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holes, and how long the body of the shirt. They replied in six days, which could not, in the ordinary way, have that the button-holes would take an hour, and a good shirt been prepared under 1200 days. two days. The machine would make thirty or forty in Mr. Heal could easily understand why, if Mr. Davis that time, and if the consumption increased in the same had only had the machine three or four days, it did no proportion, the women would be fully employed in making work to his satisfaction. It took nearly a month before button-holes, and receive better wages than at present. he (Mr. Heal) could get it to work satisfactorily, from the
MIr. Heal thought the machine would be of great ad- nicety of manipulation required in its adjustment. vantage to the needle-women. The machine required
In reply to a question, Mr.JUDKIN stated that the article great skill to manage it, and he believed it would have being made was forced forward, as the stitches were made the effect of raising the price of labour.
by means of a lever acting on a crank, which could be so Dr. Davis would not go the length of saying that the adjusted as to change the length of the stitch from onepaper exaggerated the advantages of the machine, but he fourth of an inch to fifty in an inch. had great doubts whether it would do all that was repre, machine would make the stitch in harness leather, such
The CHAIRMAN had been requested to ask whether the sented. He employed between two and three thousand
as he held in his hand, as well as in cloth. sempstresses and tailors, and owing to the demand which had grown up for the finer and better class of clothing,
Mr. Judkin replied it would make a stitch in the Ica
ther, but not the same. He had a machine preparing there was a difficulty in getting hands for the coarser kind of work fitted for exportation such as moleskins, which would make the same stitch, and only use one
thread. elveteens, corduroys, &c. He had therefore watched the
Mr. ELLIOTT thought that, as regarded harness ork, machine with great interest, ever since its introduction into this country; and he had lately obtained one himself, this machine could only do a very small part, and he was which he had placed in the hands of most skilful artizans, afraid that the stitch would not be sufficiently strong for but it did not work satisfactorily, though he could not the purpose of bearing the strain in the dragging of carsay whether the fault was in the machine or those who riages. He thought if they once obtained a hold of the worked it. He did not say this with a view of throwing thread, the whole of the seam made by the machines cold water on the machine, as he believed, if the diffi- could be run out. culties were overcome, it was likely to prove a great help
Mr. Davis, in justice to Mr. Judkin, must bear his to the labour market, which, owing to the luxury of the testimony that when the seam was once made, it was times and the demand for the fine articles of clothing, was stronger than that made by hand. very badly supplied with persons to do the coarser kinds
Mr. JUDKIN did not say that the machine on the of work. The trial shown them that night was made with table was adapted for harness making, though he would siik, which would bear great friction, far greater than shortly have one out which would be so; but the thickHe did not think they could with cotton make
ness of the material would make no difference in the five hundred, or even two hundred and fifty stitches a working, all they had to do being to put in stronger minute, as the difficulty he had to contend with was its needles. As regarded the running of the seain, he continual snapping, owing to the friction-and it had a might observe, if they took a stocking, cut off the toe, similar effect with thread. He thought that perhaps the and obtained a hold of the thread, they might ravel it difficulty might be in some measure counteracted by the all out,--so also, if they obtained hold of the thread, alteration of the angles at which the reels of thread were they might draw out his or any other scain. If, howplaced, so as to reduce the friction.
