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certain wages. The numerous employers who have risen the Republicans of a neighbouring nation; but, neverthefroin the condition of workmen, have passed through this less, it is worth the trial. ord-al, and so must others. And in addition to this, the The chief distinction of the civilised man from the employed must acquire the knowledge and faculties for savage is, the power of foregoing a present gratification business before they can claim to interfere in its con- for the sake of a future greater good. duct.
If, then, it were proposed to the workmen of a mill held Yet it is certain that the higher the condition of the by a master, to receive in payment, at their option, a working classes can be raised the more prosperous will be minimum wage with a contingent profit, or a maximum the condition of the nation, and more securely prosperous wage with no contingent profit, certain of them with calwill be the condition of the employers.
culating aptitudes would take the minimum, the others : There is a large proportion of the working classes, as of the maximum. Those taking the minimum would thus all classes, whose knowledge and capabilities are of a very be at risk. If at the end of the year the speculation : second-rate kind,
turned out well, a larger number would venture on it in There is also a considerable number of employers the ensuing year, and these men would become thought-, whose faculties are of a very second-rate kind; some of ful and well conducted. They would have a stake in them have risen from the condition of workinen without the prosperity of the concern, and be ever on the watch any other instruction than that of working and saving, to prevent waste or peculation. and getting to know how to employ a small and gradually There is nothing new in the proposition-Cornish mines a larger capital. These are commonly the emplovers and Nantucket whalers are managed on similar principles; lcast disposed to pay high wages. They argue that the and some of our railways are approximating to them. men are better off on low wages, for that the increase only It is not difficult to predict that, under such a system, sends them to the public-house.
all thoughtful and careful men would become limited This is a one-sided argument of some force. It is partners; the careless would remain at a day wage. better that low wages should be paid to drunkards, and That the men on strike should have a glimmering of that the surplus should go into the pocket of the national the possibility of such a system is no cause for alarm, but, saveall, the employer, to increase national capital, than on the contrary, a matter of congratulation, as an indication that high wages should be paid for waste and vice.
permanence,--an assurance that they are not going to But the fallacy lies in assuming that their employed America, to the Cape, or to Australia, but desire to bemust of necessity be drunkards. The employer who can come shareholders in the prosperity of the land of their ouly reason thus may be an emplover, but assuredly he birth ; not taking anything away from their employers, is not a master. The mere fact that men turn out and but only taking a share of the increment they would help to strike, is prima facie evidence of a want of the master make. faculty in some of those who have their guidance. It is An objection on the part of the employers would be their a proof that they, or those who came before them, have indisposition to adınit so large a number into a knowledge neglected the education and instruction of those in their of their trade. But this is an objection which holds good einploy, whom it was their business to teach. In most of all joint-stock companies. And it is very probable cases of mutiny the fault lies with the leader who lacks that the body of workmen partners would elect one or the faculty to govern freemen.
two of their number to transact the business, as Cornish As a national question it is a desirable thing that every miners elect their captain. And it must be remembered human being should be progressive and not stationary ; that the men who would determine to work on such a not a mere wages-carner, but an accumulator of capital. plan of foregoing a present interest, would instantly All cannot be masters, for their natural aptitudes vary. assume a new character distinct from the mass of those Few are fitted for masters in the high sense of the word, contented to “ live from hand to mouth." and many are only fitted to be guided; and if by chance would be given to the energetic and intelligent, that the guide-needer comes to be a guide, it will be the blind would remove all dissatisfaction. leading the blind.
An illustration to a certain extent of the process of workThe quality of masterdom or governance of men is a men taking risks with rising or falling gains, may be distinct thing from the mere calculating faculty, while found in the China and earthenware manufacture, a trade the business faculty is much more common. Governance which is just commencing the transition process from of men in its highest sense means, in addition to great handicraft to machinery, and in which it will depend on intellect, a considerable power of sympathy to understand the good-sense of the employers whether the transition men's nature. Business men are apt to consider that shall take place peaceably, or with incessant strikes and a cash payment from employer to employed is the whole constant secession of Mormon potters to Utah. consideration between thein, and thus selfishness is gene- formerly the custom to pay separately every one of the rated on both sides. The sympathetic master will obtain various branches of workinen through whose hands the more result from a moderate wage than a mere business material passed in its progress from clay to china-ware. employer from a higher wage.
