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tion. The Society had done much good in the years was afraid, were held by only a small minority of the 1850, '51, and '52, by the admirable reports they had meeting; and seeing the powerful advocates he had to published on the law of patents, and which had given to contend with, he feared it would be almost impossiblo the world much useful and interesting matter on the for him to do justice to the cause he had in hand. There subject. It appeared to him that the law of patents could be no doubt that that part of Mr. Webster's paper ought to be taken as established, and their endeavour which referred to the origin of property was, as it had should be to see what improvements could be made in it, been truly described by Mr. Denison and Mr. Wordsworth, and, more especially as it affected artistic copyrights. more metaphysical and philosophical than practical. It He wished to address a few words on this subject, as was, however, necessary that we should have a correct dethere were a large number of persons connected finition of the origin of property, in order to arrive at a with tho arts - painters, engravers, and sculptors — just idea of its nature. His idea was that the origin of whose property in their productions was very imper- property might be referred to the separate or joint exercise fectly, or altogether unprotected. How great were the of physical or mental superiority, the former establishing number of persons interested might be gathered from occupancy, the latter creating wealth by fashioning the the fact, that, in the course of the season of 1853, there materials in and on the earth in such form, and for such were exhibited in London no less than 4,168 objects of purposes of convenience or luxury, as the maker or inart, the work of 1,952 artists, exclusive of what were ex. ventor might desire. With this definition, no doubt, Mr. hibited in the provincial towns, Ireland, Scotland, and Webster would be satisfied. It was unnecessary, for the other parts of the British doininions. Now these parties purposes of this discussion, to inquire how far, if at all, were hardly protected at all, and it would scarcely what was called natural justice was compromised or viobe believed that sketches of Mr. Martin's picture of lated by an exclusive possession of what would Belshazzar's Feast were sold, and some years after seem to be, ab initio, the equal right of all. It wards prints were engraved from them, one of which was sufficient that we recognised, as admitted, that W. bought, and had it painted in colours, on a large scale what a man claimed as his own by creation, purwith dioramic effects, and exhibited it for money, as Mr. chase, or descent, and could prove to be so, he ought Martin's grand picture of Belshazzar's Feast, and Mr. to be protected in the enjoyment of. The real and Martin had no means of preventing him; for upon primary question at issue was this-whether the less his filing a bill in chancery, the court decided that tangible results of intellectual activity, as developed in the Engraving acts did not apply to such a case as that, inventions in art and manufacture, had any claim to and refused to grant an injunction to restrain W. from protection beyond what the law afforded to all rightful exhibiting his copy, and representing to the public that it possessors of material property, such as the iron, wood, was the work of Mr. Martin, until the right had been brass, or copper, of which their inventions might be comestablished at law, at the same time observing, that if Mr. posed. In their raw and inert state these materials Martin had exhibited his picture as a diorama, he might were comparatively of small value, but when manuhave been entitled to an injunction. Could anything more factured or combined into certain forms, the value unjust than that be imagined. There were five Acts of Par- might become infinitely enhanced. Whether, however, liament for the protection of copy-right in works of Art, these materials were of greater or less cost to the owner, the first of which was obtained through the exertions he was not compelled to part with them at less than the of Hogarth, the father of art in this country: Upon ob- value he set upon them, or even at all; but when he had taining that Act, Hogarth published a small print with so done, they were, or ought to be, no longer his property, emblematical devices, and bearing the following inscrip- but that of the purchaser, who, in his turn, ought to be at tion :-" In humble grateful acknowledgment of the liberty to sell them again, or to make as many fac-similes grace and goodness of the legislature, manifested in as his interest or convenience might dictate. It was with the Act of Parliament for the encouragmeent of the the inventor to do what he would with his own: in the arts of designing and engraving, obtained by the en state of the law which he (Mr. Winkworth) contended deavours. and almost at tho sole expense of the de- ought to exist, he would know the penalty of parting signer of this print, in the year 1735, by which not with it. But if for a moment we admitted that an only the professors of those arts were rescued froin the inventor had as much right to protection in the monopoly tyranny, fraud, and piracies of monopolising dealers, and of his invention, after it had by his own act passed out legally entitled to the fruits of their own labours; of his hands, as the owner of land or other property, but genius and industry were also prompted by the how was it that the law only gave him a temporary or noble and generous
