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by this and the printing-presses of Caxton. Then 4000 persons, and the receipts netted £80, which sum was Spenser delighted by his sweet imagery; and that carried to the credit of a fund for a new building, which mighty bard appeared who wrote “not for an age but the Institution hoped to be able to erect on a scale comfor all time." of whom the lecturer said, quoting the mensurate with the rising prosperity of the town. Valuable language which Shakspeare puts into the mouth of results are looked forward to from the union with the SoAntony," he makes hungry where most he satisfies.” The ciety of Arts. The president then addressed the meeting, lecturer also referred to the poets of the 17th century, and was followed by the president of the Hastings Mechapassing a glowing eulogy on Milton, and specially com- nics’ Institution (George Scrivens, Esq.), the Rev. W. W. mending Pope's “ gems of wisdom.” The peculiarities of Hume, Mr. Selway, Mr. Banks, Mr. Ward ; and by Mr. subsequent poets were adverted to, and Burns and Tufnell, the Government Inspector of Schools, who was a Cowper, and Crabbe, and Moore, were passed in review. visitor on the occasion. A vote of thanks to the chairman Scott's marvellous powers of dealing with the legendary was proposed by Sir Woodbine Parish, K.C.H., and and the chivalrous were enforced, and Byron's magical seconded by P. O'Callaghan, &c. genius received due recognition. The lake poets were
WARMINSTER.—The first lecture of the season at the reviewed ; Wordsworth receiving special reference and Athenæum, was delivered on Tuesday, the 4th Oct., by homage. The poets, male and female, of the present Mr. Ansell, on the “ Electric Telegraph." The lecturer did day, were glanced at; the lecturer leaning to the notion not contine himselfto the mere exhibition of an instrument, that the female poets have the supremacy in inspiration and of those aerial highways of words—those mysterious The concluding portion of the lecture was an elaborate threads—which we see at railway stations and along the vindication of poetry from the attacks of its detractors. lines of our chemins de fer-hour iron roads. He went back far There are some who detest “ ballad-mongers ;”.who red into antiquity, to give, historically, an account of all the gard them as merely frivolous and useless writers. If successive modes of signals which nations have adopted ; they are correct in their opinion, the lecturer said, the commencing with the Siege of Troy, and ending with Homers, and Virgils, and Wordsworths, and Cowpers, and the era of railroads-embracing beacon fires, semaphores, Miltons, and Shakspeares lived in vain ; and the man and all the various modes of telegraphic communication who could seriously assert this would display not his under whatever mode of operation they might have wisdom, but his eccentricity and temerity. He dwelt on been in use-showing their greater or lesser value in the good that results from emotional appeals, and from simplicity and intelligence their sufficiency or insuffithe merely beautiful. He showed the poetical in nature ciency through gloom and fogs, by land and sea.
The around us, insisted upon its utility, and with considerable lecturer brought a staff of operators, who communicated warmth and energy compared and contrasted natural with artistic beauty. Poetry, he believed, meets a requirement ture was highly appreciated. ---On Monday the 16th, Mr.
messages from the lecture-desk to the gallery. The lecin the nature of man; and will last as long as man has Bird lectured on - Asteroids, and luminous and shooting spiritual thoughts, as long as he is influenced by hope stars." The lecturer discussed the theories of the most and love, as long as he owns bright anticipations, as long eminent astronomers who have written upon that branch as he is surrounded by suggestive solennities, and as long of astronomical science of which his lecture treated. The as he is the participator of the mystery", of existence. theory of Obers, in particular, as to a lost world was
SEVENOAKS.-On Thursday, November 10th, a lecture noticed, and its probabilities presumed. was delivered by Dr. Vesalius Pettigrew, at the Literary and Scientific Institution, on "The Advantages of the
WHITCHURCH.—On Tuesday evening last, a lecture Lower Animals to Man." To illustrate this lecture those “On the Life and Writings of Cowper," was delivered to animals were chosen whose province it is to clear away all the members of the Mechanics Institute, in their readingdecayed animal and vegetable matter—"scavengers," as
room in the Town Hall, by the Ven. Archdeacon Allen, the Doctor humourously called them—the worm, the vicar of Prees. The Rev. W. H. Egerton, President of þeetle, the fly (blue-bottle), the star-fish, the adjutant, the the Institute, introduced the rev. lecturer to the audience, hyena, &c., &c. This is the third lecture the Doctor has and at the close of the leeture proposed, on behalf of the given to this Institution, all of which have been nu- officers and members of the institute a vote of thanks, merously and respectably attended. The Marquis of Cam- which was most warmly responded to. den has taken the chair on each occasion.