The slip maker, the thrower, the turner, the dryer, the So long as the human workers are merely considered in painter, the glazier, and the various tirers and oven men, relation to supply and demand, and left in a condition of all affirmed themselves to be perfect workmen ; yet, notignorance as mere animal machines, so long will they re. withstanding, the turn-out from the oven would obstinately gard the employers as mere taskmasters, and not as consist of more seconds than firsts, and more thirds than latural leaders, and will seek their leaders elsewhere to seconds, and more shords than thirds. The employer was lcach them how best, in commercial language, to "put the sufferer, without anybody being in fault. This would the screw upon their employers.
not do, and the custom was established of paying all the So long as large bodies of working men shall be mere workmen “out of the oven." After that there was no have nots,” earning and consuming a given wage from difficulty in finding where the fault lay. Every man and day to day, and occasionally wanting, so long will they every class watched their neighbours, and a bad workman be only loosely held together as a nation. But if any was soon a marked man without any trouble whatever to arrangement could be made whereby they could become the employer. This was practically a sharing in profits. accumulators of capital on a small scale, they would If the work were badly done, the workmen lost their instantly become preservers of order and opponents of wages and the employer his material. It is true that this strikes.
arrangement has not altogether prevented strikes, but This would be their condition, if by any equitable without it the business would not be carried on at all; arrangement they could be made sharers in profits.
and before laying all the blame on the workmen it would be To propose
such a thing is to incur the imputation of as well to examine the idiosynocracies of all the employers. that kind of socialisin charged, fairly or unfairly, upon when the employers shall be first-class philosophers, we
may expect that the workmen will all be obedient Upon the general principles laid down I come the disciples.
following conclusions : There is no necessity for these men becoming partners 1. That combinations, whether of employers or emin the plant or capital, but simply in the yearly profits as ploved, are only a rude and inartificial method of arriving yearly partners; but, if it were considered desirable, there at the value of labour. That a limited liability in partneris no reason why they should not have a small share in a ships would almost immediately develope an enormous mill as well as in a railway.
amount of skilled resources, and that the present capiThe proportional shares that should go to interest, to talists would, after a short time, gladly admit the skilful repairs, to proits, and to wages, it would not be difficult workmen to such shares in profits as would stimulate them to arrange.
to exertions and results of a most extraordinary kind. It is clear that saving workmen ought to be enabled to Combinations would disappear without any necessity for invest their accumulations; and it would be better, in a legislation. Neither the law nor the public have any right profitable business, directly, than at mere interest, indi. to interfere with combinations that are voluntary and rectly.
peaceable. Any members of the community have the Supposing that they were to consume their yearly profits option of submitting to voluntary privation, unless their even in harmless amusements, this would be a great evil. acts force them on the parish rates. And, nationally, It would be better for the community, better for the however we may regret the inconvenience, our pride workers themselves, that they should receive only the should be gratified at the indomitable perseverance of wages needful for food, fuel, clothing, and education, and our working classes in resisting what they, ignorantly or that their profits should go to their employers' saveall. not, consider a wrong. It marks, at least, that they are Directly or indirectly workmen's savings are the creation not serfs, but freemen. of capital ; and until they are trained to save and invest 2. Strikes should not, necessarily, induce lock-outs, be. for themselves, some one will have to take care of their cause two wrongs do not make a right. The mills should pocket-money, with more or less deduction as perquisites. be kept open for any sufficient number of men binding They will remain as wards of the capitalist's chancery, themselves to work to cover the expenses of machinery paying heavy fees to their guardian, but still, better off and management. The obvious resource of the em. than if allowed to squander it in waste.
ployers, if they cannot agree, is the importation of workOf those who differ from these views I would ask-Why men from foreign countries, if-which is dubious-it can are there no strikes in the United States ?
be found that a given wage will purchase practically as The only answer is, that the law of partnership facili- much labour from a foreigner as from an Englishman. tates to every skilful man the turning his faculties to the If it will, the result will be good in all ways. It will best account. A man can rise to be a master either in teach the Englishman his value, and what kind of compartnership or on his own account; and great facilities petition his employers have to contend with. And it will exist for changing from one employment to another.
