fittings and fixtures, should be constructed to an uniform never were complied with. This was regarded as too scale of one in ten.

troublesome and expensive, and a Bill was actually introThe packages should be in London by the end of May. duced into Parliament to repeal them, and to furnish

The Council cannot but believe that a design so important imperfect documents and information instead thereof. would commend itself to the judgment and feelings of the The Chamber immediately took steps to prevent the Ministers of Public Instruction in the before-named coun- infliction of what they regarded as a wanton outrage on tries [of the Governor of Canada); and that your Lord- the country, the violation of a settled compact. A ship, [Grace,] seeing how great a service might thus be Petition was presented against the Bill, and communicarendered to the cause of public Education in this country, tions made to various public bodies, calling their attention would be pleased to make known these objects (this ob- to the subjects, and in a subsequent Petition a proposal ject] to Her Majesty's Ministers at Paris, Berlin, the was suggested by which the object might be accomplished Hague, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Berne, and Washington, with but very little trouble or expense. It was proposed [to His Excellency,] in the hope that they [he] may be that each Patentee should, on filing his claim, give in pleased to promote their accomplishment [it].

THREE COPIES of all the specifications and drawings ho I am to add that, if your Lordship (Grace) would be so required to lodge ; thus two copies would be to spare, one kind as to procure, for this Society, through Her Majesty's of which might be sent to Edinburgh and the other to Minister or Consul, in each of those countries where a Dublin, so that both countries might have been supplied Code of Public Instruction exists, a copy of that Code at no other expense than the carriage of the documents. [for this Society, a copy of the Codes of Public In. This simple expedient commended itself so much, that at struction in force in each of the Colonies), together with first it was ageeed to; but it was soon regarded as too great

a buon and rejected, and various schemes fallen upon to as many as possible of the detailed regulations, including the “Time Tables,” of the several Schools, the Society defeat the object. But at length, in consequence of the would be glad to publish, at the time of the Exhibition, an Representations not only of the Chamber, but of the English synopsis of the whole ; and it could not fail to have bodies, particularly the convention of Royal Burghs (to

Town-Council, Merchant Company, and other public a very valuable influence among the more enlightened mem- whose able and intelligent agent, Mr. J. W. Mackenzie, bers of the numerous public bodies that promote public the country owes a deep debt of gratitude on this occasion), Education in this country. 1 have the honour to be,

supported as they were by the Duke of Buccleuch, the My Lord, (Duke,]

Earl of Eglinton, and other patriotic noblemen, the memYour Lordship's [Grace's] most obedient humble servant, Lower House, and also by the Irish members, these

bers for the city, and other influential members of the (Signed) P. LE Neve Foster,

schemes were defeated; and although the simple, inexSecretary,

pensive plan of the Chamber, whereby originals would

have been lodged both at Edinburgh and Dublin, was EDINBURGH CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND

refused, another was adopted by which copies are trans.

mitted within about three weeks of their being filed, and MANUFACTURES.