inducements to exert limited interest in it? Simply because the law did not themselves — emulation was excited, ornamental, com- recognise that natural right to which he erroneously laid positions were better understood, and every manu- claim, and only granted it by way of encouragement or facture where fancy has any concern was gradually reward for ingenuity, very often to his own injury, and raised to & pitch of perfection before unknown, greatly to the damage of the community at large. If he insomuch that those of Great Britain were at present the had the same right as the owner of real or personal most elegant, and the most in esteem of any in Europe.” | property, the law was guilty of a gross injustice by It was curious that, notwithstanding that act obtained by limiting the period of his enjoyment of it. So much Hogarth, and four others which had been since passed, for the present as to the principle. Let us glance for a painters and engravers were still very inefficiently pro- moment at some of the evils resulting from the theory tected, and sculptors had no protection at all. A good of patent right, falsely so called ;-1. It compelled the deal had been said about there being no right of property liberal inventor to take out patents to protect himself in in inventions, but he hoped he should not be overstepping the enjoyment of his own discoveries. This was exemthe mark laid down by the Society for this discussion, if plified by the case of Mr. Scott Russell, who stated, in the he claimed for every man the right of property in his own chair of that Society, that he was forced to take out productions. Why should not such a work as that of patents for his own protection, though he did not agree Belshazzar's Feast he protected from piracy. Why any one with the theory of patent right. 2. It prevented or decould copy the works of another, and dispose of the enterred him from improving on existing inventions. 3. It gravings for a profit, without the original paivter having encouraged persons of small means to embark in speculathe power to prevent him, or obtaining any benefit from tions their own real or supposed inventions at a ruinous it. What he considered was wanted, was, that the law cost; and it was shown by Mr. Prosser, that not one should be so amended both with regard to patents and patent in one hundred paid the inventor, so that parties copyrights by which a cheap and expeditious protection were drawn into speculation merely in the hope of obtaining should be obtained at common law.
a prize. 4. The patentee of an invention of value was Mr. WINKWORTH rose to advocate opinions which, he too often obliged to fight or buy off pirates at a large
JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.
cost of time, anxiety, and money. This was illustrated would be patented, so that we could only perform those by Mr. Denison, by reference to the evidence of Mr. necessary operations with the sword of Damocles hanging Ricardo, with regard to the Electric Telegraph Company. over our heads in the shape of an injunction in chancery, They had expended £200,000 in buying up patents, yet all which might be profitable fun to Mr. Wordsworth and fresh inventions and improvements in telegraphs were Mr. Webster, but would be death to us. We might rest 80 constantly being brought before the public, that he assured that the man of real genuis was a true patriot, believed they were now obliged to abandon that expensive and would not hide his talents under & bushel. If the policy. 5. An ingenious man sometimes supposed that patent laws were abolished to-morrow, there would be he had made a discovery-and to himself it was a disco- more useful inventions than ever, for talent being no very-and believing it to be so, he patented it. Scarcely longer bound by the fetters of monopoly, and breathing a had he done this, and begun to exercise his newly- freer atmosphere, would find its true position and exhibit itacquired right, than he was informed that the thing was self in forms to astonish, delight, and improve the world. not new, and that, though the original patentee had not Mr. Cole said Mr. Winkworth had told them that his hitherto availed himself of his right, he (patentee No. 2) object was to put an end to patents altogether, and then might use his own patent at his own peril. That was he went on to say, that they did not, there would be illustrated by Mr. Denison, by reference to Sir Joseph so many articles patented that they could not take a Paxton's sash bars, and the large volume of specifications meal without using a patented article. Now