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by this and the printing-presses of Caxton. Then Spenser delighted by his sweet imagery; and that mighty bard appeared who wrote “not for an age but for all time.” of whom the lecturer said, quoting the language which Shakspeare puts into the mouth of Antony, “he makes hungry where most he satisfies.” The lecturer also referred to the poets of the 17th century, passing a glowing eulogy on Milton, and specially commending Pope’s “gems of wisdom.” The peculiarities of subsequent poets were adverted to, and Burns and Cowper, and Crabbe, and Moore, were passed in review. Scott's marvellous powers of dealing with the legendary and the chivalrous were enforced, and Byron's magical genius received due recognition. The lake poets were reviewed; Wordsworth receiving special reference and homage. The poets, male and female, of the present day, were glanced at ; the lecturer leaning to the notion that the female poets have the supremacy in inspiration. The concluding portion of the lecture was an elaborate vindication of poetry from the attacks of its detractors. There are some who detest “ballad-mongers; ” who regard them as merely frivolous and useless writers. If they are correct in their opinion, the lecturer said, the Homers, and Virgils, and Wordsworths, and Cowpers, and Miltons, and Shakspeares lived in vain; and the man who could seriously assert this would display not his wisdom, but his eccentricity and temerity. He dwelt on the good that results from emotional appeals, and from the merely beautiful. He showed the poetical in nature around us, insisted upon its utility, and with considerable warmth and energy compared and contrasted natural with artistic beauty. Poetry, so believed, meets a requirement in the nature of man; and will last as long as man has spiritual thoughts, as long as he is influenced by hope and love, as long as he owns bright anticipations, as long as he is surrounded by suggestive solemnities, and as long as he is the participator of “the mystery” of existence.
SEvenoaks.—On Thursday, November 10th, a lecture was delivered by Dr. Vesalius Pettigrew, at the Literary and Scientific Institution, on “The Advantages of the Lower Animals to Man.” To illustrate this lecture those animals were chosen whose province it is to clear away all decayed animal and vegetable matter—“scavengers,” as the Doctor humourously called them—the worm, the beetle, the fly (blue-bottle), the star-fish, the adjutant, the hyena, &c., &c. This is the third lecture the Doctor has given to this Institution, all of which have been numerously and respectably attended. The Marquis of Camden has taken the chair on each occasion.
SHREwsputy.—On Tuesday, November 8, Mr. Elsmere delivered his first lecture on Botany and Vegetable Physiology, to the members of the Shropshire Mechanics Institution. The subjects of the lecture were—The Nature and Uses of Botany; the Germination of the Seed; the Root, and its various Uses; the Stem, its Functions and Anatomy. In conclusion, the lecturer remarked that the vegetable world afforded us satisfactory proof of the existence and goodness of God, and furnished unanswer. able arguments to atheistical sophistries. At the close of the lecture a vote of thanks was proposed by the president, and carried by acclamation.
St. LEONARD's-on-SEA.—The annual soirée of the Mechanics' Institution was held on Tuesday week in the Assembly Rooms, and was very numerously attended. The president of the Institution, Mr. Alfred Burton, occu|...} the chair, and was supported by many of the eading residents of the place. . S. Putland, jun., read the report, from which it appeared that the number ofsubscribing members was 184, having been 170 at the corresponding period last year. In addition to these there were ten life members. he library consists of about 850 vols The reading-room is lo with three daily and three weekly newspapers, and five weekly and one monthly periodicals. he Local Exhibition, held in the same rooms in January and February last, was visited by upwards of
4000 persons, and the receipts netted £80, which sum was carried to the credit of a fund for a new building, which the Institution hoped to be able to erect on a scale commensurate with the rising prosperity of the town. Valuable results are looked forward to from the union with the Society of Arts. The president then addressed the meeting, and was followed by the president of the Hastings Mechanics' Institution (George Scrivens, Esq.), the Rev. W. W. Hume, Mr. Selway, Mr. Banks, Mr. Ward; and by Mr. Tufnell, the Government Inspector of Schools, who was a visitor on the occasion. A vote of thanks to the chairman was proposed by Sir Woodbine Parish, K.C.H., and seconded by P. O'Callaghan, &c.