SHREWSBURY.-On Tuesday, November 8, Mr. Elsmere delivered his first lecture on Botany and Vegetable Phy
To Gorrespondents. siology, to the members of the Shropshire Mechanics Institution. The subjects of the lecture were--The Nature and Uses of Botany; the Germination of the Seed; the Root, and its various Uses ; the Stem, its Functions NOTICE.—The Council desire to call the attention of the
Members and others to the increase which has been made in and Anatomy. In conclusion, the lecturer remarked that
the size of the Journal, by the addition of four pages of the vegetable world afforded us satisfactory proof of the cxistence and goodness of God, and furnished unanswer.
matter. This addition will be given every week during the
session, when the papers read at any of the ordinary meetings able arguments to atheistical sophistries. At the close of
run to such a length as would preclude, under other circumthe lecture a vote of thanks was proposed by the president, stances, the publication of shorter articles and letters of and carried by acclamation.
general interest on the subjects embraced within the Society's ST. LEONARD'S-ON-SEA.— The annual soirée of the Me
operations. The Council trust to receive the cordial support chanics' Institution was held on Tuesday week in the
of the general body, to enable them to carry out, with increased
and increasing interest, this feature. Assembly Rooms, and was very numerously attended. The president of the Institution, Mr. Alfred Burton, occupied the chair, and was supported by many of the
MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. leading residents of the place. Mr. S. Putland, jun., read the report, from which it appeared that the number of sub- Mon. Chemical, 8. scribing members was 184, having been 170 at the corres
Statistical, 8. ponding period last year. In addition to these there were Geographical, 8].
Civil Engineers, 8. ten life members. The library consists of about 850 vols.
Medical and Chirugical, 8). The reading-room is supplied with three daily and three Zoological, 9. weekly newspapers, and five weekly and one monthly pe WED. Society of Arts, 8.--Mr. G. F. W. Stansbury, “ On Machines riodicals. The Local Exhibition, held in the same rooms
for Pulverizing and Reducing Metalliferous Ores."
Arch. Assoc., 8. in January and February last, was visited by upwards of Royal Society of Literature, 84
fisherman, Tyrawley, parish of Kirkmaiden, had been a sucFot. Philological, 8. Architectural Assoc., 8.-Class of Design.
cessful oyster dredger, and having exercised his calling hitherto $41. Botanic, 34.
without interruption, was not inclined to abandon it without Medical, 8.
trying the question with Mr. Maitland. An application for interdict and damages, at Mr. Maitland's instance, was the
consequence. The case has been in dependence for some time, Miscellanea.
and has now heen finally decided in favour of Mr. M Clelland, by an interlocutor and note of Sheriff Urquhart.-North British
Daily Mail. CAPT. PEACOCK'S PATENT BELL BUOYS.-Three of these baoys are now in the Southampton dock, which the Mexican
PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852. government have ordered for a part of the coast in the Gulf of Mexico. They are enormous buoys, with large bells, and their APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED. use is in thick and foggy weather, when the buoys cannot be
From Gazette, 11th November, 1853. seen. The surging of the waves causes the bells to ring, which
Dated 5th August, 1853. gires information of the locality of the buoys. The apparatus is 1831. W. Smith and T. Phillips, Snow hill—Improvements in gas such also as to answer the purpose of life buoys, where several persons can be sheltered until they are rescued. The Russian
Dated 17th August, 1853. government recently ordered one of the patentee for Riga. One
1926. T. Grimsley, Oxford-Machinery for manufacture of bricks,
tiles, &c. is placed off Calshot Castle, near the entrance of the Southamp
Dated 12th October, 1853. ton Water, and it has been proposed to place one near the en- 2350. C. S. Jackson, Cannon street-Preserving timber and other trance of the Solent, which would afford great assistance to the
getable matters. pilots and commanders of the Southampton mail packets.