these copies are accompanied by copies of all the drawings, The annual report of the proceedings of this Chamber &c., originally given in. A large hiatus yet remains, during the past twelve months, shows that its attention several hundreds being still awanting for that period of has been particularly directed to twenty-three topics of about nine months, during which the provisions of the first public interest, besides many other matters of minor or Act were not complied with. These yet remain to be lesser importance. As might be anticipated, proposed supplied, although the Act required them to be sent improvements in the law, especially of the law of bank-forth with '; and in consequence, the Record cannot he ruptcy, of Lord Brougham's bankruptcy bill, and of the made at once so useful and beneficial to the public as it means of improving and assimilating the mercantile laws ought to be. This may, perhaps, demand the further of the United Kingdom, have occupied a large share of attention of the Chamber." the time of the Chamber. In regard to the latter The present state of the Trigonometrical Survey in Scotobject it would appear that the Chamber has made repre- land is considered highly satisfactory. The general scale sentacions to the Lord Chancellor, as to the composition adopted is that of six inches to the mile. Towns which of the Royal Commission, which was appointed to in- exceed 4000 inhabitants are laid down to a scale of five quire into the subject last year, and has expressesd its be. feet to an inch; those under that amount to two feet to a lief that any report issuing from the Commission as at mile. An investigation into the geological structure and present constituted, would not be received by the mer- mineral wealth of Scotland is, it is said, about to be comcantile interests of Scotland, as unprejudiced or satis- menced, under the direction of Sir Henry De la Beche factory. So far as was known the only step of importance and Professor Ramsay; and this, it is hoped, would lead yet taken by the Commission, had been to issue a set to the establishment of a Museum of Economic Geology of queries upon the law of partnership, particularly with in Edinburgh. The Admiralty Surveys of the principal a view to the limited responsibility of partners, even in ports are likewise in an advanced state. The subject of private trading companies. As to the question of Colonial meteorological observations at sea has also received attonPostage, the report alludes to the deputation to the Earl tion, and a committee was appointed by the Chamber to of Aberdeen last session, and to his refusal to comply with consider and report on a plan proposed by the American the wishes of the requisitionists; and that the subject has government for the registering and collating, by a general now, it is said, been placed in the hands of a Treasury Com- plan of observations, among the principal commercial mission for examination. In regard to the Patent Laws the nations, the direction of the winds and currents of the report says " In the improvement of the laws regulating the ocean. The Committee postponed meeting, in consegranting of patents for the United Kingdom, the Chainber quence of the Brussels Conference. “ The importance of has taken a deep interest. During the passing of the Bill having correct wind and current charts is fully appreciated for that purpose, it appeared to the Chamber that the in- by the mercantile world, and is too obvious to require terests of Scotland were overlooked, and a petition was comment. A second conference, it is understood, is now accordingly presented to Parliament, pointing out those about to be held by representatives from the principal particulars which they wished amended in the Bill, and governments in Europe and America, for the purpose of they had the satisfaction of obtaining what they sought. combining the observations taken on land with those taken But the provisions thus obtained in regard to sending true at sea, with the view of rendering those charts more percopies of all Patents and Specifications to the office in tect, as also for more fully elucidating the laws which Edinburgh, there to form Records for inspection and govern atmospheric phenomena, and their influence upon evidence for the convenience of the people in Scotland, the seasons and the products of the earth.” The subject


Kernels of

the fruit of of the of the Termina- the Termina. Sakoon. Tamarisk. lia Belerica, lia Belerica. ..51.8.........30.25...

52:00............... 6:0






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of Decimal Coinage, “which was remitted to a committee near the locality from whence the sample of clay was of the Chamber for consideration, was reported upon by obtained beds of common salt exist. that committee; and that report, which proceeded from the pen of Charles Lawson, Esq., of Borthwick, its con

Silica vener, having been considered by the Chamber, was, on


Alumina 18th April last, unanimously approved, adopted, and

6.34 ordered to be transmitted to her Majesty's government,

Peroxide of iron

7.28 recommends—1st. That the existing sovereign or pound

Protoxide of iron

.24 shall be the unit or integer of account. 2nd. That the

Chlorides of sodium and potassium 3:40 florin (already existing) represent the tenth part of the

Organic matter


Water unit or pound; and 3rd. That a coin representing the

10.00 Loss

.24 1000th part of a pound, or the 100th part of a florin, to be called a millet, be also issued. These three coins to form


100.00 the money of account, in which all numerical computation will be simple and easy, and capable of being worked out

I shall now draw attention to the three varieties of tanby the common rules of arithmetic. Besides these, the ning substances which you have placed in my hands, and report recommends, for the convenience of the public, which, according to Mr. Steuart's report, are employed in that half-sovereigns, half forins, a 20 millet piece, a 10, a Sindh for printing madder goods, for the same purpose 5, and a half-millet piece, should also be issued.”

that Aleppo galls are used in this country by Turkey red dyers. As some of these substances may prove of value to the manufacturing districts, I thought it would be de

sirable to determine the amount of tanning matters which ANALYSES OF RAW MATERIALS USED IN they contained :CALICO PRINTING IN INDIA.