he(Mr. Cole) of reaping machines produced to them by Mr. Prosser, maintained that all property ought to be protected, though who said that a better reaping machine than any yet there inight be inventors, such as Brunel, who could ininvented had originated with one Pliny, 30 years before vent whatever he wanted, who might consider the patent Christ, from which it would appear that all subsequent lawsunnecessary. Why should they abolish a right which inventions and improvements were piracies thereupon. had been recognised for four or five centuries in all 6. A patentee, whether justly or unjustly so, had the civilised countries--amongst them, Spain, Austria, France, power, which he too often exercised, of charging exor- and the United States. He looked upon it that there was bitantly for his presumed invention, under pretence of very little difference in property the result of labour, and indemnity. 7. It was the interest of inventors not to any other kind of property, with regard to its right to confer with others, who could assist them with advice to protection. Indeed, those who advocated the contrary that might make their inventions really valuable. Hence opinion, had evidently founded their notions of right on the many imperfect and valueless machines. 8. The the views of Louis Blanc and other socialists, that no supposed necessity for couching specifications in terms, property had a right to protection. Jeremy Bentham sufficiently comprehensive to embrace every possible had, in his opinion, very ably shown the right of invenmodification of the invention, and yet so general and tors to protection, in a few short and pithy lines, in which mysterious as to defy all power of understanding it. he said, “ In new inventions, protection against imitators is Hence the interminable injunctions in Chancery, issues not less necessary than in established manufactures protection directed to be tried at common law, and other expensive against thieves. He who has no hope that he shall reap, will and harrassing results, by which some £200,000 or not take the trouble to sow. But that which one man has in£300,000 per annum was wasted. He had received vented, all the world can imitate." If two savages were a cominunication so germane to this point from Mr. following prey, and one, more skilful than the other, George Brace, who had been largely occupied in the killed, he took it as his right, yet he did not create that amendment of the old law, and who had intended to have property, neither had the land been created by man, but spoken had he been able to be present, that he would it had merely been taken in by-gone ages by the strongest, read an extract to the meeting :
and yet property, in land was now acknowledged and ... The Society of Arts has done much in miti- protected. The inventor, however, created his property; gating the evils of the law respecting the obtaining of he brought into existence that which was previously patents. But the Society has done 'NOTHING touching unknown. The law said that a man should be prothe protection of men when they have got their patents. tected for his labour, and surely because he and Mr. Think of the crying evil as regards the costly remedies Winkworth might arrive at the same results from for infringements and invasions. A. B., an inventor, has their labour, that was no reason it should not be protected. his bantling attacked; he has then to go and instruct an Whoever patented the invention first would be protected unskilled attorney; the attorney, when up in the case, has in it; but then the law said, as two persons might hit to instruct an equally unskilled barrister; two or three upon the same invention at the same time, the patentee barristers have then to apply the forcing process to a should only be protected for a limited period, and then it judge profoundly ignorant of the subject; and they have should be open to all the world. He could not understand also to enlighten 12 jurymen, who are, perhaps, equally why the result of intellectual labour should not be equally ill-informed of the real merits of the scientific subject sub- protected with other property. If a labourer got a shilling mitted to them. However, the barristers, judge, and for paving the streets he was protected in the enjoyment of jury coine to a decision at an enormous expense, and the it,and surely those who devoted their minds and energies to whole is perhaps upset by a piece of solemn mummery patents were equally entitled to protection. Such patents called a Bill of Exceptions. Then comes an immense could not fairly be called monopolies, as some of their amount of legal trifling-a new trial and costs—perhaps opponents had designated them; and this was clearly ruin.. Now, why not let a tribunal appoint a standing laid down by Mr. J. Stuart Mill, in his “ Principles of jury, if you like of five or seven men, conversant with Political Economy.” That gentleman said: "The conthe subject? Let the case be stated by the litigating demnation of MONOPOLIES ought not to extend to patents, parties, subject to legal direction by an assessor.