Dated 25th October, 1853. Colonel Facio visited Southampton on Monday, to inspect the 2455. T. Summerfield, Birmingham-Construction and manufacture
of windows. buoyu for the Mexican government. Captain Peacock has recently submitted models of his very useful invention to the Ad- | 2457. J. B. Verdun, Paris, and 4, South street, Finsbury-Construc
tion of globes. miralty and Trinity Board.
2453. J. D. Brady, Cambridge terrace, Hyde park-Appendage to COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE GUARD AND DRIVER OF
knapsacks. A RAILWAY TRAIN.-Captain Norton proposes that a Whistling 2461. J. Beasley, jun., Smathwick, Staffordshire-Construction of Bolt or Arrow, without feathers, shonld be shot from a steel puddling furnaces applicable to generation of steam. cross-box by the guard of the train, a few yards in a direct line 2463. A. V. Newton, 66 Chancery lane-Printing press. (A com
munication.) over the heat of the engine driver, who should have a shield or a
2465. W. Bottomley, North Brierly, Bradford, Yorkshire-Improved screen behind, reaching a foot above his head. The guard could machinery for weaving by jacquard loom and otherwise. place the bow on the roof of the carriage in his front—in a 2467. W. Grimshaw, Mossley, Antrim-Steam boilers. position marked out, so that every shot would follow the same
Dated 26th October, 1853. tract
, without the necessity of raising the bow to his shoulder | 2469. E. Austin, Pembroke cottages, Caledonian road--Surveying or taking any aim. Captain Norton has also invented a new
and raising sunken vessels, &c. Fog-signal . This apparatus consists of a small piece of seasoned 2471, R. Heyworth, Cross hall, Chorley, Lancashire - Looms for
weaving. wood, such as ash or elm, which has a chamber drilled into it, to
2473. E. J. Hughes, Manchester-Sewing or stitching apparatus. receive about three drachms of Hall's rifle-powder : this hole is 2475. D. Edwards, Ravenscliffe, Douglas, Isle of Man-Railway signal stopped with a wooden plag, glued in. A small touch-hole on the side receives a quill, charged like that for firing a cannon by 2477. F. L. II. Danchale; Elm grove villas, Acton green, and w. percussion, but more simple in its construction being without
Startin, Heathfield terrace, Turnham green-Obtaining and the transverse quill. The fault of the fog-signal at present in 2479. R. Joly, Gaillon, France-Improvements in dyeing:
applying motive power. use is, that the tin case containing the charge of percussion 2481. J. T. &? Vitzetelly, Peterborough court-Plates for printing powder, is crushed by the wheel the engine : the percussion purposes, &c. (Partly a communication.) powder is in consequence not confined when the explosion takes
Dated 27th October, 1853. place.
2482. A. F. Rémond, Birmingham-Manufacture of metallic vessels. CONSOLIDATED Soda WATER.-A curiosity in saline drinks, 2483. T. s: Blackwell, Cranbrook, Kent-Signalizing and stopping termed by the inventor, M. Lamplough, water” –has just made its appearance. Aerated, or gassed, 2484. R. Richards, Paddington--Apparatus indicating water in holds water is common enougb, but not so real soda water. M. Lam- 2485. T. Dawson, King's Arms yard-Cover for umbrellas which can plough, however, now gives us the true article, in the very port
be worn as a garment. able condition of a ready prepared powder, from which we can 2487. W. Vaughan, Stockport, Cheshire, J. Scattergood, Heaton always obtain an "effervescing pyretic saline draught of Norris, Lancashire, and C. Grimshaw, Brinnington, Che.
shire--Improvements in harness for weaving, and apparatus unvarying quality. A small bottle, with a cork-fitted stopper,
for making same. holds twenty-four such draughts, in the shape of a powder, a 2488. R. Bishop, Edinburgh-Steam and water valves. teaspoonful of which, mingled in a glass of water, disengages a 2489, H. Dolby, 56 Regent street-Embossing presses. greater amount of carbonic acid gas than is producible by any 2491. J. M. A. B. Limonier, 103, Quai St. Leonard, Liege-New sysordinary means. The powder is, indeed, carbonic acid gas solidified , a substance being added for the perfect preservation of 2492. E. Loysel
, 2 Rue de Gretry, Paris--Improved coffee pot. gas. Bo convenient a means of obtaining a cool effervescing 2494. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet street - Manufacture of coloured fluid carries its own recommendation with it.
and ornamented fabrics. (A communication.) OYSTER FISHING IN THE BAY OP LUCE. Two years ago.