introduce new blood into England ---always a gain-when In England the law of partnership impedes the estab- blood of every foreign nation that has sought refuge here,
we consider that Englishmen are a compound race of the best lishment of joint stock companies, and trades' unions in distress or otherwise. impede the change of employment, so that if a man happens to be tied to a business he has a distaste for, he must termine the respective values of the various classes of la
3. There is no equitable mode, save piece-work, to deneeds keep to it, and be a very unproductive worker.,, It bour. The question of the rate of prices must depend on is is a common thing that there is a glut of hands” in supply and demand, and the scale of profits. It is usual one employment, and a scarcity in another. The prin to take the amount of work an average workman can do ciple of supply and demand has thus an artificial
hin- in a day as a standard, at a given price per day. To pay drance. There is no general superfluity of men, while by the day needs a large number of foremen and overan artificial superfluity in one branch cuts down the rate lookers, who practically are paid out of the workmen's of wages in that branch, and engenders misery and wages, which are thus reduced. If piece-work prices are strikes.
established when provisions are cheap, they may be quite Handicraft skill in various departments commands high inefficient when provisions are dear. To regulate this the wages; this infallibly induces the use of machine tools, prices should rise and fall with the standard of wheat worked by “labourers.” The general tendency is to But in all cases, new machinery would need a new list of ruduce all skilled work to machines. This reduces the piece-work prices. The system of a minimum wage, with number of men needed for the particular art; but, as new
a share of profits, would obviate these difficulties. arts are constantly growing up, the total number need not
Unquestionably it is for the advantage of the employer decrease. But calling a man a “ labourer," instead of a that the employed should find an advantage in improved skilled workman, is no reason why his wages should be inachinery. If the farmer is not allowed to kill the game lowered. Low-paid labourers are an evil in any country, he is apt to break the efgs. The operative, profiting by for they must be poor customers. A well-paid, well. improved machinery, would aid its improvemeut all in taught, well-clad body of workers, even of comparatively his power, and would take care that it should not be small numbers, is better for a community than an unli. damaged.' Elevating the condition of the worknian is a mited number of people in lower circumstances of body security against pauperism and conspiracy. So soon as and mind.
the operatives have an interest in improved machinery, As time rolls on, and as artificial difficulties are removed, the employers with the best mills will obtain the best the principle of share-holding now applied so largely to workmen, and those with inferior mills will get inferior public works, such as railways, will be more and more workmen, with lessened profits both to employers and emlargely applied to every kind of machine-facture, and all ployed. The stimulus to improve machinery will thus our best workmen will grow up into a race of small pro- be very great, and the faculties of working inventors will prietors--not of land, but of shares in mills and machines. be on the constant stretch to put away the old and effete The result will be such an increase of wealth as the world and bring in the new. And, as a consequence, intelligent has never yet beheld; such a bonded nation as to be im- men will always be found to work perfect machinery at a pregnable to external circumstances. A machine factory smaller share of profit than the imperfect. worked in shares by those interested in all its details, As regards the actual dispute at issue, the only apparent will always eclipse the factory of the mere capitalist end of it is the holding out of the money. There is one worked by hirelings. And the ill-feeling now existing other measure which most men in business take who love between the capitalists and the intelligent workmen, who not to waste their property in law. Arbitration ! that is, feel that their energies under the present system are not practically electing a dictator for the particular occasion, half developed, will altogether cease.
I to get rid of a difficulty which breeds only ill-will and
Friste, and which is maintained from an unworthy fear order while he is in it, and taking no heed of the natural on both sides—fear on the part of the employers that the order of Manhood--the highest of all. Forkmen will tyrannise unless they be reduced to unqua With the hope that the offer of the Society may prolified submission-fear on the part of the workmen, that duce some better mode of ending the present dispute than if they make any concession the employers will tyrannise a mere war on pecuniary resources, over them. An arbitration would prove the means of an
I am, Sir, yours faithfully, honourable peace, without detriment to either side, and
W. BRIDGES ADAMS. learing open the question of future arrangements how to 1, Adam-strect, Adelphi, January 14, 1854. extract the greatest amount of profit from a factory in which hoth employers and employed might find increased benefit. It were to be wished that some intelligent em
To Correspondents. ployer would put this great question fairly to the test, whether an equitable system found to answer in cases of The third and concluding part of Mr. Garvey's paper on combined risk and intelligence in mines and ships could
“ Education as a Science and an Art," will be given next not answer also in factories wherein the circumstances are week. more definite.