The by which the originator of an improved process is permitfive or seven legal men would settle most subjects in an ed to enjoy, for a limited period, the exclusive privilege hour, that now occupy years, and at a cost marvellously of using his own improvement. This is not inaking the small
. Take a page ont of the French system commodity dear for his benefit, but merely postponing & have Conseils de Prudhommes."
part of the increased cheapness which the public owe to Mr. Winkworth then concluded by saying that he the inventor, in order to compensate and reward him for trusted the time was not far distant when the whole system the service. That he ought to be both compensated and would be crushed under its own weight. Already the rewarded for it will not be denied, and also that if all facility for cheap provisional protection was so great were at once allowed to avail themselves of his ingenuity, that thousands rushed to avail themselves of it, under the without having shared the labours or expenses which ho delusive hope of a profitable investment of their talents
, had to incur in bringing his idea into a practical shape, and he confidently expected that 'ere long, even the either such expenses and labours would be undergone by common mechanical appliances for eating and drinking nobody, except very opulent and very public-spirited per
sons, or the state must put a value on the service rendered be introduced into the patent laws. He was of opinion by an inventor, and make him a pecuniary grant.” And that they should be done away with altogether, but if further on he said, "No limit can be set to the import- not, that they should be so amended as to give as little ance, even in a purely productive and material point of trouble as possible to the patentee in proving his rights. view, of mere thought. ... Intellectual speculation must He would suggest that, where a patentee complained of be looked upon as a most influential part of the productive his patent having been infringed, it should be referred labour of society." In looking over the observations of Mr. to some competent authority, such, for instance, as a Denison, he found that he alluded to those foolish inventors committee of the Society of Arts, to determine whether who believed they had discovered something when they it had been infringed or not. If that tribunal found that had not, and therefore argued that no man ought to have the patent had been infringed, then th3 case might go a patent. But what did Jeremy Bentham say on that before a jury to determine the amount of compensation to point:-" These insults and oppressions (alluding to the be awarded. It should never be left, as at present, to a charges for chaff-wax, &c.) have sometimes been ap- jury to determine upon the question of infringement, for proved, as tending to repress the temerity of projectors; no one could go in Guildhall when a patent case was being in the same manner, taxes upon law proceedings have tried, without being struck by its absurdity. A declarabeen applauded as tending to repress the temerity of tion was drawn and averment made, and a witness put suitors: as if poverty were synonymous with temerity-as in the box, but the counsel dare not ask him any if the rich only had need of the assistance of the laws, or questions, instructions being either to obtain or defeat a that they only were worthy of it—as if, indeed, this verdict. The counsel had to consider the temper of the reason for only half-opening the doors of the temple of judge, the temper of the jury, and, above all, endeavour justice were not equally conclusive for closing them to get a verdict from a body of men who, probably, unaltogether!" Mr. Wordsworth had very properly called derstood nothing about the question before them. That, attention to the little protection enjoyed by the artist ; ! however, would not be the case if, in the first instance, but he might have gone further, and added what was a questions of infringement were referred to such a tribunal fact,—that if a man painted a picture, and some thief got as the Society of Arts. It seemed as if the advocates into his room and copied it, and afterwards got it en- wished to go back to the days of Elizabeth, monopolies graved, not only could the artist not prevent him, but the of which were, in some measures, abolished and regulated copyright would be held to be in the person of the by the laws of James, which, by the system of licenses, original publisher, and the artist would not be allowed to gave validity and protection to property in inventions. engrave his own picture. In his opinion the whole He was an advocate for doing away with the patent laws question resolved itself into the injunction contained in entirely, but if that could not be done he should be happy the eighth commandment, “ Thou shalt not steal.”. It to see them put on a better and more intelligible system. he produced a result from labour, what right had any Mr. NESBIT denied that, as he understood the word man to take it from him, or claim to enjoy it with him ? monopoly, & patent could be so called, or that there It mattered not how he procured that result, the law could be a monopoly in property. He considered a ought to protect him. It had 110 right to say that it monopoly to be a uvion of persons to prevent others would protect one class of property only. The law doing a particular thing; but the possession of property ought not only to protect but to encourage inventions, as he had never looked upon as a monopoly. Indeed, he by them a good was done to society which all ultimately thought if it were so, that they had a right to a inonopoly enjoyed.
