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series) on Local History, “Guildford and its Neighbourhood at the Time of the Doomsday Book.” Mr. Cowden Clarke, has given two lectures on the subordinate characters in—1st “Cymbeline,” and “The Two Gentlemen of Verona; 2nd, “King John” and “The Winter's Tale;' this gentleman invariably attracts large audiences; his truly philosophic analysis of the variety of character, and his nice appreciation of the lights and shadows so dexterously introduced by “Glorious old Willie,” combined with a good-humoured bluntness in the expression of his opinions, render him a great favourite. A Lecture on the “Wonders of Mechanical Philosophy,” by Prof. Partington, was received with marked attention and interest, as was also one (gratuitous,) by Mr. H. Medlock, of London, on the * Chemistry of Organic Life;" this lecture concluded the first division of the season. HoRNCASTLE.—The Annual General Meeting of the Mechanic's Institution, was held on Friday, the 6th inst. Mr. Thos. Meredith, W.P. in the chair. The meeting was one of the largest ever held in the Society's room. After auditing the Treasurer's accounts, the report of the committee was read, from which it appeared that the recent alterations in the rules, by which newspapers were admitted into the reading-room had been productive of great advantage to the Institution. Several new members had been elected during the year, not only filling up the yacancies caused by deaths, removals, and resignations, but increasing the total number of members. The readingroom was regularly attended by a large number of mem: bets, and the sub-librarian's register showed the total number of books and periodicals taken out of the room for perusal during the year to have been upwards of 4,000, being an increase of 1,400 above the entry for 1852. Altogether the Institution appears to be in a more Prosperous state than it has exhibited for some years. Sir Henry Dymoke, Bart., the Honourable the Queen's Champion, was unanimously elected a Vice Patron of the Institution. The following annual officers were also elected for the current year:—President, Richard Clitherow, Esq.; Vice Presidents, Dr. Boulton, and Messrs. S. Sketchley, J. Carter, and W. Smith; Treasurer, Mr. W. A. Rayson; Secretary, Mr. Charles Dee: Librarian, Mr. D. Worthington.
IoDISED MANUREs As A REMEDY FoR THE WINE DisEASE-It is doubtless well known to most of our readers that the vineyards of Southern Europe and the Madeiras have been blighted by a microscopic acarus, the Oidium Tuckeri, and that the price of wines, raisins, &c., has been considerably raised. It has however, been ascertained that the use of manures rich in iodine, enable the vine to resist these destroyers. In certain districts of Spain decomposed seaweeds are ordinarily used as manure. In those parts in which the amount of iodine in the oil may average 1-600,000, the vines have entirely escaped.— The i.
ABAB CALCULATION.—The utmost exactitude is required at Alexandria in checking the number of boxes which forms the olia, China, and Australian mail passing through Egypt. The illiterate Arabs who take charge of à. mails in that country have a unique and unerring method of keeping an *ount of the number of boxes, and which is done by a string of loads; as each box is passed before the eye of the Arab a load is thrown over his shoulder, where one end of the string * The power of mental abstraction possessed by the Arab, together with the simplicity of his numerical operation, enables
mamidst confusion and noise, to keep an exact account of any "mber of boxes of which he is to take charge, without any
ce of a mistake,
NATURE PRINTING.—As the priority of this invention is a matter of some interest at the present time, it may be useful to mention that Dr. Branson has written evidence of his attempts at nature printing so far back as 1848; when he received from Mr. Maund, publisher and author of the “Botanist,” a letter acknowledging the receipt of certain specimens: Mr.Maund says: " –The gutta percha impressions are interesting and also shadow “forth ideas of progress in the art of copying. If an impression of “a fern be taken in gutta percha, with the ultimate intention of “depositing metal in it, to produce a plate for surface printing, “may not the gutta percha mould have thin coats of size and “whiting repeatedly applied, so as to leave the impression “deeper, and consequently to produce an electro-plate with the “line more prominent, hereby enabling the letter-press printer “to obtain an impression from the lines alone, repre“senting the prominent views, without interference of “the intermediate spaces, which should be without colour.’ On the 6th of December, 1850, Dr. Branson read a paper on the subject to the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society; and on the next day the following notice appeared in the Sheffield Times:– “Dr. Branson has described to the Sheffield Literary “and Philosophical Society this process. His mode of operation “is to place a frond of fern, algae, or similar flat vegetable form, “on a thick piece of glass or polished marble; then taking and “softening a piece of gutta percha of proper size, and placing it “on the leaf and pressing it carefully down, it will receive a “sharp and accurate impression from the plant. The gutta “percha, retained level, and allowed to harden by cooling, is “then handed to a brass-caster, who reproduces it in metal from “his moulding base. This, it will be obvious, is the most deli“cate and difficult part of the process. Dr. Branson has many “brass plates thus produced from sand-casting, which only “require a little surface-dressing to yield at once, under the “copperplate printing press, most beautiful as well as faithful “impressions of the original leaves; indeed many of the exhi“bited specimens of ferns, printed in green colour, and slightly “embossed, as they must be, by the printing, were such perfect “fac-similies of the natural pattern, that they might easily be “taken for it. Besides, these matters, the Doctor exhibited a “large variety of patterns of embossed leather, which had been “produced by a somewhat analogous operation. As, however, “this invention is not so much for copying designs as for cre“ating them, and at the same time saving all the expense of “die-cutting, the following is the coursepursued;—The operator “takes a piece of common hard white soap of the required size “and surface, and upon that executes any design, whether “ of the depth and boldness of , ordinary embossing, or “in the delicate lines of an etching; in either case the “work, is executed with the greatest case. From this soap “model or engraving an impression , is taken in gutta “ percha; from that a secondary one, which, on being cast in “brass, as before, may be used for printing or embossing in the “ordinary way. The Doctor stated that his main difficulty was “in getting the last gutta percha coat, to separate from the “mould of the same substance into which it was pressed. He “had found, however, that by powdering, both surfaces with “common bronze dust, before taking the impression, they did “not adhere.”