ERRATA.—In the last number, page 132, column 2, letter on There will be, no doubt, some very literal people on Colonial Postage,-line 6, for "recovered," read “ revived;" both sides of the question, who will take it for granted line 16, for "part or parts," read “port or ports ;" line 20, for that I seriously expect this trial to be put in universal " their reports," read these respects;" line 21, for "than," practice at a given day and specific hour, like Mr. Owen's read through,” for “or," read “than can;" line 24, for sacred month." But I don't even “ wish we may get
"all at once in some point," read "them at some one or it;" for it would be a scene of unspeakable confusion.
more points ;" line 25, for “and," read “or." It mast be quite another race of employers and workmen by whom a rational system of mutual faith and mutual
MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK. help shall extinguish antagonism. But we live in the Mon. London Inst., 7.-Mr. J. Phillips, “On the Philosoo condition of progress, and even as the slaves and serfs of
phy of Geology." former ages have merged into guildsmen and unionists Inst. British Architects, 8.-Discussion “ On the with comparatively little instruction, so will these latter
French Method of Constructing Iron Floors.'' merge into the condition of small capitalists, using their Entomological, 8.-Anniversary. own money in safe ventures of mills and machinery, all Geographical, 81. tending to the extinction of mere handicraftcy or human Tues. Royal Inst., 3.-Prof. Tyndall, “ On Heat." machines. The highest rates of wages are those paid to
Meteorological, 7.-1. Mr. C. Balara, “On a Certain handicraftsmen who, when work is plentiful, dictate their
Law of the Motion of the Winds." 2. Mr. J. own prices to their employers. The Sheffield trades
Glaisher, " On the Meteorology of the past Quarter
in connection with the Fall of Snow at the beginning of files, cutlery, and tools,-those of glass-blowing and
of this Month." china-making are processes of “hands” not heads, and
Civil Engineers, 8.--Mr. J. Leslie. “On Inclined the heads being neglected their owners " put an enemy
Planes for Canals." into their mouths to steal away their brains." They drink Medical and Chirurgical, 81. to excess, just as did the middle classes and gentry of the Zoological, 9. last generation, because they have not been taught to WED. London Inst., 2.—Mr. T. A. Malone, “On Elementary think and talk. The same processes that have rescued
Chemistry." the middle classes from intoxication will also rescue the
Roy. Soc. Literature, 4}. misguided amongst the working classes-education
Society of Arts, 8.-Mr. T. Webster, “On Laws rethat kind of education that will awaken the mind and
lating to Property in Designs and Inventions ; and
the Effect of such Laws on the Arts and Manufacfaculties to more intellectual and refined enjoyment. All
tures." the world knows that in great houses it was at one time
Microscopical, 8. the fashion to have the wine-cellar adjoin the dining
Archæological Assoc., 81.--Mr. G. V. Irving, “ On room, and that it was a meritorious feat for gentlemen to
the Chronology and Geography of the Wars between drink out a hogshead of claret or a butt of sack at a sit
the Saxons of Northumberland and the Northern ting. Precisely in the same fashion a Sheffield handi
Britons, from the Battle of Argoed to that of Craftsman in the possession of the accumulated fortune of a
Raltraez." fortnight's highly-paid labour, will invite his neighbours Tours. Royal Inst., 3.-Prof. Wharton Jones, “ On Animal to drink out a cask of ale or a tub of Hollands, and I say
Physiology. deliberately that the workman is more excusable than the
London Inst., 7-Mr. T. A. Malone, “ On Photo gentleman. The workman has been taught nothing
Numismatic, 7. better, the gentlemen had been through some course of
Antiquaries, 8. instruction, titting them for better things.