Pericarp of the

Flower Huleleh, fruit
In a recent number of this Journal, No. 55, page 56, a
description was given of the cotton printing process of
Tattah, by Lieutenant C. J. Steuart, and it was stated

Woody fibre, &c.36*2.... ...56-5
hat a number of rudely cut blocks, the tools with which Water............... 12.0.........13.25............... 12-75,

.....12.75 they were cut, and the calicoes as printed from these

Total.........100 ........ blocks, in different styles of the process, as well as the various dying materials alluded to, had been forwarded by Two of these substances, viz. sakoon and huleleh, conthe court of directors of the East India Company to the taining as they do nearly

as great a proportion of tanning Manchester Commercial Association. The dying materials matter as Aleppo galls, could, if imported in larger quanwere four in number, and consisted of a reddish earth tities and at a low rate, be employed with advantage by called “meth,” and three tanning substances bearing the the tanners of this country. With respect to the applicanames of sakoon, huleleh, and hoongootarah, used in tion of these three tanning matters in dyeing, I wish to printing madder goods, as Aleppo galls are used in this draw, especial attention to two of them; firstly,-sakoon, country by Turkey red dyers. These substances are all which substance has lately been imported by Mr. Pariente vegetable, viz. the gall of the Tamarisk Indica, the of this city, under the name of Bockhara galls; and flower of the Tamarisk, and the kernel and pericarp of although it contains so great a proportion of tannic acid, the fruit of the Terminalia Belerica. They were placed still it is free or nearly so from gallic acid, consequently in the hands of Professor Crace Calvert, för careful ana- it gives a beautiful jet black, superior to that produced by lysis, having reterence to their utility in this country, in Aleppo galls, with iron mordant of an identical strength. calico printing, and he has made a report to the Man- It also produces with alumina superior olives and yellows. chester Commercial Association, from which the following Secondly, --Koongootarah, or Tamarisk flowers. These is extraeted:

flowers are highly interesting, as they give, with iron and

alumina mordants, or a mixture of the two, several useful • The red meth, which, according to Mr. C. J. Steuart's and distinct colours. For example-1 have, with an iron most interesting report, is used in Sindh by the calico mordant, obtained a black superior to any that could be printers for thickening their colours, and also for mixing produced from other substances; with alumina a fine yelwith alum, is a substance admirably suited for these pur low, and with a mixture of the two mordants, very supeposes, as it presents the curious property, when moistened rior shades of olive. As to huleleh, it does not appear with small quantity of water, of crumbling into powder that it can be advantageously applied in dyeing, on acin a similar manner to quicklime, and thus enabling it to count of its containing, besides tannin, a brownish yellow form with water an homogeneous paste. The alumina colouring principle, which not only gives to the blacks a which this clay contains enables it, when mixed with brown greenish hue, but also spoils the alumina colours alum, to remove a part of its sulphuric acid, thus producing and dirties the white. I forward with this report some a basic alum, which replaces in the hand of the Sindh samples of calico dyed at the same temperature and with calico printer the red mordant or aceto-sulphate of alumina the same weight of cach tanning substance as compared used in England. The analysis of the meth gives an in- with the best Aleppo galls.” sight into the modification which the earth called mooltauee muttee" (which exists so abundantly in Sindh) proabably undergoes to give rise to its formation; for if

CONSUMPTION OF SMOKE. the clay be treated with weak hydro-chloric acid, the peroxide of iron, the alumina and combined silica are re- The principle adopted by Messrs. James Hume and Co., moved, leaving as a residuum some white anhydrous at the Haymarket Flour-mills, Edinburgh, is that of obsilica. These facts induce me to believe that the mool- taining more perfect combustion of the smoke, by exposing tanee muttee' earth is a double silicate of alumina and it to an extensive heated surface, and by the admission protoxide of iron, which latter substance, under the influ- behind this heated surface of fresh unconsumed air which ence of the atmosphere, becomes peroxidised, liberating causes its ignition. It is applied to a double-furnace the silica which is found free in the meth. As to the Cornish boiler of an engine of 90 horse power, and the excess of silica still remaining, I cannot well form a correct coals used are all Scotch, and consist of one-third dross opinion as to its source of production, not having at my and two-thirds mixed coal. At the further end of each disposal any of the earth called 'mooltanee muttee. The furnace the space between the level of the bars and the great proportion of chloride of sodium which exists in roof of the flue is divided into eight spaces by seven bricks, meth deserves serious consideration, as it is probable that each 3 feet 6 inches long, 4 inches thick at the bottom

