition, however, might easily be dis- culty in its production having been hitherto the crude covered by nitric acid, which would dissolve the brass method of working adopted. without touching the gold.
Mr. Harry Chester did not wish to give any opinion Mr. COLEMAN did not profess to be a scientific man, and, on the merits of the invention brought before them that without wishing to call in question the good taste of Mr. evening by Mr. Stansbury, or on the probabilities of largo Perkes' observation with regard to Mr. Berdan's machine, fortunes being obtained from gold discoveries in England. he might observe that he had seen a correspondence be- They had given a vote of thanks to Mr. Stansbury for tween the gentlemen which seemed to prove to him that his paper, but that did not pledge the Society of Arts to Mr. Perkes had but a poor case, or he would have been an approval of the sentiments expressed in it. Neither more active in taking proceedings against Mr. Berdan. was the Society responsible for observations made in that With reference to what had been said, that they were not room, as they held an open session, in which many gento suppose that they had found a California or Australia tlemen were allowed to express their opinions who had in Great Britain, he might observe he had just returned no further connection with the Society than that of from Wales, where he had been to inspect the Cwmheisian taking an interest in the discussion of the evening. The Mines. He had there seen large quantities of valuable purpose for which he rose was to suggest that Mr. Berquartz rock, some of which he had tested since he came dan's invention should be submitted to the Standing to London, when the gold was found to be equal to f oz. Committee of the Society, “On Mining, Quarrying, Me
He believed he was right in saying that the Sir tallurgical Operations and Mineral Products,” to report John del Rey Company, which was paying a dividend of upon its value. That committee consisted of Professor twenty-five per cent., and its shares being quoted at 401. Ansted, Mr. Wm. Bird, and Mr. Thos. Sopwith. They for 151. paid, had never produced more than half an ounce would make a full report upon the subject, and if the to the ton; and a report of the Brazilian Mining Com- invention possessed merits, the results of the experiments pany, in the last Mining Journal, showed that their average would prove them ; but if it was a failure the sooner the produce was less than 2 dwts. to the ton, and yet he was public mind was disabused on the subject the better. assured by a gentleman connected with that company, Mr. STANSBURY, speaking on the part of Mr. Berdan, that they were quite satisfied it would amply pay them. had no hesitation in saying that he would be most happy He thought, looking at these facts, that there was no rea to have the machine subjected to any test the Society
could put it to. He would say further, that the fullest nary labourer at 4s. per diem, and of artisans at inquiry was courted. They had from the first placed the 6s. to 6s. 6d. The machine to be of two kinds; machine under the control of any persons or companies choosing to use it, either bringing their own quick- one analogous to the old spinning wheel, that silver or using that upon the premises, no party may be used in every cottage or shepherd's hut, connected with the machine, even for a moment, and the other suitable for more extensive opeinterfering with the working. Fifty or sixty expe- rations. riments had been made by companies in the presence of scientific men, and he believed they had all proved satisfactory-at all events, they had heard BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLAND INSTITUTE FOR
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. nothing to the contrary. Indeed, in no instance had they ever discovered any gold in the tailings excepting once, It was announced in the columns of "' The Times," as a and that was in a case were the gold had been reduced to great fact, during the progress of the discussion on the a fine powder before being placed in the amalgamator; Corn Laws, that Manchester had in one evening connor had there been any mercury found in them, since the tributed to help forward the movement £70,000. It is introduction of the separator. The experiments with the also a great fact that on the evening of Thursday last, the amalgamator had been made with 700, 1000, or 2000lbs. 17th of November, upwards of 5,000 people filled the Town at a time; and, surely, the results for such quantities Hall of Birmingham, to listen to four hours' talk about scimust be more satisfactory than those from the mere ence and art, the necessity which existed for Industrial Eduthimblefuls used by the general assayists. And yet, from cation, and the means which were about to be afforded the report upon these thimblefuls of dust, produced from for forwarding the same. Captain Tindal occupied the the powdered ore, were large and important companies chair, and there were present not a few country gentlemen, continually established.