ever, there were a hole in the stocking, it did not
ravel out, neither, if they broke one or two stitches in Mr. Judkin said, that he could produce testimonials his seam, would it have any material effect on the rest. from more than 100 persons who had used the machine Mr. Elliott thought that though it could not be said of its efficiency, those who had originally purchased one the machine would do everything, it would be a great having increased their number to two, three, four, or practical blessing to this country Hebelieved it required five; and in the Sing Sing prison, at New York, it was a real artist in sewing to make a button-hole, and that successfully and economically worked by convicts. The there were as few really good workers as really good fact was, Mr. Davis had only had the machine three or writers. The object which it appeared to him would be four days, and had been offered to have somebody sent him effected by Mr. Judkin's machine would be the putting to instruct parties in its working, which, however, he had down of the low, coarse, and cheap labonr, and temporarily not required. He was glad to receive all suggestions for throw out of employment those who could only get 6d., the inprovement of the machine, and, whenever feasible, 8d., or 10d. a day for their work. A great deal had been he would adopt them. But the fact was they could use said about the bådness of the pay of this class of needlethe finest thread, much weaker than could be used by women, but he believed they had been generally paid as hand. By hand the thread went through and through much as they were worth—as their work was of such a with cvery stitch taken, causing great friction and loss of nature that no good house-wife would have it in her strength, which rendered recourse to waxing necessary. house. It would be far better for this class of persons to TVith the machine it was not so. The thread only be forced to look for some out-door employment, where, entered the cloth once, and then remained; whilst the if she earned no more, she might get a little strength in stitches were so regular in regard to their tightness, that her limbs and a little colour in her cheeks. comparatively little pressing was required. The cause of number of these sempstresses were married, and, however the thread snapping was this, they had under the ma- strange it might appear to say so, he believed that it chine a' sınall India-rubber pulley, attached to a metallic would be for their own benefit and that of society, if spring, which held down the first loop whilst the second they were thrown out of employment altogether as the was passing through it to complete the stitch, and if husband would then bring home more of his own earnings, that were not properly adjusted there would be too great and the wife would be properly employed in economising the a strain on the thread, which would consequently break. money. The best state of society was that in which the "There was a gentleman in the room, who supplied cotton woman did not earn any money, but where the husband to some American houses, who could speak to the worked, and the wife was employed in making the Ss. efficiency of the machine, and to the sails of the Great or 108. go to the utmost extent in making a comtortable Republic having been made by it.
home, and in exercising her natural talents in the deMr. Waldo said, that from information he had received velopment of domestic virtue and economy. He confrom America, he could speak to the sails of the Great sidered Mr. Judkin, and the inventors of all similar Republic, which were 28,000 feet square, having been machines, as benefactors of society; and if any one could made by a similar machine to that on the table, and he invent a washing machine which would take in the dirty was assured that two machines made one suit of the sails I linen at one end and send it out ready for wear at the
other, he would be deserving of the highest honours, as association, that tho non-responsible stock-holder (comthere was no worse kind of labour, or one more subver manditaire) takes no part in the management. If he sive of all domestic happiness, than washing.
perform any act of management (acte de gestion), his The Chairman then moved a vote of thanks to Mr. responsibility ceases to be contined to the amount of his Judkin for his valuable paper, which was unanimously contribution; he becomes liable indefinitely for all the passed.
engagements of the association; in other words, he makes The Secretary announced that, at the meeting manditaire, and becomes a commandile.
himself a responsible partner. He ceases to be a (com. of Wednesday next, the 25th instant, a Paper
"This rule is without exception. A shareholder cannot would be read “On Laws relating to Property be employed by the association, even by power of attorney, in Designs and Inventions, and the Effect of such and it seems to be a corollary from the same rule, that a Laws on the Arts and Manufactures,” by Mr. clerk or servant cannot become a shareholder without Thomas Webster, M.A., F.R.S.
incurring the full responsibility of a managing partner.
“ In order to constitute a commandite association, it is necessary that in the deed of association it is agreed that
such and such of the associates be excluded from managoCONFERENCE ON STRIKES AND ment, and that their risk be limited to the amount of LOCK-OUTS.
their respective contributions. According to Pardessus,
the ablest French writer on commercial law, this need With reference to the proposed conference, the not be stated in express terms, no other explanation being Council desire to make it known that the posi- necessary than that such and such are non-responsible tion taken by them is strictly neutral, -no arbi- shareholders; that expression being deemed sufficient
without the periphrasis which it would otherwise be tration or interference being contemplated on their
necessary to employ. part.
“ The law of France does not require that the deed The Council also wish it to be borne in (l'acte) of association be published. It may, like an mind that the discussion will be raised on ques- it is imperatively necessary that an extract be published,
ordinary deed of partnership, be executed in private, but tions involved in Strikes and Lock-outs generally, stating that among the associates there are so many and not upon the facts or merits of any particu- shareholders of limited responsibility, but without indilar strike; and the invitations to attend the meet- cating their names. The extract must also announce ing go out to all parties generally, and are not in what sums or in what species of property (objets) their
contributions consist, and whether they have been paid up confined to any particular class or opinions. or still remain to be paid up. If the publication of the
The Council have come to an unanimous reso- extract be neglected, the association is deemed an ordinary lution not to express any opinion, either indi- partnership. (Pardessus, tome 4ème, p. 118.), vidually or collectively.