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and 4 of an inch thick at the top; and reaching to the ing from New York to London have one or more of them under side of the boiler, so that they vary in depth or on board. height, with the radius of the boiler flue, from 14 inches Certificates signed by the United States navy constructor in the centre to 6 inches at the sides. From their position at Brooklyn, by several eminent ship-builders of New at the end of the furnace these bricks soon attain, and York, Boston, and Portsmouth (U.S.), and by the captains preserve, a white and red heat, and separate the smoke of several well-known vessels, speak in high terms of this which must pass through them to the flue. The fresh capstan, as enabling the men to exert their power to air is admitted at the further end of the ash pit, imme- better advantage than any other with which they ar diately under the furnace, by an air valve, 15 inches by acquainted. 5 inches, which is very simply and readily worked by a rod under the bars, terminating with a handle just under the furnace door. Should the draft admit of it, the air

DIPPING AND APPARENT LIGHTS. valve can remain open, or it may be opened only when At the meeting of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts coaling. The apparatus has been in constant use for the on Monday January 23, a Paper on ” Dipping and Appa, last six months, and continues to give entire satisfaction. rent Lights for sunk reefs and pier-heads of harbours,

with descriptions of an Apparent Light erected in 1851

by the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses, on a L’ERLEY'S PATENT CAPSTAN.

sunk rock in the Bay of Stornoway " was read by Mr. Thomas Stevenson. The author described the plan of dipping lights as being applicable to cases where the rocks or shoals whose position required to be indicated were surrounded with sufficient sea-room to enable vessels to pass to and fro without approaching near to the rocks themselves. The dipping light, instead of throwing its beam of parallel rays to the horizon, in the same manner as ordinary lights, throws it downward at some given angle of depression to suit the distance of the rocks from the shore, so that, whenever a vessel crosses the margin of safety, the dipping light is seen, and she has ample time to change her course. The apparent light is useful for sunk rocks in narrow sounds, where the fairway is not broad, and where the dangers must be passed very closely; also for pierheads at the mouths of artificial har bours, and such like situations. The apparent light at the entrance to Stornoway Bay, in the Hebrides, is erected on a sunk rock distant about 630 feet from the lighthouse on the shore, and consits of a hermetically sealed lantern containing certain forms of optical apparatus, upon which a beam of light is thrown from the lighthouse ashore. The effect of this apparatus is to reassemble the rays in a focus, from which they again diverge, presenting to vessels entering the bay the appearance of a real light on the beacon, when, in fact, there is none. The apparatus necessary for illuminating floating buoys on the same principal was also explained, and the paper was concluded with extracts from letters from ten different shipmasters, who certified to the utility of the beacon light in all weathers. The distances to which it had been seen varied from one to one and a half miles—distances greatly be

yond the wants of the locality, The improved capstan, of which the above cut represents a general view, has been for some time in very extensive use in the United States of America, but has only

METEOROLOGY OF THE PAST QUARTER, recently been iatroduced into this country.

At the last meeting of the British Meteorological The action is extremely simple, and is rendered suf- Society, Mr. J. Glaisher, F.R.S., read a paper “ On the ficiently clear by the above cut, without a detailed des- Meteorology of the past Quarter, in connection with the cription of its construction. The various parts are so Fall of Snow at the beginning of the Year.” arranged as to cause a small amount of friction, not to After acknowledging his obligations to those gentlemen present any difficulties whatever in practice, and to pre- who had contributed observations, Mr. Glaisher provent any injury which might arise from water gathering ceeded to discuss, separately, each element of investigato the working parts.

tion. The mean daily temperature of the air was shown The inconveniences of the old form of capstans are too to have departed most below its average between lat. well known to require enumeration. Perley's patent | 51° and 53°. This head of country was subjected to capstan, instead of requiring a large space for the men to a continuance of low temperature for the long period "walk” round it, may be placed in any convenient corner. of two months, and was likewise remarkable for the pre It takes little more room than a ship’s-pump. It is, in fact, valence of dense fogs, which were of almost daily occura powerful and very convenient vertical windlass, worked by rence during November, at times nearly enveloping the pump handle levers, a more effective mode, as any me- whole country. The rigorous weather which ushered in chanic knows, than the horizontal working of the common the present year, was most severely felt over the midcapstad.

land counties, where the reading of the thermometer was The capstan may be worked in either direction, by as low as zero. In London and its vicinity, it fell to. 13o, merely reversing the rachets, and, if required, by the old 129, 11°, and 109. on the morning of the 3rd, and it was mode of horizontal levers.