WARMINstER.—The first lecture of the season at the Athenaeum, was delivered on Tuesday, the 4th Oct., by Mr. Ansell, on the “Electric Telegraph.” The lecturer did not confine himself to the mere exhibition of an instrument, and of those aerial highways of words—those mysterious threads—which we see at railway stations and along the lines of our chemins defer—our iron roads. He went backfar into antiquity, to give, historically, an account of all the successive modes of signals which nations have adopted; commencing with the Siege of Troy, and ending with the era of railroads—embracing beacon fires, semaphores, and all the various modes of telegraphic communication under whatever mode of operation they might have been in use—showing their greater or lesser value in simplicity and intelligence—their sufficiency, or insufficiency through gloom and fogs, by land and sea. . The lecturer brought a staff of operators, who communicated messages from the lecture-desk to the gallery. The locture was highly appreciated.—On Monday the 16th, Mr. Bird lectured on Asteroids, and luminous and shooting stars.” The lecturer discussed the theories of the most eminent astronomers who have written upon that branch of astronomical science of which his lecture treated. The theory of Obers, in particular, as to a lost world was noticed, and its probabilitics presumed.
NOTICE.-The Council desire to call the attention of the Members and others to the increase which has been made in the size of the Journal, by the addition of four pages of matter. This addition will be given every week during the session, when the papers read at any of the ordinary meetings run to such a length as would preclude, under other circumstances, the publication of shorter articles and letters of general interest on the subjects embraced within the Society's operations. The Council trust to receive the cordial support of the general body, to enable them to carry out, with increased and increasing interest, this feature.
* #.* 8 fisherman, Tyrawley, parish of Kirkmaiden, had been a sucAriori Assoc, s—class of Design. cessful oyster dredger, and having exercised his calling hitherto $41, Botanic, 33. without interruption, was not inclined to abandon it without
CAPT. PEACOCR's PATENT BELL BUoys.-Three of these buoys are now in the Southampton dock, which the Mexican vernment have ordered for a part of the coast in the Gulf of exico. They are enormous buoys, with large bells, and their use is in thick and foggy weather, when the buoys cannot be seen. The surging of the waves causes the bells to ring, which givesinsormation of the locality of the buoys. The apparatus is such also as to answer the purpose of life buoys, where several persons can be sheltered until they are rescued. The Russian government recently ordered one of the patentee for Riga. One is placed off Calshot Castle, near the entrance of the Southampton Water, and it has been proposed to place one near the entrance of the Solent, which would afford great assistance to the to: and commanders of the Southampton mail packets, lonel Facio visited Southampton on Monday, to inspect the buoys for the Mexican government. Captain Peacock has recently submitted models of his very ioinvention to the Admiralty and Trinity Board. CoMMUNICATION BETweeN THE GUARD ANd DRIVER of A Railway TRAIN.—Captain Norton proposes that a Whistling Bolt or Arrow, without feathers, should be shot from a steel cross-bow by the guard of the train, a few yards in a direct line ofer the head of the engine driver, who should have a shield or a *Teen behind, reaching a foot above his head. The guard could place the bow on the roof of the carriage in his front—in a position marked out, so that every shot would follow the same to without the necessity of raising the bow to his shoulder of taking any aim. Captain Norton has also invented a new Foignal. This apparatus consists of a small piece of seasoned wood, such as ash or elm, which has a chamber drilled into it, to receive about three drachms of Hall's rifle-powder: this hole is opped with a wooden plug, glued in. A small touch-hole on the side receives a quill, charged like that for firing a cannon by Percussion, but more simple in its construction—being without the transversequill. The fault of the fog-signal at present in use is, that the tin case containing the charge of percussion Powder, is crushed by the wheel of i. engine; the percussion o: is in consequence not confined when the explosion takes
Cossolidated Sopa WATER.—A curiosity in saline drinkstermed by the inventor, M. Lamplough, consolidated soda water-has just made its appearance. Aerated, or gassed, water is common enough, but not so real soda water. M. LamPlough, however, now gives us the true article, in the very port* condition of a ready prepared powder, from which we can always obtain an “effervesting pyretic saline" draught of Anarying quality. A small-bottle, with a cork-fitted stopper, ** twenty-four such draughts, in the shape of a powder, a *poonful of which, mingled in a glass of water, disengages a greater amount of carbonic acid gas than is producible by any onlinary means. The powder is, indeed, carbonic acid gas *ital, a substance being added for the perfect preservation of *Fu. So convenient a means of obtaining a cool effervescing fluid carries its own recommendation with it.