Dated 28th November, 1853. a discovery was made of extensive oyster beds in the Bay of 2495. M. Maclaren, Johnston, Renfrew-Fireplaces, grates, &c. Luce. The oysters proved to be of a large and superior quality 2496. A. M. Sewan, 8, Philpot lane - Treatment of Phormium one of them being equal to three of the Lochryan oysters. The
tenex, &.. teriorated the size and quality of the oysters ; and the large 2498. J. W. Wilkins
, Ludgate hill — Obtaining power by electroconstant annuał dredging of the L chryan beds necessarily de- 2497. J. Johnson, Over Darwen, Lancashire -- Looms for terry rent payable to the proprietor make the fishings not a very magnetism. profitable business for those engaged in it. The discovery in
Dated 29th November, 1853. the bay of Lace was, therefore, looked on with much satisfac- 2500. J. Nasmyth, Patricroft— Pistons and rods of steam hammers, &c. tion by the fishermen and the public ; but it was no sooner
2501. E. D. Smith, 7, Hertford street, May-fair-Railway carriages to made, than it brought forward Patrick Maitland, Esq.,, of
prevent collision, &c. Freugh, to claim an exclusive right to the whole oysters in the
2502. P. 0. Bernard, Rood lane-Hamper for wine, &c., in bottles.
2503. R. A. Brooman, 166, Fleet street-Machinery for dressing flax, bay, and in the seas below the bay-rather an extensive boun- &c. (A communication.) dary, which might include the bay, properly so called, from 2504. G. J. Gladstone, 10, Brunswick terrace, Blackwall-Ascertainthe foot of the River Luce to the Mull of Galloway and the Barghhead, and also the Solway Frith and the Irish Chan- 2505. A. Maclure, Walbrook Lithographic printing presses, nel to the Isle of Man. He founded on a Crown charter and 2506. W. Betts, 1, Wharf road, City road-Machinery for manufacsasine, and issued printed notices, intimating his alleged right,
turing metallic capsules.
Dated 31st November, 1853. offering to grant licenses--and threatening legal proceedings 2507. J. T. Wright and E. P. Wright, and W. Ashbury, Birmingagainst those who should disregard it. Mr. John M'Clelland, ham-Improvements in mill banding.
2508. J. Haley, Manchester - Machinery for cutting, boring, &c., 2097. Robert Trouson, of the Chamber of Commerce, Liverpoolmetals, &c.
Improvements in ventilating and preventing spontaneous 2509. E. G. Banner, Cranham hall, Essex-Motive power.
combustion in ships and other vessels laden with coal, culm, 2510. C. Goethel, and C. M. Zimmerman, Philadelphia - Stereo
or cinders, scopes.
2098. Thomas Metcalfe, of High street, Camden town-Improve2511. F. P. Rovère, 4, Wellington street, Strand-Joints for tubular
ments in portable chairs and tables. drains,
2100. John Ward, of Sarille House, Leicester square, and Edward 2512. P. M. Parsons, Duke street, Adelphi-Switches.
Cawley, of Stanley street, Chelsea- Improvement in chairs, 2513. J. Gray, M.D., Dublin-Self-acting flushing apparatus.
couches, and tables. 2514. G. Hamilton, Paisley, Renfrewshire Spreading starch, 2101. Joseph Marks and John Howarth, of Massachusetts-Improve
ments in machinery or apparatus for operating the brakes 2515. A. P. Conbrough, Blanefield, Stirlingshire-Printing textile
of a train of railway carriages. fabrics, &c.
2108. Joseph Maudslay, of Lambeth-Improvements in boilers and 2516. J. Brown, Darlington-Waggons.
furnaces for generating steam. 2517. D. Assanti, Upper Berkeley street — Improved cooling or 2120. Jacob Behrens, of Bradford, Yorkshire- Improvements in freczing mixture.
the manufacture of zinc. (A communication.) 2518. R. Restell, Croydon-Warming conservatories, &c.