Royal, 81. Years hence, when the workman of the then generation FRI. Philological, 8. shall be as refined as well as intelligent as the best of Architectural Assoc., 8.-Class of Design. the present middle classes, and more so than many of Royal Inst., 8).-Prof. Tyndall, “On the Vibration thern, we shall wonder at the inertness that so long
and Tones produced by the Contact of Bodies having consigned the strength and staple of our nation to a con
different Temperatures.'' dition of ignorance, robbing us of half the results that Sat. London Inst., 2.-M. M. T. Masters, “ On Elemenhave been shadowed forth by Providence.
tary Botany." Our order of sequence is thus:
Royal Inst., 3.-Prof. Miller, " On the Chemistry of
the Non-Metallic Elements." Out of apprentices grow journeymen, out of journeymen
Medical, 8. foremen, out of foremen employers, out of employers capitalists, out of capitalists members of the legislature, both Commons and Lords. If the course of instruction
PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852., that the apprentice, journeyman, and foreman go through be only how,-in the London vernacular, " to do the trick," i.e. to accumulate money, we cannot expect them
[From Gazette, 13th Junuary, 1854.] to produce either fitting masters or fitting legislators.
Dated 21st November, 1863 They will but worship mammon; all in turn striving to 2701. A. Parfitt, Newbury-Vehicles. keep down those below them, and push down those above
Dated 28th November, 1863 : them, in a war of classes ; each holding by his artifical 2771. J. Ç. Ramsden, Bradford-Looms.
APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.
Dated 9th December, 1853.
10. D. Kennedy, Reading, U.S.- Manufacture of leather. 2358. J. B. E. Ruttre, Paris, and 5, Lawrence Pountney lane-Ma- 12. F. A. T. de Beauregard, Paris-Drying cigars, &c. chines for producing shoddy, &c.
14. J. Collins, 32, St. Ann street, Liverpool-Vinegar,
16. T. Mann, Horsham-Cinder sitting shovel. Dated 16th December, 1853.
18. J. Dransfield, and W. Robinson, Oldham-Carding engines. 2934. A. L. Knox, Glasgow--Ornamenting textile fabrics. Dated 17th December, 1853.
Dated 4th January, 1854. 2337. J. S. Bailey, Keighley—Machinery for wool, alpaca, &c., before 20. J. Taylor, M. Wrigley, and s. Greaves, Oldham-Carding
engines. being spun. 2939. G. Anderson, Rotherhithe-Manufacturing gas.
Dated 5th January, 1854. 2941. J. D. M. Stirli g, Larches, near Birmingham-Manufacture of 22. E. Schischkar, Halifax, and F. C. Calvert, Manchester-Dyeing. iron.
24. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields—Ventilating. (A com2943. J. James, Cheltenham-Carts for distributing water, &c.
26. L. J. Pomme, Paris-Axles. Dated 19th December, 1853.
28. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Crushing, &c., quartz, &c. 2047. H. Milward, Redditch-Needles and fish-hooks. (A commu
(A communication.) nication. 2949. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Paddle wheels.
(A communication.) 2951. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn--Expressing oil,
WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED. &c., from fruits, &c. (A communication.)
Sealed 13th January, 1854. 2953. D. Gold horp, Cleckheaton-Propeller.
1661. Henry Montague Grover, of Hitcham Rectory-A new method Dated 20th December, 1853.
of finding and indicating the measurements of the sines 2955. J. H. Campbell, 1, King's Arms Yard, Coleman street-Cutting
and cosines of the arcs of circles or other peripheries. corks.
1663. Thomas Hill Bakewell, of Dishley, Leicestershire-Improve. 2957. H. E. F. De G. V. Durut, Paris-Bread.
ments in ventilating mines. 2959. J. Boydell, Gloucester Crescent Wrought iron frames,
1667. Arnold Morton, of Cockerill's buildings Bartholemew close2961. J. Webster, 3, Cornwall road, Stamford street - Oils and var
Improvements in the manufacture of paints, pigments, and nishes.
materials for house painting, paper staining, and decorative 2963. J. Burrows, Haigh Foundry, near Wigan-Steam boilers,
purposes generally. 2965. R. B. Huygens, Holland, and 89, Chancery lane-Crushing, &c., 1672. William Henderson, of Bow Common-Improvements in the
construction of furnaces for the purpose of obtaining products Dated 21st December, 1853.
from ores. 2967. C. J. Farrington, Hampstead - Railway signals, &c.