clergymen, leading manufacturers, and useful members The Secretary announced that at the next of the community, known for their attachment to the meeting, on the 30th of November, a paper would progress of imperial education and the diffusion of useful
knowledge among the people. be read “ On the Consumption of Smoke," by The chairman opened the proceedings, introducing to Mr. A. Fraser.
the meeting Mr. Henry Cole, one of the Secretaries to the
Department of Practical Art and Science, and regretting GARANCINE AND THE JUICE OF
the absence of Dr. Lyon Playfair, whose letter of apology
he read. THE MUDDAR.
The Chairman said :-It is proposed that the Institute Ar the meeting of the Society on Wednesday shall consist of two departments; one a General Depart
the other, Schools of Industrial Science. Under evening, a sample of garancine, or the colouring the former head will be embraced—1st, The Literary matter of the munjeet or Indian Madder, and Branch, comprising general and reference Libraries, also a block of the juice of the ak or můddār Reading Rooms, accommodation, as far as may be practiplant, which it is proposed to use as a substitute cable, for the Literary Societies of the town, and Lectures for gutta percha, were exhibited. Specimens of on-subjects kindred to this branch : 2nd, Museums ; 3rd, a
Collection of Mining Records ; 4th, Lectures on general the raw fibre of the múddār plant, of raw and scientific subjects ; 5th, Periodical Meetings for the reading bleached thread, of twisted and coarse twine, and and discussion of original communications, upon the plan of cord and rope manufactured from this fibre, at the sections of the British Association ; and 6th, a were also shown. Full particulars respecting Painting aud Seulpture. The second department is even
Gallery of Fine Arts, for the reception of examples of these substances will be found in Vol. I. of the of more importance, inasmuch as it has reference to the .
scientific instruction of artisans in the principles of their daily avocations. The other department will be a School
of Industrial Science, the members of which will be proNEW ZEALAND FLAX.
vided with systematic lectures and class instruction in the The Council have received from the New Zea- various branches of science, with especial reference to land Society the one ton of Phormium Tenax, or their particular occupations; and will also partake of the New Zealand Flax, mentioned in a previous The lectures will include Chemistry, as applied to the
most important advantages of the general department. number of the Journal (vide Vol. I. page 533), various manufactures, and agriculture, mechanies, metalwhich has been cleansed in rather an inferior lurgy, mineralogy, and geology, ventilation of mines, and manner to the usual mode, and has had much less mining engineering. The Institute will occupy an interlabour bestowed upon it than native-dressed
flax. mediate position between the ordinary school education,
and that of the Queen's College. It will provide for the The object of the New Zealand Society in sending working man a knowledge of the laws of these Sciences this sample
, is to enable experiments to be made, which enter into his every day employment, and thereby with a view to the introduction and application substitute scientific knowledge for empiricism and practice. of such machinery and processes as might lead to The Town Council had granted them a site--it remained
for the public themselves to say, whether the scheme was improvements in the preparation of the flax, so as to be carried out in all its entirety, or whether they would to render it fit for exportation. The New Zea- allow any little petty parsimonious feeling to interfere land Society has placed in the hands of the with the erection of a building, worthy of the purposes Council a draft for 50 guineas, which they are
Sir Robert Peel in proposing the first resolution willing should be awarded to any person who . That it is essential to the full development of the will furnish them with modes of operation, mo- resources of this district, rich in its mines and manufacdels and specifications of machinery, by which tures, that ample provision be made for the instruction of the flax may be cressed at a cost not exceeding said, that Birmingham had a position to maintain, which 56. per ton, (this price to prepare the flax as a could only be done by the most earnest efforts, and by raw material)
, reckoning the wages of an ordi- providing the means of Industrial Education in such an
JOURNAL, page 597.