2122. Emerson Goddard, of New York-Improvements in machinery 2519. C. Pechioin and E. P. Barades, La "hapelle, St. Denis, France
for cutting stone. -Utilizing saponaceous waste matters.
2123. Moses Poole, Avenue road, Regent's park-Improvements in Dated 1st November, 1853.
apparatus and means for removing matters or heat from cur-* 2522. S. Lomas, Manchester-Machinery for spinning and doubling
rents of air, gases, or vapours from liquids, and for commusilk.
nicating matters or heat to the same. (A communication.) 1524. M. Newton, Tottenham-Carriages, and preventing them from 2134. Richard Dugdale Kay, of Bank terrace, Accrington-Improveoverturning. (A communication.)
ments in block printing. 2526. J. & T. Whitehead, Leeds-Cutting tools and working iron, 2135. Moses Poole, of Avenue road, Regent's park-Improvements brass, &c.
in machinery for separating flour, shorts, and dustings from 2528. J. Chesterman, Sheffield-Hardening and tempering steel, and
bran, as it comes from the bolting apparatus. (A commugrinding, glazing, &c., steel, &c.
nication.) 2530. Captain J. Bauer, Vienna – Steam-digging and harrowing 2137. Jacob Behrens, of Bradford, Yorkshire-Improvements in gemachine.
nerating steam in steam boilers. (A communication.) Dated 2nd November, 1853.
2148. Moses Poole, of Avenue road, Regent's park-Improvements 2534. W. Taylor, Newport Pagnel — Stopping bottles of ærated in distributing printers' type. (A communication.) liquids.
2180. Moses Poole, of Avenue road, Regent's park-Imptovements 2536. E. D. Smith, 7, Hertford street, May-fair-New buffer-break.
in life preservers. (A communication.) 2538. E. Ward, Potton, Bedfordshire-Carriage axles. (A commu- 2185. Joseph Gibbs, of Abingdon street-Improvements in the treatnication.)
ment of minerals, for the purpose of separating impurities 2540. B. Willis and J. Musto, East London Iron Works, Mile End
therefrom. Rotatory pumps.
Sealed 11th November, 1853. 2544. J. Howard, Bradford-Horse rakes and harrows.
1167. Edmund Whitaker, of Rochdale, and James Walmesley, the 2546. C. lles, Pulworks, Birmingham-Metal bedsteads.
younger, of Smithy Bridge, near Rochdale- Improvements
in the manufacture of pipes, tiles, bricks. and slabs, from WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED.
1169. George Bell, of Powell street, Goswell street-Improvements Sealed 9th November, 1853.
in obtaining liquid cement and pigments or paints. 1143. John Clapham, Thomas Clapham, and William Clapham, of 1200. Stephen Garrett, of Taunton place, Bermondsey-ImproveWellington foundary, Keighley-Improvements in moulding
ments in the preparing and tanning of skins, hides, or felts and casting iron pipes.
of animals. 1153. George Stevenson Buchanan, of Glasgow-Improvements in 1371. William Edward Maude, of Liverpool - Improved apparatus the treatment or finishing of textile fabrics.
for steering ships. (A communication.) 1172. George Frederick Goble, of Fish street hill-Improvements 1617. William Edward Newton, of Chancery lane.- Improvements in propelling vessels and carriages ; parts of the machinery
in locks and latches. (A communication.) therein employed being also applicable to other like pur- 1789. John Carvalho de Medeiro, of Passy, near Paris-Improvements poses.
in the means or processes for preserving metals from corro1234, Benjamin Newton, of Brighton-Improvements in the manu
sion. (A communication.) facture of mats.
2047, Thomas Bollman Upill, and William Brown, both of Birming1314. George Harriott, of Islingham, Frindsbury, Kent-Improve
ham — Improvements applicable to metallic bedsteads, ments in agricultural implements employed in crushing and
couches, chairs, and such other articles as are or may be rolling land, and in frames for the same.
used for sitting, lying, and reclining upon. 1336. George Goodlet, of Leith-Improvements in engines to be
Sealed 12th November, 1853. worked by steam, air, or water combined. 1348. William Knowles, of Bolton le Moors-Improvements in ma
1177. Julian Bernard, of Guildford street, Russell square, and Edward chinery for warping and beaming yarns or threads.
Taylor Bellhouse, of the Eagle Foundry, Manchester1377. Henry John Beljemann, of New Oxford street, Improvements Improvements in pressing and in extracting fluids. in chairs.