1707. William Boggett, of St. Martin's lane, and William Smith, of 2969. T. V. Lee, 4, Lockyer terrace, Plymouth, and 5, Bedford row,
Margaret street-Improvements in machines for cleaning Dublin-Bricks and tiles.
and polishing knives.
1753. Thomas Buxton, of Malton-Improved mill for grinding. Dated 22nd December, 1853.
1767. Ange Louis du Temple de Beaujeu, of Paris, and of 4 South 2973. J. Youil, Burton-upon-Trent-Raising liquids, &c.
street, Finsbury-Improvements in rotatory engines. 2975. P. A. Le Comte De Fontaine Moreau, 4, South street, Fins
1982. Eugene de Varroc, of Great Chesterfield street-Certain means bury, and 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris-Connecting rods.
of depriving caoutchouc of all unpleasant odour, and of (A communication.)
imparting to it various agreeable perfumes. 2977. C. Lewis, Hull-Signal-lamp.
1995. George Robinson, of Newcastle upon Tyne- The novel appli2979. T. Berry, Rochdale-J. Mangnall, Reywood, and J. Chadwick,
cation of the slags or refuse matters obtained during the Heywood-Winding wool, &c.
manufacture of metals. 2981. J. Shaw, Hatton Garden— Pianofortes. (A communication,)
2111. Louis Achille Brocot, of Paris-Improved construction of Dated 23rd December, 1853.
astronomical calendar, 2983. J. Britten, Birmingham-Girders, &c.
2355. John Elce, of Manchester-- Improvements in machinery for 2955. F. Bennoch, Wood street, Cheapside-Coating silk, &c., with
preparing and spinning cotton and other fibrous substances. gold, &c.' (A communication.)
2400. Charles Peynaud D'Azene, of 35, Essex street, Strand-lm
provements in the method of rendering sea water fit for Dated 24th December, 1853.
drinking and all other purposes where fresh water is ordi2987. R. G. Coles, Cheltenham-Locks of fire arms.
narily used. 2989. G. Goutaret, Paris, and 4, South street, Finsbury-System of
2432. James Garth Marshall and Peter Fairbairn, both of Lee's propulsion.
Improvements in machinery for combing flax, tow, wool, 2991. H. Ilarjinge, New York-Liquid quartz or silox.
and other fibrous substances. 2993. J. Lewis, Salford-Drilling or boring metals.
2557. Joseph Henry Tuck, of Pall Mall- Improved machinery for Dated 27th December, 1853.
obtain ng anıt applying motive power, and for raising and 2995. T. W. Makin, Manchester-Finishing woven fabrics.
forcing fluids. 2997. F. C. Calvert, Manchester -- Treatment of Napthas, &c. (A 2590. Edmund Hugh Graham, of Maine, U.S.- Improvements in communication.)
firearms. 2999. S. Sedgwick, and T. Dawson, 186, Piccadilly-Lamps. 2603. William Rodger, of 9, Shawfield street, King's road - Improve2001. T. Molyneaux, Manchester-Winding and doubling silk.
ments in anchors. Dated 28th December, 1853.
2628. Thomas De la Rue, of Bunbill row-Improvement in the
manufacture of paper. 3003. J. Moffatt, Heiton-Communication between guard and driver, 3005. W. U. Coates, Ombersley-Rotary engine.
2635. Alexander Cuninghame, of Glasgow-Improvements in the 3007. R. Green, Flint Glass Works, Bretteli lane--Insulators.
manufacture or production of sulphuric acid. 3009. J. Barnes, Church--Dyeing, &c, cotton, &c.
2646. John Hall Brock Thwaites, and William Bird Kerapath, both 3013. T. Phillips, jun., Spark brook, and S. Phillips, Birmingham
of Bristol-Improvements in the manufacture of quinine and Window-shutters.
2654. John Ronald, of Paisley-Improvements in fixing colours on Dated 29th December, 1853.
yarns and cloths. 3015, E. Estivant, Givet, France-Copper tubes.