Dated 24th December, 1853. 2988. J. Gaultier, Paris, and 4, South street, Finsbury—Washing and bleaching. 2990. J. *ś Preston–Railway breaks. 2992. G. A. Buchholz, Gould square, Crutched friars—Cleaning, &c.,
grain. 2994. T. Cooper, Leeds—Binding of ledgers and books. Dated 27th December, 1853. G. J. Mackelcan, Lechlade, Gloucester - Winnowing machines. T. S. Prideaux, St. John's Wood—Apparatus for regulating supply of air to surnaces, and for preventing radiation, &c. Dated 28th December, 1853. J. Parkinson, Bury—Governors. J. Taylor, Birkenhead—Raising and lowering weights. J. Alexis, Avignon–Railway break. J. Mackintosh, 12, Pall Mall East—Discharging projectiles. F. Parker, Northampton—Gaiters. D. M'Nee, Hill-fleld, Kirkintillock, and A. Broadfoot, 128, Ingram street, Glasgow–Printing with colours on cloth, &c. Dated 29th December, 1853. H. Jackson, High street, Poplar—Moulding bricks, &c. M. Phillips, Birmingham—Metallic revolving shutters. communication.) J. White, East street, Red Lion square—Friction joints. C. A. Roux, Belleville, Paris, and 16, Castle street, Holborn— Printing warps of cut pile, &c. A. W. Newton, 66, Chancery lane—Screws. (A communication.)
3002. 3004. 3006. 3008. 3010. 3012.
WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED.
Sealed 4th January, 1854. 1599. Marcus Davis, of 52, Gray's inn lane—Improvements in carriages, scaffoldings, and ladders, which scaffoldings and ladders are used as carriages. Sealed 6th January, 1854. 1607. Thomas Newey, of Garbett street, Birmingham—Improvements in fastenings for wearing apparel. 1616. John Woodward, of Platt street—An apparatus for curling
air. 1628. William Robertson, of Rochdale–Improvements in machinery for preparing, spinning, and doubling cotton wool, and other fibrous substances.
1633. Philippe Poirier de St. Charles, of Fulham—Improvements in apparatus for measuring and indicating the distance trawelled by cabs and other vehicles. Ewald Riepe, of Finsbury square—Improvements in the manufacture of turret or clock tower and such like bells. Jean Baptiste Jelic, of Alost, Belgium–Improved machinery for dressing or polishing thread. Donald Brims, of No. 159, Southwark Bridge road–Improved safety apparatus for the protection and preservation of lilu on water. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 4, South street, Finsbury, and 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris–Improved mode of regulating the electric light. John Clare, junior, of Liverpool—Improvements in the construction of iron houses, vessels, masts, spars, smoke-funnels, boilers, cylinders, beams, and other like structures or articles. James Willis, of Wallingford–Improvements in gig harness. George Frederick Chantrell, of Liverpool—Improved apparatus applicable to the manufacturing aud the revivification of animal or vegetable charcoal, and other useful purposes. John Fordred, of Dover, and Thomas Boyle, of Forest Gate, Essex—Improvements in daylight reflectors, and in apparatus to be used in condection there with. Thomas Dunn, of Windsor Bridge Iron Works, Pendleton, near Manchester, and William Gough, of 21, Old Compton street—Improvements in the manufacture of veneers, and in machinery and apparatus connected therewith. William Hadfield, of Manchester—Certain improvements in looms for weaving. Matthew Gray, of Glasgow—Improvements in weft forks for power looms.