1188. John Knowles, of Manchester, and Edward Taylor Bellhouse, 1427. William Henry Smith, of Bloomsbury-Improvements in the
of the same place-Improvements in the manufacture of
articles of marble. permanent way of railway. 1481. John Piddington, of Brusseis-Improvements in obtaining in
Sealed 14th November, 1853. fusions and decoctions, and in vessels or apparatus em- 1197. William John Warner, of King street, Soho-Improvements in ployed therein. (A communication.)
dry gas metres. 1673. Richard Archibald Brooman, of Fleet' street-Improvements 1201. Peter Arnaud Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South street, in the manufacture of an vils.
Finsbury-Improvements in steam engines. (A communi1681. George Gowland, of Liverpool - Improrements in certain nau.
cation.) tical and surveying instruments.
1202, Peter Arnaud Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of South street, 1742. Joseph Bennett Howell, of Sheffield, and William Jamieson,
Finsbury-Improvements in steam boilers. (A commu. of Ashton-under-Lyne-Improvements in the manufacture
nication.). of saws.
1209. Robert Bord, of Paisley-Improvements in weaving. 1774. Griffith Jarrett, of London-Improvements in machinery or 1220. Charles Cowper, of Southampton buildings- Improvements in apparatus for stamping and printing coloured surfaces.
machinery for combing and preparing wool and other fibrous 1892. Daniel Illel Picciotto, of Crosby square-Improvements in
substances. (A communication.) weaving. (A communication.)
1243. John Thornbarrow Manifold, Charles Spencer Lowndes, and 1925. Thomas Kirkwood, of Edinburgh-Improvements applicable John Jordan, all of Liverpool-- Improvements in the method to ventilation and other purposes.
of extracting the juice from the sugar cane. 2028. John Hinks, George Wells, and Frederick Dowler, all of Bir. 1263. Samuel Alfred Carpenter, of Birmingham-Improved elastic mingham-Improved machinery to be used in the manu
webbing or fabric. facture of metallic pens and pen-holders.
1309. William Wolfe Bonney, of West Brompton--Improvements in 2059. William Joseph Smith, of Stretford-Improvements in buttons
machinery for raising a pile or flue by abrasion, on linen, or other such fastenings, and in applying or fixing them to
cotton, silk, and other fabrics. wearing apparel.
1329. Julian Bernard, of Guildford street, Russell square-Improve. 2081. Cyprien Maric Tessié du Motay, and Edmond Louis Duflos, of ments in obtaining differential mechanical movements.
Paris-Improvements in the mode of bleaching fibrous and 1370. William Edward Maude, of Liverpool Improvements in carother substances.
riages. (A communication) 2083. James Childs, of Gilston road, Brompton-Improvements in 1541. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's inn fields Improvements the manufacture of materials to render them suitable as
in the production or manufacture of four. (A communicasubstitutes for mill-board and such like uses.
tion.). 2085. Ernest Alexander Gouin, of Avenue de Clichy, Paris-Im- 1615. Robert Anderson Rust, of Regent street--Improvements in provements in looms or weaving machines applicable to the
pianofortes. weaving of cotton, silk, flax, hemp, wool, or any other 2002. Peter Arnaud Le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of Finsburyfibrous substances.
Improvements in apparatus for heating. (A communication).
No. 53. Vol. II.)
JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.
[Nov. 25, 1853.
in what form the metal presented itself, or whe
Journal of the Society of Arts. ther the diggers of those ancient days reduced it
by means of crushers, cradles, or long-toms. FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 25, 1853.