in their wives and families; which, it would appear, Mr. STEER hoped that they were not, in the 19th cen- would be disputed by these anti-monopolists. Mr. Winktury, going back to the practices of the time of Elizabeth, worth had been somewhat metaphysical in his definitions and establish monopolies in inventions. Everybody now of property ; but a person might have a property which denounced monopolies. Look at the tea "monopoly. wes not visible; he had a nionopoly in his ideas so long When the advocates of throwing open the trade said by as he kept them to himself. The anti-patent party doing so they could get tea cheaper, the monopolists appeared to admit the justice of copyright; but no man went to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and said, " We had a copyright in ideas, but only in the peculiar form pay a good lumping sum to the revenue, and you have in which he put them upon paper. If 20,000 men were no trouble, which will not be the case if the trade is to have the same idea, and put it on paper in a different thrown open." Indeed, all monopolists argued that their form, each form. would receive the protection of copyown monopoly was for the benefit of society; but they right. So, also, was it with the patent laws. were contrary to the spirit of the age, and it was the They could not patent the principle, but only the duty of every man to endeavour to get rid of them. Did peculiar form of its application.
If one man panot the landowner say that he ought to be protected, and tented an article, and another arrived at the same that they were wrong in receiving corn from abroad. result by a different application of the same prinYet the monopoly was abolished, and tea had been ciple, he would not be prevented from enjoying the reduced one-half in price, and bread was half the price benefit of it. Surely, then, if property was to be given to it used to be. (A voice--" Not at present.") That ideas expressed upon paper, it ought also to be given to reminded him of another great practical benefit to the ideas expressed in inventions. One part of the argument public. Did Mr. Mechi ever ask for a patent for his of Mr. Winkworth was that there could be no property in improvements in agriculture? No; he threw them open, inventions without law. Why, as to that, there could be and let them come before the public with a fair stage and no property in anything without law, though the pro. no favour. Mr. Wordsworth had called their attention to perty in inventions was limited, because other parties the fact that artists were very inefficiently protected, but might have arrived at the same result, therefore it was was the Royal Academy closed because they could not held that they should not be entirely deprived of the patent the result ? It appeared to him that this was a benefits. What did they pay the police rates for but for struggle involving a great principle of free trade. For the protection of property? And if it was to be argued merly no man could make a tub unless he had been that patents were to be done away with because of the apprenticed seven years to the trade of a cooper ; number of pirates ready to seize upon inventions, then he neither could a man make a coat or a waiscoat unless might be allowed to ask whether the protection of prohe had been brought up & tailor. Latterly, such perty was to be neglected because of the pumber of ideas were scouted ; and the sooner the market of thieves who were ready to seize upon it and divide it among inventions was thrown open the better. There appeared themselves. Mr. Denison's arguments were altogether to him to be two objects in this discussion : one whether a tissue of fallacies. He said “there was this difference monopolies should be allowed to exist, and the other, between copyright and the patent laws. Copyright interif they were to exist, whether any improvements could fered with nobody, but the patent laws did." Every hook
that was published assisted those that came after, and if of notice ; and he further reported, that the general one man wrote a good book upon any subject, it did not principles of the patent laws of America gave universal prevent another persou writing a better or a worse. All salisfaction. Now, he thought such an authority could that he was prevented doing was the copying the words not be undervalued, and must have great weight with all of another." * Could anything be more fallacious ? Let who considered the question. He did not say that there them see how well that sentence would read if applied might not be defects in American patent laws, as there to patents. It would run thus :—“Every invention were in those of England; neither did he say that there that was patented assisted those that came after; were not men in America who disapproved of them. In a and if one man patented a good invention, it did country to which many of the revolutionists of 1848 had fled not prevent another person patenting a better or a of course, the opinions of communism and socialism would