at the time of these low readings that the heavy fall of It is said, that during the last three years, 475 of these snow took place. T.12 average amount of snow upon the capstans, being about one for every two days, have been level about London was twelve inches, and averaged sold in the United States, and almost all the vessels sail- deepen between latit, i e 51 and 58° than elsewhere. On


the Norfolk coast it was 18 inches deep, but at Whitehaven all mankind-mankind do not suffer. But probably he scarcely an inch fell, and in parts of Northumberland does not mean mankind but only " the patent people, and none at all. Parts of Cornwall were exeript, and there patent men, and patent persons," whom he superciliously was little at the Isle of Wight. At the Isle of Man it scoffs at under his retaining brief in the land interest. fell to the depth of eight inches, and drifted to about ten Well, then, let us vary the venue, and readfeet. The greatest drifts recorded were about 15 feet. " The real property laws give to mankind a right, which, In connection with the cold, as falling beneath his own without them, they would not have; i.l., to landed people, observation, Mr. Glaisher remarked that trees in his im- mine men, and similar persons.” mediate neighbourhood, Blackheath, were sheathed with I do not find the phrase “ patent person" in the report, ice for some days previous to January 4, when it began but a hearer reported it to me verbally. I would, thereto break and fall to the ground in fragments bearing the fore, remind Mr. Denison that the “person” derived from curvature of the branches they had encased. On the the per sono of the old dramatic masks of actors with a severity of the weather mitigating, the ground was tube in the mouth-whence dramalis persona-would apply literally strewn with these fragments. Animals ordinarily better to a pleader at the bar than to a patentee. The exposed on the adjacent heath perished from the cold, and pleader is the person, the "by-sound,” the dramatic actor, two were frozen to death beneath the snow; birds frozen paid for his vocabulary of words. The patentee is but a dead from the trees were picked up in the vicinity of worker, urged into voice of remonstrance by the class inthe author's house. Mr. Glaisher addressed the meeting justice that would monopolise all materials on which at some length upon the chrystalised flakes mingled with mind has to work, and make “ free warren” of ideas. the snow which full during the very severe period at the Mr. Denison is peculiarly unfortunate in his quotations beginning of the year, and produced for distribution a of authorities, he saidnumber of photographic copies of such as had fallen It was admitted that patentees generally lost money, beneath his own observation. As specimens of an entirely although there were some great and famous exceptions. novel application of photography to the purpose of meter- Watt made money, but he had it on the authority of ology they were well received. In conclusion Mr. Lord Brougham, that he would have made more money Glaisher detailed at some length various observations without his patents, although they had been extended to made by himself upon the beautiful encrustations seen in him for thirty years by Act of Parliament.” hoar-frost upon differently exposed and radiating surfaces. If Mr. Denison had said the opinion of Lord Brougham

it might have stood quantum valeat—at its value.

But when he uses the term “authority," he challenges conHome Correspondence.

tradiction. What makes Lord Brougham an authority ? Certainly not law, for Mr. Denison must know well that

lawyers scoff at his legal lore. Not his science, for men REMARKS ON THE DISCUSSION ON PATENTS.

of depth call him "sciolist," and the working men in Sir,--I have striven hard to discover some logic in Mr. Southampton-buildings, “turned to" and demolished Denison's reply to Mr. Webster's paper, and find only the his treatise on “hydrostatics.” Not his logic, for he was truth of the proverb “ Of nothing, nothing comes.” Mr. ever the most erratic of all public men. The value of Denison professes to be a practical man, and eschews philo- !Ienry Brougham to the public is, that he was ever an sophy and metaphysics altogether in a question of patents. impulsive advocate for progress, with generous emotion, He rests his argument almost entirely on authority, a

whose heart was better than his head, and kept him defective peculiarity of the lawyer mind, incessantly quot straight in the main, in spite of his numerous crotchets. ing precedent. He remarked,

But for this he would be Vaux et preteria nihil. “What was property? Property in the funds, houses, Mr. Watt could probably well afford to dispense with lands, &c., was acquired by getting hold of that which patents after attaining fame and capital, but how to find a formerly belonged to some one else."