This annunciation is deemed by Pardessus of the highest importance, as it is the only mode of informing third parties who deal with the association that, in addi
tion to the personal responsibility of the managing partPARTNERSHIP AND LIMITED LIABILITY.
ners, the capital of the association is composed of such At a time when the subject of strikes and lock-onts is and such sumns, of which a creditor can demand payment exciting the attention, not only of the commercial world, of the shareholders, unless these latter can prove that but of all classes of society, and by many it is considered they have already paid up the whole amount of their that the existing law of partnership in this country, prevent- contributions. A false annunciation is deemed an act of ing the operative or small capitalist from readily investing swindling (une escroquerie), and is punishable as such. his savings in mercantile undertakings, has an import “ The contribution of a shareholder may consist of ant bearing on the question; it will not be thought out secrets of arts and manufactures, but their adoption must of place to call attention, shortly, to that species of part- not in any way be accompanied by acts of management. bership which exists in France, and known by the name This prohibition, however, does not extend to transactions of Société en commandité. Partnerships of a similar kind between a shareholder acting in his individual capacity exist in many other countries, including most of the on the one part, and the association acting by its managing Ainerican States. The following description of these part- partners on the other. nerships is taken from an early edition of a work by Mr. “Thus, C., a merchant, may be a shareholder in a C. Wordsworth, published in November, 1811.*
commandité association, of which A. and B. are the re" Commandvé associations consist of two or more in- sponsible managing partners. A. and B., acting for the dividuals, of whom one or more undertake the manage- association, may buy from, or sell to C., without in any nient, and are held indefinitely responsible for all engage- way affecting the rights or immunities of the latter, as a ments, as in the case of ordinary partnerships; and the non-responsible shareholder. Moreover, as a shareholder others are mere shareholders, responsible only to the may sell goods to, and so become the creditor of, the comamount of their contributions, either paid-up, or con- mandité association to which he belongs, so also may he tracted to be paid (qu'ils ont versé ou promis de verser) into lend money thereto. the joint-stock of the association. The first, called com “ Although acts of management are thus strictly formandités, may be designated managing partners ; the bidden to the shareholder, this does not preclude him from second, called commanditaires, non-responsible shareholders, taking a part in the deliberations of the association. He or simply shareholders.
may audit accounts, determine what dividends shall be When there are several responsible partners (com- paid, whether instalments shall be called in, and even Handils), the association, as between them and the what engagements or speculations shall be entered into. public, is an ordinary partners hip; but, as between the All that is prohibited to him is management. The reason non-responsible shareholders and the public, it is a of this distinction is obvious. An act of management privileged company.
would create an impression with third parties that they " It is an essential condition of this species of trading had the security of his responsibility; hence the law very
properly attaches responsibility to such an act. An act * The Law of Mining, Banking, Insurance, and General of control, on the other hand, has no reference to third Joint-stock Companies, &c. By C. Wordsworth, Esq., Bar- parties, but merely regards the security of the share. Tater at Law. Second Edition, 1854.
holders; hence the law as properly perunits such an act.
* For the same reason the name of a shareholder of creditors. This, however, does not appear to be a very cannot form part of a firm or title. Were it so third serious difficulty. The law itself contains within its parties would have no means of distinguishing between bosom an adequate remedy. The amount of the contrishareholders and managing partners, and commandité butions of the shareholders must be published at the time associations might obtain an undue degree of credit. The the association is declared. If this account afterwards managing partners, however, may add the words and turn out to be palpably incorrect, it would be an annunCompany to their own names, as that merely indicates ciation proved to be false,' (une énonciation dont le faussete that they have associates. Thus a commandité associate serait prouvée), and, as such, would be punishable by tho may exist between A., B., and C., whereof A. is the sole penal law. manager. The object of calling the firm A. and Co., is
"A very simple remedy for this and some other diffimerely to announce that A. is not alone; but whether culties, would be the publication of the lists of sharehis associates B. and C. be ordinary partners or mere holders with the amounts for which they might be shareholders, depends on the fulfilment of the legal con- responsible. By means of published lists, clerks might be ditions already specified. It may not be out of place here permitted to hold shares, and the association might be to remark, that he who makes use of the words “and permitted to avail itself of the services of any competent Company” (and Co.), without having an associate, is shareholder without the least risk of generating deception deemed guilty of fraud or swindling (coupable d'escro- in either case. A publication yearly or half-yearly, or, querie).