All that he was prevented doing was the prevail, and those who opposed the patent laws had copying the work of another.” Now, could there be borrowed their opinions from that class of society; and a more total fallacy than was contained in the arguments he thought, they might not inaptly also adopt the motto of Mr. Denison ? Xe would not, however, pursue that sub- of the socialist leader, “ La propriété c'est le vol.” jeet, as the whole matter had resolved itself into this whether or not a man ought to have a property in his ideas, gentleman, but was glad that he did not catch the chair
Mr. STANSBURY had risen to speak before the last no matter in what forın they might be expressed, or whether the patent laws should be abolished. He thought man's eye ; because, as a citizen of the United States, he there could be no doubt that, on all principles of sound would not have liked to have stated so much as Mr. policy and justice, they ought to be retained. Those Hasler had done, for fear those tendencies should be laws had, of late, been much improved, through the attributed to him for which his countrymen were said to, exertions of this society, the press, and other parties; be so remarkable. It had been said aptly and correctly, and he hoped they would yet be much more simplified that a man of science had no country, and the tendencies and improved.
of the times were to bring the whole civilised world The Chairman here said that, as there was a gentle together as one great family; and, as such, advanced the man present who had accompanied Mr. Whitworth in his position of the human race, by extending knowledge in mission to the United States, to report on the New York every possible manner. In a complete state of society, it exhibition, he should be very happy to hear his opinion was stated, they ought to give up a portion of their own upon the subject under discussion.
enjoyinents for the benefit of the world; and therefore it Mr. HASLER, having been called upon, would do his best was that inventors were invested with a monopoly in their to respond, though he had not expected to have had to inventions only for a limited period of time. If it had not address that meeting. He would confine his observations been for the lateness of the hour, he had intended to have as closely as possible to the subject before them, and only taken up the American law, and gone into the system of allude to the patent laws of the United States so far as preliminary examination, &c.; but he hoped that it would they might be interwoven with it. The arguments of not be lost sight of by that society, and jhat every opporthe gentlemen who opposed the patent laws, resolved tunity would be taken of endeavouring to make the themselves into this—that they were obstructions, and law as perfect as possible. that all obstructions were bad. Patents were necessary to
The CuAIRMAN having suggested that it would be as the protection of property in inventions; and all property well again to adjourn the debate, was, to some extent, an obstruction. Blackstone laid it Mr. CAMPIN rose to move the adjournment, and exdown, that any person having property could exclude pressed a hope that the discussion for the next evening another from it ; indeed, he might surround it with a might be confined as nearly as possible to the means of wall, and that wall would be an obstruction to a person improving the law. The law, as it at present existed, was who might wish to pass on the property. All property found wanting in everything, excepting in the reduction was open then to the charge of its being an obstruction; of expense, which it had accomplished. and yet, nobody would think of arguing from that, that
Dr. Caplin called attention to the advantages of the therefore the protection of property should be abolished. patent law of Belgium, where a patent was not granted If a man's ideas when placed upon paper were protected, until it had been examined by a competent committee of surely they had an equal right to protection when wrought 30 persons, whose verdict determined the right of the apinto a tangible form. The example of one republic, plicant for a patent. Switzerland, had been cited as a reason why there should Mr. WEBster thought that the observations of the last be no patent laws; but Switzerland was in a peculiar and other speakers, relative to improvements in the patent position, she could filch from her neighbours, whilst she laws, most valuable, and that they should, in future, had nothing to give in return; and, of course, she had, address themselves to the question of what was the best therefore, an objection to allow a foreigner to patent inven- system, and how it could be made most perfect. There tions in her territory
When in the United States his were only three gentlemen who had spoken against all inquiries had been specially directed to the patent system patent laws, and, without meaning any disrespect to those in that country. He had had the honour of assisting Mr. gentlemen, he must say a greater mass of fallacy or Whitworth of Manchester in drawing up his report on the ignorance upon any subject had never been propounded by subject ; and therefore could say, that the patent laws men of science. le might use strong language, but he were objects of peculiar care in the United States. The was sure they would forgive him. Mr. Denison had revery first article of the constitution declared that it was ferred them to the question of soke mills ; but what could desirable for the promotion and progress of the useful the practice of feudal times have to do with the patent arts that there should be secured to authors and inventors laws ? Mr. Denison referred to what he called “incorpo. exclusive rights in their works for a limited period. He real property," as contrasted with property in land, the thought that the example of such a country as the United funds, &c. But he (Mr. Webster) would like to know States, which had placed its broad seal of approbation on