In later times, Africa was long a noted source of gold, which gave a name, indeed, to a large
portion of its coast. The metal was found in SECOND ORDINARY MEETING. small particles, known in commerce as“ gold dust," WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 23, 1853.
collected, no doubt, by some rude process of The Second Ordinary Meeting of the One Hun- mittent streams. The region on the south of the
washing, from the sands in the beds of the interdredth Session was held on Wednesday, the 23rd Sahara, as also Sofala and Kordofan, were prolific instant, Thomas Hoblyn, Esq., F.R.S., in the
sources of the precious metal. Sofala has, indeed, Chair. The following Candidates were balloted for and was long the chief emporium of the gold
by some been supposed to be the ancient Ophir, and duly elected :
brought from the interior. But Africa is now William Henry Absolon; Rev. Henry Baber, M.A.; entirely eclipsed by our modern Eldorados. It Henry Blundell; John Calvert; John Moxon Clabon ; is said to yield about 5,000 lbs. weight annually. Robert Dawbarn ; Samuel Holine; W. S. Northhouse; John Henry Pepper; Osman Ricardo, M.P.; R. A. Asia has long been, and still continues to be, Slaney; George Spottiswoode; William Staniland; and an important source of gold; indeed it was brought Lord Wharnclitie.
from the Indian Islands in remote times, and more The paper read was—
recently gold deposits have been extensively ON MACHINES FOR REDUCING AND the Ural it is found in small pieces, embedded in
worked in the Siberian and Ural districts. In PULVERIZING METALLIFEROUS ORES.
coarse gravel, and in veins of quartz in hard BY CHARLES F. STANSBURY.
rocks. It is sometimes found associated with Before proceeding to discuss the more prominent platinum. means now in use, for extracting the noble metal America, too, has made her full contribution to from the substances with which it is found asso- the stock of the noble metal. Brazil, Chili, ciated, it will be well (very briefly) to consider Peru, Ecuador, New Granada, have all yielded the conditions in which gold presents itself in the rich supplies. The streams which run from the various localities where it is found.
mountains bring down their precious freight in It has often been remarked, as an evidence of their pebbly beds. These were for a long time he wise care of Providence, that while gold, the chief sources of Brazilian gold, but it is also which possessed a comparatively artificial value, found in veins in the rocks, which modern capital existed but in small quantities and in few locali- is making available and profitable. The quantity ties, iron, the most useful of metals, was distri- yielded in Mexico is comparatively small, and buted in vast quantities in every quarter of the it is always found there associated with silver. globe, and was everywhere accessible to man. The Apalachian chain of the United States The present appearance of things would seem to sends downs in some of its streams quantities of throw some doubt over the truth of this remark, auriferous deposits, which have been worked with which would appear to be more pious than just. advantage in Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. The fact is that gold is found in every But all the gold fields of America sink into quarter of the world, and every day's research comparative insignificance before the immense opens new fields to the enterprise of the yield of the single state of California ; which, in gold-seeker. The authority of a year on this six years, has transformed a wilderness into a subject is already out of date. California, populous and wealthy state, with agriculture, whose gold fields were opened only six years arts, and commerce. The gold discovery here ago, had hardly successfully asserted its claim to took the usual course. It originated in accident, the title of the Eldorado, before she found a got wind against the will of the first discoverers, powerful rival in your own Australia; and even was kept alive by rich findings in alluvial deposits, this seems destined to share attractions with and at last subsided into something like a regular Devonshire and Wales.
branch of industry, into which more perfect The most ancient source of the precious methods were introduced, as the eagerly bought metal mentioned in the sacred writings, is “the wealth began to demand for its attainment a land of Havilah, where there is gold," and of more steady and laborious industry. Rich sands which it is said “the gold of that land is good." and nuggets gave place to quartz ore, which Of Ophir, we are told that “they fetched from required to be mined with great labour-crushed thence gold and brought it to Solomon," and that by heavy machinery, and amalgamated by careful " Jehosophat made ships to go to Ophir for gold;" | and expensive processes. bat we know not with certainty the situation of In Europe, gold is found in many localities ; Ophir ; nor have we the means of ascertaining the principal of which are Hungary and Transyl
at the rate per ton
17 20 6
60 138 31 72 222 294
1 3 2 1 1 5 1 1
19 2 0 18 18 5 16 1
0 17 18 15
* a ton
14 dwts, the ton, 1 oz. and 20 grs.