what would be better, simple registration, would also If the capital of an association be divided into equal absolve shareholders who have disposed of their shares." shares, such shares as are held by non-responsible share- It appears that the principles of this description of holders are deemed to be transferable ; but where the partnerships were adopted by the Irish parliament, which capital is not so diviaed, a shareholder cannot transfer his passed, the 21 and 22 Geo. III., c. 46, the Anonymous inicrest without the consent of his associates. A managing Partnership Act. This act does not seem ever to have partner cannot in any case retire without the consent of been acted upon, probably because it was clogged with his associates, nor does his retirement relieve him from two conditions,-tirst, a limitation of the partnerships to responsibility to third parties, if the association subse fourteen years; and, secondly, that a subscriber should quently fail, being insolvent at the time of his retirement. pay up the whole amount of his shares within twelve This is only a particular case of the general rule whereby months. Further information on the subject of the managing partners of a commandite association are partnerships with limited liability will be found in a considered with reference to third parties as members of Report published in 1849, by the Society for Promoting an ordinary partnership.
the Amendment of the Law. The shareholder, we have seen, is responsible only to the amount of his contribution. For that amount he may be sued by a creditor, but he is relieved from responsibility THE WORKING CLASSES OF NASSAU,* by proving that he has paid up all instalments. If he cannot do this the creditor obtains judgment to the amount which still remains to be paid up.
The pamphlet referred to in the heading to this article, “A question has arisen in the French courts, whether is the result of a well-spent leisure in the Duchy of Nasa shareholder may not be compelled to refund any information, interesting to all who study the effect which
sau, last summer, and will be found to contain a mass of dividends he may have previously received. Pardessus says there is no absolute rule in this case, but it must be peculiar institutions and local circumstances must prodecided by circumstances.' This vagueness is certainly
duce on industrial progress.
The author says :a great defect, common enough in the English law, but quite unworthy of the Code de Commerce. It
“ My letters were at first intended for the Society of
appears to me that to require that actual profits which have been Letter I. appeared in No. 31 of that periodical; but after
Arts' weekly Journal, and indeed, the greater portion of drawn and expended be refunded, destroys one of the chief advantages of the law of commandite associations. I had fathomed my subject
, and when I was enabled to The great utility of this species of association consists in appreciate thankfully the valuable assist ance its tendency to promote the aggregation of small capitals friends, it became evident that my papers would be
readily afforded me by my German connexions and which cannot be employed individuaily. Now, if shareholders were liable to be called upon to refund the con
more adapted for quiet consideration, or reference in a sumed profits of a long series of years, and thereby to be pamphlet form, than suited for cursory perusal in dereduced to beggary, the inducement to embark capital in tached fragments. It was accordingly decided that they such associations would be destroyed, and the rule of law should be printed in the present mode, for distribution become a dead letter. Pardessus, who is extremely
to Members of the Society and others taking an cautions in giving a decided opinion where the law is interest in industrial questions, and for being offered for vague, contents himself by saying: c'est donc d'apres les perusal to the Working Classes themselves, through the circonstances les clauses rendues publiques, et la bonne foi des wards of three hundred, and affording a most convenient
medium of the Institutions in Union, now numbering upopérations (each of which considered as guides to decision, means for promulgating whatever may serve to promote may mean anything which the tribunals please), que les the inte llectual development, and consequently to imtribunaue pourraient se décider dans une question si delicate. ment, and we venture to think it should be against re self with a simple delineation of the facts of industrial life Under any circumstances there should be positive enact: prove the physical condition, of the British artisan.”