what could be more incorporeal than property in the the patent laws, worthy of attention. He was
now funds ? Now, he maintained that a man had as much dealing with facts: and to show, under a system of patent right to a patent in the results of bis labour as an author laws, how invention flourished in the United States, he would to a copyright in his books. Mr. Denison had remight mention, that in 1852 a thousand patents were ferred to Milton's " Paradise Lost," and said it was not taken out, and the Minister of the Innterior, a minister. probable that anyone else would have written it. But answering to the Secretary-of-State for the Home Depart. if anybody believed that somebody might have written ment, reported that these inventions had been inquired Miltou's • Paradise Lost,' why let him believe it.” Now, into, and 200 of them found to be useful and worthy could there be a more unsatisfactory mode of dealing with
a serious subject than this? Mr. Denison also said that Foreign Affairs, and to His Grace the Duke of a copyright was no obstruction, because all that a man was Newcastle, Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of prevented doing was copying the works of another. That State for the Colonies : was all the patent laws prevented a man from doing. He held in his hand a work called “The Clockmaker," by
Society of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, Mr. Denison himself, in which he stated that it was com
Adelphi, London, 27th January, 1854. piled, believing it would be useful, as no similar work ex My Lond, [DUKE,] isted. Yet, though it was a mere compilation, M:. I am directed by the Council of the Society of Arts to Denison had a copyright, and another person could not request your Lordship's [Grace's] assistance in a measure publish it. Mr. Denison had stated that Newton, Leibnitz of great public importance. and other eminent men, had not been able to obtain The Society of Arts has always aimed at the promotion patents, because their discoveries were only carrying out of Education ; and rendered some services in this cause the laws of nature. No one pretended that the laws of before the Educational Societies now flourishing were in nature could be patented, but the ideas founded on, aud existence. the applications of, those laws might be. Milton's Being now in its One Hundredth Session, the Society is " Paradise Lost” was not new so far as the idea was con- desirous that the celebration of this event should be marked cerned, but it was so in the expression and carrying out of by some prominent measures, indicating its settled convicthat idea. Allusion had been made to the fact that, in tion that it is to an improved Education of all classes that the inquiry before the Committee of the House of Com. the nation must principally look for an improved condition mons, in 1829, not one person had given evidence against of its Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. the patent laws; whilst before the Committee of 1851, six In May, 1852, under the presidency of the Marquis of persons bad expressed their opinion that they ought to be Lansdowne, K.G., it was resolved, on the motion of Earl abolished. However, they must recollect that Lord Granville, that the Society should offer to receive into Granville, who had a strong opinion against these laws, union the Literary and Scientific Institutions, Philosophi. admitted that they had obtained all the evidence they could cal Societies, Athenæums and Mechanics' Institutes, which against the laws. They had heard of convets, and thiey had are established in all parts of the United Kingdom. Three heard of perverts, and it appeared that Mr. Winkworth, hundred and thirty-five of these bodies have already been who was for the abolition of the law, was himself a convert, taken into the union ; and, at the Conference of their Rehe having formerly taken part in the proceedings of that presentatives, in June last, the Council was particularly Society, relative to the improvement of these laws. There invited, and undertook, to hold an Educational Exhibition, had no doubt been great injustice done through these laws at the opening of the next Conference, in the month of from the enormous amount of expenses in obtaining pa. June of the present year. tents, but that had now been remedied; and he had no It was considered that such an Exhibition, got up on a doubt that all the other abuses now existing might also be large and complete scale, and well arranged, would have removed by calling the attention of the public and the a powerful effect in improving the means of Education, and legislature to them.