Bolton to enable him to attain this fame and capital withThis is a strange proposition, but, to be effective, it out a monopoly to tempt him, would have been a difficult becomes essential to assume that there never was a period problem. As an obscure maker of instruments he was of land withou townership, otherwise the link fails. Trace only a "

schemer”--as a known capitalist he was recog. up the parchments till we come to our first parent in the nized as a national benefactor, male line, with his deed of gift of the whole world from

To return to Lord Brougham. Many years back a the Creator, or there will be a lache! It will be a bad certain Reverend Mr. Hardy devised an improved method title. But Mr. Denison means, probably, that “getting of making axles for carriages and shafts for mill-work, hold” no matter how, of something that belongs to and procured a patent for it. A company was got up to another, settles the question. If the argument

work it, and it dragged on a precarious existence for a cuts two ways If the patentee can

get hold” of few years, when the whole concern fell into the hands something that formerly belonged to another, he has of two or three persons, patentee and friend all disappearan equal right. The present incomer in the exclusive ing from the scene. The business then became a flourishland pays his money for possession for ever, and the ing one. But in due time the patent expired, or was patent incomer on the exclusive manufacture pays

about to expire, so the owners of the business sought out his money to the general public, and also his money's the unfortunate patentee, and agreed to give him £300 worth, for possession for fourteen years. It is most per annum for his aid in getting them a renewal of the unwise in men of real property" to set up this ar patent. There was the usual statement of loss, which gument, for they will be required to show what return Lord Brougham overhauled and dissected with some they give to the public for their claims for rent, on land, acumen, and finally only granted the seven years' renewal and royalties (so runs the word), on coal, iron, and other on consideration that the patentee of the improvement minerals. They do nothing for the public, they scheme should receive £700 per annum instead of the £300 nothing, plan nothing, devise nothing, work at nothing,

offered. encounter no man's scoffs', heed no capitalists opposition.

It is clear, therefore, that Lord Brougham thought the They simply block the passage and demand black mail, patentee a useful and meritorious individual. And it is the amount of which is regulated only by the competition also clear that but for the patent there would have been of the royalty holders. For patent royalties a quid pro no company. The patent monopoly was the basis on qui is given.

which people took shares. Mr. Denison says “the patent laws give to mankind a

Mr. Denison says,right, which, without them they would not have."

“Sir W. Cubitt opposed the patent laws, and so did Mr. Does he really mean this-mankind ?-If given to man- Brunel--no mean authority.” kind—which is really the case, inasmuch as they benefit

This is sheer absurdity-a special pleading. Show us


that either of them possess the mental capacity of legis- absence of litigation, i.e., if they gained more by the
lators, or it amounts to nothing---worse than nothing—if absence than by the reverse, as it is said the state physi-
it can be shown that the rise of the patentee has a ten- cian of China only receives his salary while the Emperor
dency to lessen the prestige of the engineer-positive evi. is in health, a very different result would obtain.
dence in favour of the patent laws, if it could be shown Mr. Denison lays great stress on the opinions of Lord
that the engineer was a jealous and ungenerous man, Granville and Mr. Scott Russell, the more especially as
anxious to keep down rising merit, and arrogate all origin “ the latter was an inventor." Will he be good enough
ality to himself.

to state what Mr. Russell has invented and brought into
The evidence of Mr. Ricardo, that the Electric Tele- successful use?
graph Company buy up patents, is a proof that the patents There is one sentence of Mr. Denison's quite conclusive,
interfere with monopolies. But for new patents the elec- as to the advantage of patents to the public, and the
tric telegraph would have remained a giant monopoly, absence of disadvantage : :
the monopoly of capitalists for an unlimited period; for The opinion given by that jury of the Great Exhi -
no individual would have worked at improvements that bition, of which Sir David Brewster was Chairman," was,
the company could instantly have taken, when perfected; "that a greater portion of the goods exhibited in their
and it is only individuals who perform the originating section had been made to avoid patents."
work. Oersted's discovery would have remained as a That is, the patents stimulated further improvements,
scientific fact, had not Cooke and Wheatstone been stimu- which rendered the patents valueless. What more could
lated by the proposed patent advantage. Mr. Ricardo the public desire ?-further
may well dislike patents, for his company has spent much The improvements in photography had been merely
money in trying to hedge in the patent-cuckoo unsuccess- owing to the original patents having failed, and to Mr.
fully, and beholds other companies as successful as his Fox Talbot on being requested by a committee to give up
own, with less outlay, upon new patents.