He avoids giving opinions of his own. Contenting himfunding actual profits. At the same time, dividends paid in Germany, and expresses a hope that further informaout of capital, and not out of profits, should not inerely ba tion respecting foreign countries may be afforded not only refunded, but should be declared to be fraudulent, and by Englishmen residing abroad, either in an official capacity should be punishable as such. The punishment should extend to shareholders, because the declaration of a
or otherwise, but also by the numerous and mostly inteldividend requires their sanction.
ligent, yet hitherto rather unproductive, tribe of English
tourists." " Out of the provision which permits a shareholder to lend money to, and thereby become the creditor of the
He hopes to see adopted during the coming winter sesassociation to which he belongs, a difficulty appears to have urisen. By collusion between the managing partners being a Report on their Intellectual and Technical Training,
* Letters on the Condition of the Working Classes of Nassau, and shareholders, a part of the contribution of the latter their Earnings and Household Economy, and the Institutions has been disguised under the name of a loan, in order to Established for their Benefit. Addressed to the Council of the facilitate its withdrawal in case of failure, to the prejudice Society of Arts. By T. Twining, Jun,
sion, arrangements by which the Council of the Society the educational system of this country, is the peculiar of Arts
may induce many travellers to offer their services smoothness with which it slips over an obstacle deemed to the Society, for acting under instructions which would almost insurmountable in England, viz. the diversity of greatly facilitate inquiry, and secure uniformity of religious persuasions. purpose. In each country, those industrial features will With respect to industrial schools it seems" that within of course be most dwelt upon, which are most prominently the last eightorten years a notable beginning has been made, developed, most different from what we see at home, under the direction of the Gewerbe-Verein, a Society very or most commendable for imitation,
similar in its attributes to our Society of Arts," with • The Duchy of Nassau is not a manufacturing country government assistance to establish“ in various parts of the -the produce of its manufacturing industry is not to be Duchy, what are called Gewerbe-schulen, or Industrial compared to that of its vineyards, or to its mineral wealth | Schools, consisting of -nor does it possess technical institutions like those " Firstly, Evening Classes ( Abend-schulen) held in winter described by Dr. Playfair in his valuable account of the time, for the purpose of giving young artisans and others training colleges of Germany; but its system of elemen- an useful complement to their elementary education, in tary education, its regulations concerning the apprentice such branches as commercial reckoning and correspondence, ship of artisans, and the examinations they have to under- and practical geometry. go, and the various means which its remarkably central- “ Seconlly, Sunday Classes (Sontag-schulen), intended ised administrative system affords for influencing benefici- for departments of study which are not so well taught in ally the condition of the poorer classes, are well worthy of the ening as by daylight, and held on Sundays for the. consideration. On most of these points, and also as benefit of young men, chiefly apprentices, whose occuregards the mode of living of the working population pations would not allow them to attend conveniently (proletariat), their wages, expenditure, and resources, it during the week.(a) They comprise the various branches is a very good sample of the south-western part of of drawing required for the industrial trades, and geometry Germany; and in many respects it will be found to applied to the arts of design." present a very convenient standard of comparison to There are at present twenty-five of these schools with those who may undertake the review of the neighbouring an aggregate number of about two thousand students. States."
There is also a Modelling School at Wiesbaden, attended With respect to primary education it appears that “in at present by between thirty-tive and furty students. the Duchy of Nassau, as well as in other parts of Germany, “7419 florins, or abɔut 6181. sterling, have been ex. the education of the industrial classes is provided for by pended in the last financial year, for founding and maina complete system of elementary schools, extending to the taining the above Schools, whereof about two thousand smallest village, under the direction of Government. florins were furnished by the Society, and four thousand All children from six to fourteen years of age are obliged forins were covered by a Government grant; the reto attend these schools, unless they frequent some other mainder was supplied by the localities.” institution. No child is allowed to remain without in- The author then proceeds to describe the apprenticestruction. * * * The names of children failing to attend ship system, a necessary preliminary to the exercise of are noted dowu, and their parents subjected by the Bur- any trade. Its term extends from 3 to 4 years; the sum gomaster to a fine, which is increased on recurrence of paid to the master varies from 21. 108, to 161. according to neglect.
the nature of the trade. On passing an examination ho * The children learn very quickly to read by a kind of is admitted to the rank of journeyman, after which he Phonetic system.--In what is called Anschauung's Un- travels for a time, thus having the opportunity of obterricht, the sense of vision is used in a variety of ways, taining practical experience in his calling and a knowledge for assisting the memory, and facilitating the expansion of of the various methods and contrivances used in different the intellect.