Ørsteh Fishing in the Boy of Luce.—Two years ago !"iscovery was made of extensive oyster beds in the Bay of * The oysters proved to be of a large and superior quality -one of them being equal to three of the Lochryan oysters; The *Annual dredging of the Lochryan beds necessarily delooted the size and quality of the oysters; and the large * Royable to the proprietor make the fishings not a very File busines so to engaged in it. The discovery in the lay of Luce was, therefore, . on with much satisfac* by the fishermen and the public; but it was no sooner **, than it brought forward Patrick Maitland, Esq., of Rough to claim an exclusive right to the whole oysters in the **in the seas below the bay—rather an extensive bouno, which might include the bay properly so called, from o * of the River Luce to the §. Galloway and * Burghhead, and also the Solway Frith and the Irish Chan*"the Isle of Man. He founded on a crown charter and . *ioned printed notices, intimating his alleged right, joint licenses—and threatening legal proceedings *those who should disregard it. M. John Mclelland,
. the question with Mr. Maitland. An application for interdict and damages, at Mr. Maitland's instance, was the consequence. The case has been in dependence for some time, and has now heen finally decided in favour of Mr. M'Clelland, by an interlocutor and note of Sheriff Urquhart.—North British Daily Mail.
PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852. APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.
From Gazette, 11th November, 1853. Dated 5th A t, 1853. 1831. W. Smith and T. Phillips, Snow hill—Improvements in gas 8toves. Dated 17th August, 1853. 1926. T. o, Oxford–Machinery for manufacture of bricks, tiles, &c. Dated 12th October, 1853. 2350. C. S. Jackson, Cannon street—Preserving timber and other vegetable matters. Dated 25th October, 1853. 2455. T. Summerfield, Birmingham—Construction and manufacture of windows. 2457. J. B. Verdun, Paris, and 4, South street, Finsbury—Construction of globes. 2459. J. D. Brady, Cambridge terrace, Hyde park—Appendage to knapsacks. 2461. J. Beasley, jun., Smathwick, Staffordshire—Construction of puddling furnaces applicable to generation of steam. 2463. A. V. Newton, 66 Chancery lane—Printing press. (A communication. 2465. W. Bottomley, North Brierly, Bradford, Yorkshire—Improved machinery for weaving by jacquard loom and otherwise. 2467. W. Grimshaw, Mossley, Antrim–Steam boilers. Dated 26th October, 1853. 2469. E. Austin, Pembroke cottages, Caledonian road—Surveying and raising sunken vessels, &c. 2471. R. Heyworth, Cross hall, Chorley, Lancashire — Looms for weaving. 2473. E. J. Hughes, Manchester–Sewing or stitching apparatus. 2475. D. Edwards, Ravenscliffe, Douglas, Isle of Man—Railway signal apparatus. 2477. F. L. H. Danchale, Elm grove villas, Acton green, and W. Startin, Heathfield terrace, Turnham green—Obtaining and applying motive power. 2479. R. Joly, Gaillon, France—Improvements in dyeing. 248l. J. T. G. Vitzetelly, Peterborough court—Plates for printing purposes, &c. (Partly a communication.) Dated 27th October, 1853. 2482. A. F. Rémond, Birmingham—Manufacture of metallic vessels. 2483. T. S. Blackwell, Cranbrook, Kent—Signalizing and stopping railway trains. 2484. R. Richards, Paddington-Apparatus indicating water in holds of ships. 2485. T. Dawson, King's Arms yard—Cover for umbrellas which can be worn as a garment. 2487. W. Vaughan, Stockport, Cheshire, J. Scattergood, Heaton Norris, Lancashire, and C. Grimshaw, Brinnington, Cheshire—Improvements in harness for weaving, and apparatus for making same. 2488. R. Bishop, Edinburgh–Steam and water valves. 2489. H. Dolby, 56 Regent street—Embossing presses. 2491. J. M. A. B. Limonier, 103, Quai St. Leonard, Liege—New system of weaving by hand. 2492. E. Loysel, 2 Rue de Gretry, Paris–Improved coffee pot. 2493. J. Gurney, St. James's street—Treatment of waterproof fabrics. 2494. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet street – Manufacture of coloured and ornamented fabrics. (A communication.) Dated 28th November, 1853. 2495. M. Maclaren, Johnston, Renfrew—Fireplaces, grates, &c. 2496. A. M. son, 8, Philpot lane-Treatment of Phormium tenex, &c.