his patents, because they were an obstacle to improvement The truth is, that all capitalists like monopolies, and having done so." wish to obtain them by many other means than patents, And if Mr. Fox Talbot had not taken the patents, the and they do not like patents, because they are not prac- chances are that photography would have lain longer in tical monopolies, but only monopolies in aid of skill and abeyance. His liberality only lessened the interval to originality, but liable eventually to be tripped up by newer their improved use. Without his liberality the public patents, unless the originating brain be constantly on the would have waited a little longer, yet still not so long as watch. The capitalist does not like the constant fret; he if he had not invented at all. wants to be easy, and acquire a funded property, with a Waiting the further report of the discussion, sure and certain ten per cent. return. But for originators,

I am, Sir, yours, &c., existing things would be undisturbed, and existing capital

COSMOS. in ships, buildings, and machinery, a permanent quantity

January 28, 1854.
But for patents there would be few originators; and there-
fore it is easy to comprehend that capitalists invested
cannot look lovingly on disturbers. The mere capitalist

is ever gravitating--the inventor is incessantly elastic.

SIR, -Allow me, through the medium of your journal, If the capitalists were canvassed, it would probably be to address a few propositions to the members of literary found that those in favour of patents would be those pro- and other institutions, in an endeavour to point out to fiting by them, and the opponents those not possessing them how desirable it would be to have a paper which them, and sore displeased with their neighbours' stealing shall more closely unite them than they are at present. a march apon them. If Mr. Denison cites Mr. Ricardo as witness, it must not

This being an age of progress-a period which has become be on the subject of patents, in which he is interested. it is, I conceive, the duty of every person to contribute,

a new starting point in the era of literature and scienceIf Sir William Cubitt, it may be as an engineer, but not much or little, to the general fund of knowledge, for the as a legislator; if Mr. Brunel, no man can be more at benefit of his fellow-men. home as to the most telling mode of giving evidence for or against a railway, or how to escape an admission ; but some original articles from members of the several institu

I propose that a paper be issued monthly, containing to set him especially up as an authority on patents, when tions in union. This will be the means of discovering he has declared his maximum price to an inventor to be 21. talent, for I have always observed, that unless there is to 51. per invention, to merge into the name and reputation of the capitalist or engineer is begging the question in too ideas into a readable form, but if they find there is a pro

some incentive, many are unwilling to place their crude barefaced a manner. We will receive Professor Airy as bability and method of being useful, they will endeavour to an authority on astronomy, De la Beche for sound doctrine write upon some subject. That each secretary furnish a on geology, and Faraday as a chemist--though certainly report critique upon the lectures delivered during the not as a propounder of patent law—if it be true that he month, the report to be an outline of the subject. This invented gaslight improvements, and allowed his brother will give a great insight into various sciences. The plans to patent them surreptitiously. We would not object to the of management adopted by two institutions from their authority of Ikey Solomons on the subject of stolen gools, foundation, and the success they have met with, should be and we can receive Mr. Denison himself as an expounder given each month, to afford a large fund for the observaof the principle of special pleading. Whether this special. tions of committees, to guide them in their future regulapleading faculty is of any benefit to the nation at large in tions, and also the monthly operations of each society. a moral point of view is one question, but assuredly it is Reviews of books and new inventions might also be given, Dot the faculty to which a nation can entrust the power Learned bodies would, I have no doubt, contribute, and of passing laws of progress.

thus a paper might be formed of great usefulness not only One more sentence. Mr. Denison says,

to institutions, but to private individuals. The expense " They could not have manufactures in secret; or, of printing could be defrayed by subscription, and could if they could do so, he would tell any man that it was be published at the office of the Journal, where the editor better than a patent, because, by secrecy, they would avoid could reside. The price should not be more than 5d. litigation, while with the patent laws they were sure of

stamped. nothing but litigation.'' It is quite clear that so long as the power of legislation support of the institutions, I am, Sir, yours very faithfully,

With a hope that these suggestions will meet with the is entrusted to lawyers, laws will be frained in the very best mode to ensure that litigation by which the lawyers

GEORGE SPIERS. live. If the lawyer's gain were made to depend on the High-street, Croydon, 26th January, 1854.


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