2662. John Clare, junior, of 21, Exchange buildings, Liverpool3017, A. F. Rémond, Birmingham-Metallic tubes,
Improvements in the manufacture of bar and sheet metals; 3021. H. C. Vion, Paris, and 16, Castle street, Holborn--Pistons and
in machinery connected therewith ; and in the application of stuffing boxes.
such metals to various useful purposes. Dated 30th December, 1853.
2679. William Taylor, of 16, Park street, Gloucester gate-Improve2026. II. C. C. de Ruolz, and A. de Fontenay, Paris--Metallic alloy.
ments in anchors. 3028. W. Mabon, Ardwick Iron Works, Manchester-Rivetting 2680. James Melville, of Roebank Works, Lochwinnoch-Improvemachines.
ments in printing textile fabrics and other surfaces. Dated 31st December, 1853.
2682. Moses Poole, of the Avenue road, liegent's park-Improre. 3030. J. Milner, Stratford-Connecting the rails of railways.
ments in surface condensors, and in evaporators and heaters 3034. W. Tuxford, Boston-Thrashing machines.
for steam engines. 3036. R. Waygood, Newington Causeway-Portable forges.
2694. John Gerald Potter and Robert Mills, both of Darwen-Im3038. J. Slater, Salford-Cocks, taps, or valves.
provements in the manufacture of carpets. 3040. T. Brown, and P. MacGregor, Manchester-Looms.
2711. Alfred Bird, of Birmiugham-Improvements in apparatus to 3042. B. Hunt, Brighton-Motive power.
be employed for the purpose of communicating signals on 3044. F. A. Clerville, Paris, and 4, South street, Finsbury-Fire
railway trains and railways; which improvements are also
applicable to other similar purposes. Dated 2nd January, 1854.
2714. Frederick Levick and Joseph Fieldhouse, both of Cwm Celyn 2. E. D. Smith, 7 Hertford street, May fair Communication
and Blaina Iron Works, Monmouthshire--Improvements in between passengers, guard, and engineer.
machinery for raising coal and minerals from collieries and 4. J. Gowans, Edinburgh-Heating and ventilating, &c.
mines. 6. P. A. le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, 4, South street, Finsbury, 2830. John Mold, of No. 6, Portland terrace, Westmoreland roadand 39, Rue de l'Echiquie:, Paris-Dyeing wool. (A com
Improvement or addition to augment convinience by transmunication.
formation and facility the different lines required in the Dated 3rd January, 1854.
erection or manufacturing edifices or structures by apparatus. 8. H. L. Corlett, 106, Summer bill, Dublin-Caoutchouc springs.
tools, or instruments suitable for the different capacities of operatives and general surveying.
No 62. Vol. II.]
JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.
[Jan. 27, 1854.
Journal of the Society of Arts.
perty in intellectual labour, rather than to enter into any elaborate discussion as to the principles on which those laws are founded. It would not be desirable, if practicable, to
separate altogether the theoretical from what may be FRIDAY, JANUARY 27, 1854. termed the more practical consideration of the subject ;
the one serves most materially to illustrate the other, as
it will be found that what may be termed the natural SWINEY BEQUEST.
operations of those laws are of necessity materially modiIs accordance with the will of the late Dr. the laws relating to property in intellectual labour do not
fied by defects and difficulties which occur in practice; and George Swiney, a joint meeting of the members atford any exception to the differences which are invariof the College of Physicians and of the Society ably found to exist between the theory of every human of Arts, was held in the rooms of the Society, in syztem of legislation, and the operation of such system in
actual practice. the afternoon of Friday, the 20th instant, then
The theory of laws relating to the exclusive enjoyment it was proposed by Mr. Samuel Redgrave, se- of intellectual labour, and more especially to that branch conded by Mr. J. P. Brown Westhead, and; of the application of such labour as is exhibited in designs
and inventions in the arts and manufactures, has been Resolved unanimously-That the bequest of the late supposed to present peculiar dificulties, some relating to Dr. George Swiney, namely, one hundred pounds, con
the origin and foundation of such exclusive rights, others tained in a silver goblet of the same value, to the author to its mode of enjoyment. It may, however, Le doubted, of the best published work on Jurisprudence, be adjudged to the work entituled “ The Commercial Law of the the " Policy and Principles of Property in Designs and In
as I have endeavoured to show elsewhere, in my work on World," by Mr. Leone Levi.