2497. J. Johnson, Over Darwen, Lancashire — Looms for terry weaving. 249s. J. W. Wilkins, Ludgate hill— obtaining power by electro
magnetism. Dated 29th November, 1853. 2500. J. Nasmyth, Patricroft–Pistons and rods of steam hammers, &c. 2501. E. D. Smith, 7, Hertford street, May-sair—Railway carriages to prevent collision,. &c. 2502. P. Q. Bernard, Rood lane–Hamper for wine, &c., in bottles. 2503. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet street—Machinery for dressing flax . (A communication.) * 2504. G. J. Gladstone, 10, Brunswick terrace, Blackwall—Ascertaining and indicating depth of water in holds of ships. 2505. A. Maclure, Walbrook–Lithographic printing presses, 2506. W. Betts, 1, Wharf road, City road–Machinery for manufacturing metallic capsules. Dated 31st Notember, 1853.
2507. J. T. Wright and E. P. Wright, and w. Ashbury, Birming
-Improvements in mill banding.
2508. J. Haley, Manchester–Machinery for cutting, boring, &c., metals, &c. 2509. E. G. Banner, Cranham hall, Essex—Motive power. 2510. C. Goethel, and C. M. Zimmerman, Philadelphia — Stereoscopes. 2511. F. P. Rovere, 4, Wellington street, Strand–Joints for tubular drains. 2512. P. M. Parsons, Duke street, Adelphi–Switches. 2513. J. Gray, M.D., Dublin—Self-acting flushing apparatus. 2514. G. Hamilton, Paisley, Renfrewshire — Spreading starch,
gum, &c. 2515. A. P. Conbrough, Blanefield, Stirlingshire—Printing textile fabrics, &c. 2516. J. Brown, Darlington—Waggons. 2517. D. Assanti, Upper Berkeley street – Improved cooling or freezing mixture. 2518. R. Restell, Croydon—Warming conservatories, &c. 2519. C. Pechoin and E. P. Barades, La Chapelle, St. Denis, France – Utilizing saponaceous waste matters. Dated 1st November, 1853. S. Lomas, Manchester—Machinery for spinning and doubling silk. M. Newton, Tottenham—Carriages, and preventing them from overturning. (A communication.) J. & T. Whitehead, Leeds–Cutting tools and working iron, brass, &c. J. Chesterman, Sheffield–Hardening and tempering steel, and grinding, glazing, &c., steel, &c. Captain J. Bauer, Vienna — Steam-digging and harrowing machine.
2522. 1524. 2526. 2528. 2530.
Dated 2nd November, 1853. W. Taylor, Newport Pagnel — stopping bottles of aerated liquids.
2536. E. D. Smith, 7, Hertford street, May-fair—New buffer-break. 2538. E. Ward, Potton, Bedfordshire—Carriage axles. (A commu
nication.) 2540. B. Willis and J. Musto, East I.ondon Iron Works, Mile End–
Rotatory pumps. 2544. J. Howard, Bradford–Horse rakes and harrows. 2546. C. Iles, Pulworks, Birmingham–Metal bedsteads.
WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. Sealed 9th November, 1853. 1143. John Clapham, Thomas Clapham, and William Clapham, of Wellington foundary, Keighley—Improvements in moulding and casting iron pipes. 1153. George Stevenson Buchanan, of Glasgow—Improvements in the treatment or finishing of textile fabrics. 1172. George Frederick Goble, of Fish street hill—Improvements in propelling vessels and carriages; parts of the machinery therein employed being also applicable to other like purposes. Benjamin Newton, of Brighton—Improvements in the manufacture of mats. George Harriott, of Islingham, Frindsbury, Kent—Improvements in agricultural implements employed in crushing and rolling land, and in frames for the same. George Goodlet, of Leith—Improvements in engines to be worked by steam, air, or water combined. William Knowlcs, of Bolton le Moors—Improvements in machinery for warping and beaming yarns or threads. Henry John Beljemann, of New Oxford street—Improvements in chairs. William Henry Smith, of Bloomsbury—Improvements in the permanent way of railway. John Piddington, of Brussels—Improvements in obtaining infusions and decoctions, and in vessels or apparatus employed therein. (A communication.) 1673. Richard Archibald Brooman, of Fleet street—Improvements in the manufacture of anvils. 1681. George Gowland, of Liverpool—Improvements in certain nautical and surveying instruments. 1742. Joseph Bennett Howell, of Sheffield, and William Jamieson, of Ashton-under-Lyne—Improvements in the manufacture of saws. Griffith Jarrett, of London—Improvements in machinery or apparatus for stamping and printing coloured surfaces. Daniel Illel Picciotto, of Crosby square—Improvements in weaving. (A communication.) Thomas Kirkwood, of Edinburgh—Improvements applicable to ventilation and other purposes. John Hinks, George Wells, and Frederick Dowler, all of Birmingham—Improved machinery to be used in the manufacture of metallic pens and pen-holders. William Joseph Smith, of Stretford–Improvements in buttons or other such fastenings, and in applying or fixing them to wearing apparel. 2081. Cyprien Marie Tessié du Motay, and Edmond Louis Duflos, of Paris–Improvements in the mode of bleaching fibrous and other substances, 2083. James Childs, of Gilston road, Brompton—Improvements in the manufacture of materials to render them suitable as substitutes for mill-board and such like uses. 2085. Ernest Alexander Gouin, of Avenue de Clichy, Paris–Improvements in looms or weaving machines applicable to the weaving of cotton, ‘silk, flax, hemp, wool, or any other fibrous substances.
1336. 1348. 1377. 1427. 1481.
1774. 1892. 1925. 2028.
2097. Robert Trouson, of the Chamber of Commerce, Liverpool— Improvements in ventilating and preventing spontaneous combustion in ships and other vessels laden with coal, culm, or cinders. 2098. Thomas Metcalfe, of High street, Camden town—Improvements in portable chairs and tables. 2100. John Ward, of Saville House, Leicester square, and Edward Cawley, of Stanley street, Chelsea—Improvement in chairs, couches, and tables. 2101. Joseph Marks and John Howarth, of Massachusetts—Improvements in machinery or apparatus for operating the brakes of a train of railway carriages. 2108. Joseph Maudslay, of Lambeth—Improvements in boilers and furnaces for generating steam. 2120. Jacob Behrens, of Bradford, Yorkshire—Improvements in the manufacture of zinc. (A communication.) 2122. Emerson Goddard, of New York—Improvements in machinery for cutting stone. Moses Poole, Avenue road, Regent's park—Improvements in apparatus and means for removing matters or heat from cur-" rents of air, gases, or vapours from liquids, and for communicating matters or heat to the same. (A communication.) Richard Dugdale Kay, of Bank terrace, Accrington-Improvements in block printing. Moses Poole, of Avenue road, Regent's park—Improvements in machinery for separating flour, shorts, and dustings from bran, as it comes from the bolting apparatus. (A communication.) 2137. Jacob Behrens, of Bradford, Yorkshire—Improvements in generating steam in steam boilers. (A communication.) Moses Poole, of Avenue road, Regent's park—Improvements in distributing printers' type. (A communication.) Moses Poole, of Avenue road, Regent's park—Imptovements in life preservers. (A communication.) Joseph Gibbs, of Abingdon street—Improvements in the treatment of minerals, for the purpose of separating impurities therefrom. Sealed 11th November, 1853. Edmund Whitaker, of Rochdale, and James Walmesley, the younger, of Smithy Bridge, near Rochdale—Improvements in the manufacture of pipes, tiles, bricks, and slabs, ftom
2148. 2180. 2185.
clay. go; Bell, of Powell street, Goswell street—Improvements in obtaining liquid cement and pigments or paints. Stephen Garrett, of Taunton place, Bermondsey—Improvements in the preparing and tanning of skins, hides, or felts of animals. 1371. William Edward Maude, of Liverpool—Improved apparatus for steering ships. (A communication.) William Edward Newton, of Chancery lane.—Improvements in locks and latches. (A communication.) 1789. John Carvalho de Medeiro, of Passy, near Paris—Improvements in the means or processes for preserving metals from corrosion. (A communication. 2047. Thomas Bollman Upfill, and William Brown, both of Birmingham — Improvements applicable to metallic bedsteads, couches, chairs, and such other articles as are or may be used for sitting, lying, and reclining upon. Sealed 12th November, 1853. 1177. Julian Bernard, of Guildford street, Russell square, and Edward Taylor Bellhouse, of the Eagle Foundry, Manchester— Improvements in pressing and in extracting fluids. 1188. John Knowles, of Manchester, and Edward Taylor Bellhouse, of the same place—Improvements in the manufacture of articles of marble. Sealed 14th November, 1853. . 1197. William John Warner, of King street, Soho-Improvements in dry gas metres.