localities, "On leaving school at fourteen years of age, the scholar Before he can become a master, certain important must be able to read German, in German and Roman legal and other steps must be taken, but in every case, he type, fluently, and with proper emphasis and expression; is required to accomplish single-handed, for strict inspecmust be skilled in the rules of common arithmetic; be tion by the Prufungs Commission, some model piece of able to write compositions on subjects of business, with workmanship, sufficient to show, not merely a moderate good orthography; and be possessed of some knowledge amount of skill, as when he was a candidate for journeyof gengraphy, natural history, geometry, &c., &c. manship, but his thorough knowledge of the arcana majora
" The charge to the parents for this instruction is from of his calling. If he can follow up the display orally, with one to four florins (or 18. 8d. to 6s. 82.) per year, for each theoretical evidence, he is entitled to be admitted forthchild, which amount is paid into the treasury of the rith to the Honourable Company of the Masters of the parish. The latter provides, under control of Govern: Trade. ment, for the salary of the master, as well as for school A lad who cannot, or does not pass his apprenticeship requisites of every kind, and also for the building of the examination, becomes at once a day-labourer. school-houses. Poor communities receive subsidies from Mr. T'wining then enters into an elaborate account of the Government treasury.
the earnings of Tradesmen and master operatives, and " There are two seminaries, or primary schools, for the the wages of the journeymenday-labourers, and of servants, education of schoolmasters-one Protestant, at Usingen, their terms and condition of labour. which, according to the last reports, contains sixty stu- furniture, food, habits, clothing and fuel, are carefully dents; and one Roman Catholic, at Montabauer, with detailed and described, whilst the last letter is devoted sixty-four students-in which young men from sixteen to the resources at the command of the population. years of age and upwards receive, at the expense of the For the whole of these details the reader must be reGovernment, a thorough general and special education, ferred to the work itself. including music. At the expiration of three years they The author has deposited for inspection at the Society have to pass an examination; after which they are ap- of Arts educational sain ples, to show the proficiency of pointed school-assistants, with a salary of abont 150 forins, the children at the Wiesbaden elementary schools, and or 121. 108. sterling, which, after two years, is somewhat pamphlets, and printed or manuscript documents, in Gerincreased. After another year or two, they are installed man, respecting the subjects to which the letters relate, as schoolmasters (Lehrer), with a salary of 200 florins, or and other collateral topics. Persons desirous of translating 161. 138. 41. Their subsequent promotion, and consequent any portion of them for publication, are invited to address increase of salary, which reaches up to about 700 florins, or near 601., takes place according to seniority.
(a) This plan being open to serious objections, is not to be "One of the most interesting features in considered as settled.
an application to that effect to the Society's Secretary. town of employers ---the strikers being maintained by the It should be stated that a certain number of copies of this general body. pamphlet have been placed at the disposal of the Society This employer or town being obliged to yield, will for distribution, and will be forwarded to persons in any agree to pay all the wages that can be afforded, and part of the country, connected through their pursuits with possibly more than can be afforded, for a time. the intellectual development of the people, or otherwise The strikers may then pursue the same policy with taking a special interest in the improvement of the work- another employer or town, and this process may go ing classes, on transmission of a request stating the claim, on till the general body of employers, taking the alarm, and accompanied with six stamps to pay the postage. overcome their competitive feeling with regard to each
other, and make coinmon cause, by closing their factories
to such an exent as to cut down the issue of wages, and home Correspondence.
the source of the strike-fund.