in raising the public ideas respecting it. The CHAIRMAN did not pretend to give any opinion At the instance, and with the aid, of this Society, the either for or against the patent laws, and probably he was Lord Mayor of London, last year, held a small Exhibition not well qualified to do so; but he must be allowed to say of Educational Apparatus at the Mansion House. This that he considered the opponents of those laws had been Exbibition excited a very lively interest; but was not more somewhat harshly dealt with in the discussions, in being than sufficient to show the great importance of the subject accused of ignorance, and dealing in nothing but fallacies. thus attempted to be illustrated, and its backward condiIt appeared to him that the other side had equally dealt in tion in this country, fallacies, and that Mr. Cole's illustration of two men The Council of the Society of Arts is desirous that its chasing the hare, and the one killing it being entitled to Exhibition, in June next, should be complete, and thoit as property, was not at all analogous to the patent laws, roughly practical and instructive; and it is regarded as for then it was a question of two hares in two fields, and most important to exhibit, as far as possible, to the people upon one man finding the hare and taking it to the Patent of this country a representation of the state of Education Office he was told that somebody had been there before in France, Prussia, Holland, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerhim, and that, therefore, he could have no property in land, and the United States of America, [in certain foreign hares for the future, even though he might have been the countries and colonies,) as well as in the United Kingdom. first man to catch the hare, though not the first to take
The Council is convinced that it would be of great serto the office. He did not think the eighth commandment vice and interest to exhibit a model of such a School of at all bore on the question of public expediency, or what Primary Instruction as would be approved by the Departwou! i be best for the general interests of society. He ments of Public Instruction in France, Prussia, Holland, thivaght, too, that the statements made that not one inven- Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, and at Washington, New tion in a hundred paid the inventors, was a strong ground York, or Massachusetts, [in Canada]. In addition to this for believing that the patent laws did not always prove of Model of a Primary School, it would be most important advantage. He had now only to move a vote of thanks that there should be a Specimen of every article which is to Mr. Webster for his very able paper.
authorised to be used in the different classes of the Schools The Chairman announced that at the meeting condary ; including Books, Maps, Diagrams, Apparatus,
recognised by the State, whether these be primary or seon Wednesday next, the 8th inst., a Discussion Copies and Models for Drawing, Pens, Pencils, &c. Nothing would be invited, “On the Defects in the Ad- that is officially authorised to be used, or is commonly used, ministration of the present Patent Law.”
in such a School, would be too trilling to be of interest in such an Exhibition. Specimens of average merit of the
writing, drawing, needlework, printed examination papers, EDUCATIONAL APPARATUS
and any other work, done in the Schools would be very ac. EXHIBITION.
ceptable. It would of course be desirable to classify such
collections, so as to show whether they apply to Primary The following letter has been addressed to Schools, or to Secondary Schools ; embracing a course of the Right Honourable the Earl of Clarendon, | Trades and Manufactures.
general Education or of instruction specially applied to Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for The Models of the School Buildings, including their