1201. Peter Arnaud Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South street, Finsbury—Improvements in steam engines. (A communication.)
1202. Peter Arnaud Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South street, Finsbury—Improvements in steam boilers. (A communication.)
1209. Robert Boyd, of Paisley—Improvements in weaving.
1220. Charles Cowper, of Southampton buildings—Improvements in machinery for combing and preparing wool and other fibrous substances. (A communication.) 1243. John Thornbarrow Manifold, Charles Spencer Lowndes, and John Jordan, all of Liverpool—Improvements in the method of extracting the juice from the sugar cane. 1263. Samuel Alfred Carpenter, of Birmingham—Improved elastic webbing or fabric. 1309. William Wolfe Bonney, of West Brompton—Improvements in machinery for raising a pile or flue by abrasion, on linen, cotton, silk, and other fabrics. 1329. Julian Bernard, of Guildford street, Russell square—Improvements in obtaining differential mechanical movements. 1370. William Edward Maude, of Liverpool—Improvements in carriages. (A communication.) 1541. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's inn fields—Improvements in the production or manufacture of flour. (A communica
tion.) 1615. Robert Anderson Rust, of Regent street-Improvements in
pianofortes. 2002. Peter Arnaud Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of Finsbury—
Improvements in apparatus for heating. (A communication).
Before proceeding to discuss the more prominent means now in use, for extracting the noble metal from the substances with which it is found assotiated, it will be well (very briefly) to consider the conditions in which gold presents itself in the various localities where it is found. It has often been remarked, as an evidence of he wise care of Providence, that while gold, which possessed a comparatively artificial value, existed but in small quantities and in few localities, iron, the most useful of metals, was distrilood in vast quantities in every quarter of the globe, and was everywhere accessible to man. The present appearance of things would seem to tlow some doubt over the truth of this remark, Which would appear to be more pious than just. The fact is that gold is found in every Tarter of the world, and every day's research "I'lls new fields to the enterprise of the *ker. The authority of a year on this *lict is already out of date. California, * gold fields were opened only six years *3% had hardly successfully asserted its claim to the title of the Eldorado, before she found a Powerful rival in your own Australia; and even this seems destined to share attractions with Devonshire and Wales. The most ancient source of the precious metal mentioned in the sacred writings, is “the had of Havilah, where there is gold,” and of which it is said “the gold of that land is good." of Ophir, we are told that “ they fetched from o gold and brought it to Solomon,” and that "chophat made ships to go to Ophir for gold;" but We know not with certainty the situation of Ophir, nor have we the means of ascertaining
JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.
[Nov. 25, 1853.
in what form the metal presented itself, or whether the diggers of those ancient days reduced it by means of crushers, cradles, or long-toms. In later times, Africa was long a noted source of gold, which gave a name, indeed, to a large portion of its coast. . The metal was found in smallparticles, known in commerce as “gold dust,” collected, no doubt, by some rude process of washing, from the sands in the beds of the intermittent streams. The region on the south of the Sahara, as also Sofala and Kordofan, were prolific sources of the precious metal. Sofala has, indeed, by some been supposed to be the ancient Ophir, and was long the chief emporium of the gold brought from the interior. But Africa is now entirely eclipsed by our modern Eldorados. It is said to yield about 5,000 lbs. weight annually. Asia has long been, and still continues to be, an important source of gold; indeed it was brought from the Indian Islands in remote times, and more recently gold deposits have been extensively worked in the Siberian and Ural districts. In the Ural it is found in small pieces, embedded in coarse gravel, and in veins of quartz in hard rocks. It is sometimes found associated with platinum. America, too, has made her full contribution to the stock of the noble metal. Brazil, Chili, Peru, Ecuador, New Granada, have all yielded rich supplies. The streams which run from the mountains bring down their precious freight in their pebbly beds. These were for a long time the chief sources of Brazilian gold, but it is also found in veins in the rocks, which modern capital is making available and profitable. The quantity yielded in Mexico is comparatively small, and it is always found there associated with silver. The Apalachian chain of the United States sends downs in some of its streams quantities of auriferous deposits, which have been worked with advantage in Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. But all the gold fields of America sink into comparative insignificance before the immense yield of the single state of California; which, in six years, has transformed a wilderness into a populous and wealthy, state, with agriculture, arts, and commerce. The gold discovery here took the usual course. It originated in accident got wind against the will of the first discoverer. was kept alive by rich findings in alluvial deposits. and at last subsided into something like a regular branch of industry; into which more perfect methods were introduced, as the eagerly sought wealth began to demand for its attainment a more steady and laborious industry. Rich sands and nuggets gave place to quartz ore, which required to be mined with great labour—crushed by heavy machinery, and amalgamated by careful and expensive processes. In Europe, gold is found in many localities;
the principal of which are Hungary and Transyl.