ventions," whether the property founded on such rights
presents, either in respect of its origin or the principles on EIGHTH ORDINARY MEETING.
which it is founded, any difficulties not common to other
species of property. It is perfectly true that this branch WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 25, 1854. of jurisprudence presents a greater diversity of opinion
amongst jurists and metaphysicians than most other The Eighth Ordinary Meeting of the One Hun- branches, but these diversities relate rather to the defects dredth Session was held on Wednesday, the 25th of the practical system for the regulation of the creation instant, HARRY CHESTER, Esq., in the Chair.
and mode of enjoyment of such property, than to any dif
ficulties in the subject itself. The general principles upon The following candidates were balloted for, which this branch of jurisprudence is founded, have been and duly elected
fully considered by me in the work already referred to, Armstrong, William G., Hallett, George
and in my works on Designs and Inventions; and it may F.R.S. Howard, Philip Henry
be more appropriate at a meeting of the Society of Arts Bradbury, Henry Riley
to consider the effects and operation of those principles on Low, Stephen Philpot Chambers, Th. King, M.D. Matthews, Edward
the progress of arts and manufactures, than to embark in Cooke, Wakeman Edward | Perry, Sir Erskine
any metaphysical discussion as to their origin or authority. Coulthard, Joseph Sandford, Francis R.
And this would seem specially appropriate to the present De Vincenzi, Joseph Simon, John, F.R.S.
occasion, because there have not been wanting occasions
when within these walls, or in publications issuing under The following Institutions have been taken the authority or sanction of this Society, the existence of into Union since the last announcement :
such property has been pronounced injurious to those in
terests which it is the especial object of this Society to pro332. Chippenham, Literary and Scientific Institution. 333. Llanelly, Mechanics' Institution.
That the Patent Laws, and the kindred laws relating to 334. London, Beaumont Philosophical Institution.
Designs, must have great influence for good or for evil, 335. London, Crosby Hall Evening Classes for Young no one, I think, can deny. I am not here to contend, nor Men.
have I ever contended, that such influence is unmitigated A model was exhibited of Parratt's Patent good, still less am I here to represent our existing patent Tubular Life Raft. This raft is composed of system as all that could be desired, or to deny that the
former existing system repealed by the New Patent Law two rows of vulcanized india-rubber tubes, en- of 1852 was not a disgrace to any civilised community, closed in canvass cases and nettings, the stwo and sufficient to justify the opinion of those who, judging rows meeting at their ends, and forming, when from the defects and abuses of such a system, were led to extended, by means of cross spars, a contrivance have always been, prepared to contend that the recognition
deprecate any system of patent laws; but I am now, and which is capable of being rowed like a boat. and protection to property in intellectual labour, while it is The tubes are proposed to be always kept in- but an act of natural justice to the individual, is the best flated, so as to be ready at a moment's notice, and wisest policy for the State and for the progress of and to occupy the interior of a long boat, or any than for the progress of the arts and manufactures of the
knowledge in the highest departments of science no less ordinary boat carried on a ship's davits.
country. The Paper read was
It will not be sufficient to refer to the almost universa ON LAWS RELATING TO PROPERTY IN
assent of mankind, and practice of civilized nations, reDESIGNS AND INVENTIONS,
specting such property. The spirit of inquiry now afloat AND THE EFFECT OF SUCH LAWS ON THE ARTS AND
will examine most properly into first principles and their
consequences, and there are not wanting those who, while MANUFACTURES.
they assert a natural right to property in material things, BY THOMAS WEBSTER, M.A., F.R.S, BARRISTER-AT-LAW. and to the accumulation of property, and to its distribution On the present occasion it is my desire to call attention after the first occupant or possessor has ceased to have any to the effect and practical operation, on the progress of use for it, deny any analogous natural right to the creator knowledge, and on the advancement of the arts and and possessor of the products of intellectual labour. manufactures, of the recognition and protection of pro Exception has been taken to the term property, as