If the strike were to exist only in cotton manufactures, STRIKES AND LOCK-OUTS.
and all the workmen in other manufactures were to con
tribute to the strike-fund, the contest might be proSix,--The Society of Arts and Manufactures have longed. very fitly placed at the disposal of those interested in the
But then the employers in other marufactures, dreadpresent disputes their rooms and appliances as a neutral ing the same result in turn, might take up the contest, ground whereon to discuss the questions at issue on their and it might go on till so large a number had to be supmerits, with a view to their possible adjustment. The ported by the comparatively few workers, that the whole parties concerned may, or may not, take advantage of this of the workers must break down, with the simultaneous in verbal discussion, and, if they do not, will waste an ruin of many employers, and the retardation of English opportunity. Meanwhile I will, with your permission, progress-possibly the driving many trades to other endeavour to discuss the question in your pages.
countries. Being neither employer nor employed, I conse- Now it is certain that in a national point of view emquently may be supposed to be unprejudiced. I have in my ployers and employed have only one interest, and that if, time been an employer of many men in many varieties of out of the division of the profits of a manufacture, a diswork, in more than one country, and am therefore enabled pute arise between employers and employed, the profits to judge of the qualities, aptitudes, and habits of work and the wages-fund will infallibly be lessened. men as well as their defects, and can bear testimony that In conducting a manufactory a certain portion of money the latter are mostly a result of want of instruction, and must build the mills, and buy materials, and on this inte. 110t or wrong purpose. Disagreeing in some things with rest must be paid, or the mill would not be built. Another employers, and in some others with workinen, the chances portion must go for profits, or the employers would not are that I shall make opponents on both sides. Be that carry on business. The remaining portion goes for wages as it may, I shall speak my mind freely, as a public duty, to the employed. and do not say with the sage of old, - Strike, but hear!" The question at issue is, that those employed assume but--hear me patiently, and strike afterwards as much as that the employers award too little to the wages share, you please. I will, therefore, put on paper as concisely and too much to the profit share, which is denied by the as possible, the statement of the case at issue, and the employers, who say they give all they can afford. political economy of the matter, with my views of the It is clear that the employers have the power of possible mode in which the present dispute inay be put an knowing what they get. The employed can only surmise, end to, and further disputes obviated, with a greater unless the employers show their books, which, like all amount of profitable production to the public, to the em- other merchants, they are disinclined to do, and, unless plovers, and to the employed.
we suppose the workmen to be good accountants, it does There are three views to be taken of this question, not follow that they would be satisfied that the accounts the legal, the commercial, and the moral.
were genuine. As regards the legal, there can be no doubt that But the employers say that they find the capital, and employers have a right to settle amongst themselves indi- the risk, and that they do not choose to admit the workvidually, or jointly, what wages they may choose to pay men to a knowledge of, or conference with, their confor work. Änd, on the other hand, the employed have a right to determine, individually or jointly, at what rate The result is a kind of war against each other's they choose to sell their labour, provided no control finances, destroying national capital, and giving the vicor compulsiou be exercised over any individual.
tory--not necessarily to the right, but to the most powerThis is simply in conformity with the doctrines of ful. And the victory is not a peace. The employed go to political economy-to buy in the cheapest market and work again, but with a resolution to try again at the first sell in the dearest.
opportunity, believing that they have been beaten—not To put their different views in practice, it is essential by natural laws, but by unfair tactics. that surplus capital should exist as a maintenance fund- Nor can this condition of things be altered. The emto prevent compulsory buying or selling labour, under the ployed must do the bidding of the employers, implicitly, pre-ture of necessity.
so long as they are paid by daily or piece wages-the The employers possess this maintenance fund or latter being in reality only daily wages-calculated so as capital--individually, The employed rarely possess it to vary the rates between first-class and inferior workindividually, and, therefore, the advantage in the mutual men. labour market must rest with the employer.
Still the employed have a perception that this is not to To meet this difficulty, the workmen unite and sub- be their final condition, but that they must arrive at some scribe to form a joint-stock fund, wherewith to maintain process whereby their earnings may rise in graduated themselves while resisting the lowering their wages, or scale with prosperous times without depending on the while aiming at raising them.
absolute will or mere conscience of the employer. They But, it is clear that this maintenance can only apply to have occasionally talked of claiming a share of profits in a very small number out of work, while the great addition to wages. majority continue in work.
This the employer thinks most unjust, as they run no If, therefore, the whole body of workmen were to strike risk, in addition to the utter impracticability of any such at once, there would be no maintenance fund whatever arrangement under the present law of partnership. on the part of the workmen.
And in this the employer is right. The employed To meet this case, the majority continue in work, and must save their wages and acquire a capital to risk before commence a strike against an individual employer, or a they can be entitled to contingent profits as well as to