2d, , , A specimen of Cornish ore yielded at the rate of 11 oz. 13 dwts, and 8 grains to the ton. The Poltimore gossan has yielded from 17 to 32 dwt.s. to the ton, and other Devonshire ore 9 ounces to the ton. These results have been obtained within the last month, and go to show that the long-cherished dream of finding gold in profitable quantities in England is about to be realized. The experiments just mentioned have all been made at an expense not exceeding 5s. the ton for the reduction. The same ores have been smelted at a cost of 30s. per ton. A word on the subject of England's great gold producing colony, will conclude these hasty preliminary observations. Australia has only been known as a goldproducing country since 1851; for although shepherds and others were known to have picked up stray pieces of gold-bearing quartz for some years previously, it was not suspected to exist in quantities sufficient to repay the labour of collection, until Mr. Hargreaves, a practical miner, who had gained his experience in the Californian gold-fields, showed that the metal could be obtained in large quantities on the western slopes of the Blue Mountain Range. Subsequent researches have proved the metal to exist in larger or smaller quantities throughout the settled districts of South-Eastern Australia; and, from the character of the ranges to the north of New South Wales, it is suspected that they will prove equally prolific. Hitherto the metal has been obtained solely by the simple process of washing; for, although machinery has been introduced by public companies for the purpose of extracting it from the quartz rock, no important results have yet been attained. Indeed, in the first instance, the metal appears to have been sought for only in the alluvium, until the discovery of a monster nugget,
consisting of nearly a hundred weight of gold, in a quartz-ridge near Bathurst, called attention to the parent rock; and the subsequent researches of the Government geologists brought to light veins of auriferous quartz so extensively diffused, that quartz mining must soon become one of the chief industrial employments of South-Eastern Australia.
Notwithstanding this extensive distribution of gold, and the great desire of man to become possessed of it, the methods which human invention has hitherto devised for the purpose of obtaining it, have been but partially successful.
| There is abundant evidence to show that, up to
the present time, no method that has been applied has succeeded in extracting all the precious metal from auriferous ores. A friend of my own, who has travelled extensively in Russia, states that a very large proportion of the wealth of the Russian ores is lost—by confession of the mining men themselves—in the process of reduction now employed, and which has been cited, by an emineit geologist and mining engineer, as the most perfect process now in use. In California, too, the loss of gold has long been loudly complained of Mr. Collins, of Grassvalley, in that state, says:– “Our present mode of operating is very rapid, but the process of saving the gold is very imperfect, not saving from ordinary rock more than one-fourth or one-third of the gold which it contains.” The Phoenix Gold Mining Company of New York, in their report, make the following remarks:—“The difficulty hitherto in gold mining from quartz has not been chiefly in breaking, grinding, and pulverizing the rock,--that is in itself a very simple process, and one which can be effected in a variety of ways, with a per centage of difference in rapidity; but, after the rock is pulverized, the great desideratum is to separate the whole of the gold from the powder. The old process is so incomplete in its results that not more than one-sixth to one-third of the gold is saved in practice, as shown by the more thorough assay of the chemist.” Volumes of evidence might be added on this subject, all of the same tenor, but the simple fact that there has been so much inventive ingenuity applied in the last few years to the production of machinery for extracting gold from its ores, is sufficient to show that a machine for the purpose of doing this work effectually, remained a desi
deratum. This leads at once to the consideration of some of the methods hitherto employed for this purpose. Their number is so great that it would be impossible, in the proper limits of a paper like this, to specify them all. It will only be attempted here to indicate such as seem to be types of whole classes of appliances of the same general character. The processes for securing gold may be divided mainly into Washing, Smelting, Amalgamation.