yania. But England and Wales seem, from recent consisting of nearly a hundred weight of gold, in events, to bid fair to take their place among the a quartz-ridge near Bathurst, called attention to most important gold-producing countries of the the parent rock; and the subsequent researches of world. The precious metal occurs here in a state the Government geologists brought to light veins of minute division in quartz rock. In Devonshire of auriferous quartz so extensively diffused, that the red and brown gossans contain a per centage quartz mining must soon become one of the chief which will amply repay the cost of reduction, by industrial employments of South-Eastern Australia. the best methods now known. The following Notwithstanding this extensive distribution of statement of the results of eight recent experi- gold, and the great desire of man to become ments with some auriferous quartz from Merioneth- possessed of it, the methods which human invenshire, Wales, will show the grounds of the tion has hitherto devised for the purpose of opinion above expressed:
obtaining it, have been but partially successful.
Oz. dwts. grs. There is abundant evidence to show that, up to Oct, 20.--362 yielded 154
the present time, no method that has been applied
has succeeded in extracting all the precious Nor. '1.-166
metal from auriferous ores. A friend of my own,
who has travelled extensively in Russia, states 748 (lead) 748 (pyrites) 173
that a very large proportion of the wealth of the The Britannia gossan from Devonshire yielded, Russian ores is lost-by confession of the mining by recent experiments :
men themselves—in the process of reduction now 1st ex pt. produced 7 dwts
employed, and which has been cited, by an emi
nent geologist and mining engineer, as the most A specimen of Cornish ore yielded at the rate of perfect process now in use. 11 oz. 13 dwts. and 8 grains to the ton. The Polti- In California, too, the loss of gold has long been more gossan has yielded from 17 to 32 dwts. to the loudly complained of. Mr. Collins, of Grasston, and other Devonshire ore 9 ounces to the valley, in that state, says :-“ Our present mode ton. These results have been obtained within the of operating is very rapid, but the process of last month, and go to show that the long-cherished saving the gold is very imperfect, not saving from dream of finding gold in profitable quantities in ordinary rock more than one-fourth or one-third England is about to be realized. The experi- of the gold which it contains." ments just mentioned have all been made at an The Phanix Gold Mining Company of New expense not exceeding 5s. the ton for the re- York, in their report, make the following reduction. The same ores have been smelted at a marks :-" The difficulty hitherto in gold mining cost of 30s. per ton.
from quartz has not been chiefly in breaking, A word on the subject of England's great gold grinding, and pulverizing the rock,- that is in producing colony, will conclude these hasty pre- itself a very simple process, and one which can be liminary observations.
effected in a variety of ways, with a per centage Australia has only been known as a gold- of difference in rapidity; but, after the rock is producing country since 1851; for although shep-pulverized, the great desideratum is to separate herds and others were known to have picked up the whole of the gold from the powder. The old stray pieces of gold-bearing quartz for some process is so incomplete in its results that not years previously, it was not suspected to exist in more than one-sixth to one-third of the gold is quantities sufficient to repay the labour of col- saved in practice, as shown by the more thorough lection, until Mr. Hargreaves, a practical miner, assay of the chemist.” who had gained his experience in the Californian Volumes of evidence might be added on this gold-fields, showed that the metal could be ob- subject, all of the same tenor, but the simple fact tained in large quantities on the western slopes of that there has been so much inventive ingenuity the Blue Mountain Range. Subsequent researches applied in the last few years to the production of have proved the metal to exist in larger or smaller machinery for extracting gold from its ores, is quantities throughout the settled districts of sufficient to show that a machine for the purpose South-Eastern Australia ; and, from the character of doing this work effectually, remained a desiof the ranges to the north of New South Wales, deratum. it is suspected that they will prove equally pro- This leads at once to the consideration of some of lific. Hitherto the metal has been obtained the methods hitherto employed for this purpose. Their solely by the simple process of washing; for, number is so great that it would be impossible, in the although machinery has been introduced by public will only be attempted here to indicate such as seem to be
proper limits of a paper like this, to specify them all. It companies for the purpose of extracting it from types of whole classes of appliances of the same general the quartz rock, no important results have yet been character. attained. Indeed, in the first instance, the metal
The processes for securing gold may be divided mainly into
Washing, appears to have been sought for only in the
Smelting, alluvium, until the discovery of a monster nugget,