Sealed 9th January 1854.
Ewald Riepe, of Finsbury square—Improvements in moulds for steel castings. Pierre Auguste Tourniere, of Lawrie terrace, St. George's road, and Louis Nicholas de Meckenheim, of Birmingham —Improvements in the manufacture of soap and washing paste, and of the materials used therein. William Levesley, of Sheffield—lmproved method of making table knife blades. William Huntley, of Ruswarp, near Whitby—Improvements in engines worked by steam, air, or fluids. Thomas Banks, of Derby, and Henry Banks, of Wednesbury— Improvements in apparatus for retarding and stopping railway trains, which improvements are also applicable to vehicles travelling on common roads. l’eter Armand Le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 4, South street, Finsbury, London, and 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris–Improved mode of producing an electric current. William Hunt, of Lee Brook Chemical Works, near Wednesbury—Certain improvements in manufacturing sulphuric acid. Willian Rettie, of Aberdeen—Improved construction of submarine lamp. Robert Harrington, of Witham—Improvements in umbrellas and parasols. James Atkins, of Birmingham—Improvement or improvements in ash pits for grates. Alexandre André Victor Sarrazin de Montferrier, of Paris, and, of 4, South street, Finsbury–New rotatory steam engine. Richard Dryburgh, of Leith-Improvements in the means of holding staves while being cut. Johan Martin Levien, of Davies street, Grosvenor squareImproved construction of expanding table.
WEEKLY LIST OF DESIGN's For ARTICLEs of UTILITY REGISTERED.
iMo. in the - Registration. | Register. Title. Proprietors' Names. Address. | 1854. l Jan. 5 3547 An adjusting arm for reclining chairs Henry Hill & Richard Millard 7, D - --- - ------ - uncannon street, i. - ?? *::: | The windsor oravat .................... ------ Dent, Allcroft, & Co ... W. street too , 7 *::: Captain Field's improved parallel rule... J. D. Potter....... | 31, Poultry." ! -- -- : o: Hammond Turner & Sons... Birmingham - * * utton ................ Hammond T sham. - or 10 3552 Water-closet ............. d Turner & Sons... " Birmingham.
The following Institutions have been taken into Union since the last announcement:328. Ashton and Dukinfield, Mechanics’ Institution. $29. Croydon, Literary and Scientific Institution. 330. East Dereham, Institute. *1. Masham, Mechanics' Institution and Literary Society. Previous to the reading of the Paper, the Secretary stated that he had received a communication from M. Demolon, of Paris, relative to Fish Guano, accompanied with a sample, in which he said that he had been, for some time past, manufacturing it to a considerable extent. With oference to the supply of fish for the purpose, M. Demolon had found there was no difficulty in procuring any amount at about 20 francs, or 15 shillings, per ton. The Secretary also called attention to some samples of a substance received from Madras, which appeared similar, In some respects, to Gutta Percha. Dr. Ferguson Branson's Specimensillustrative of the application of Soap as a Means of Art, were exhibited to the meeting, including drawings on soap, plaster and metal casts taken from Gutta Percha impressions of the soap drawing, embossed leather and paper, etchings, &c., &c.
The Paper read was
ON STITCHING MACHINES. By C. T. Judki N. In submitting to the Society of Arts a specimen of a Machine which enjoys an almost unparalleled degree of Patronage in Great Britain and America, among those manufacturers for the execution of whose work it is especi
Nicholon, G. T.
Ally intended, I derive a high degree of satisfaction from
the reflection, that few inventions have wrought so little losury to the interest of the labourers in the department into which it enters as a competitor. To say that a mathing does not supersede a certain amount of human handicraft by an enhanced celerity and increase of producon would be tantamount to registering the uselessness of the invention, and offering a puzzling anomaly for solution . All machines must, more or less, interfere with ... the artizan on their first appearance in the labour market, for the simple reason, that they rival his occupation, and *t him upon other resources, before they have sufficiently
multiplied production to make him a participator of the cheapness of which they are the authors. But such inventions as at once provide to a great extent new channels of employment, and transfer the labourer from a task destructive of his constitution, to one which is promotive of health, must come into the category of public blessings, instead of being resisted as a foe and a mischievous intruder; the evil, if any, in the present instance, is immensely counterbalanced by the vast benefit in the future. And this is the position claimed for the Sewing Machine. Were the invention now before you entirely British, it would find its prompt excuse and justification in the deleterious vocation of the needlewoman. For years past, public sympathy has been awakened in behalf of a class, the fruits of whose industry have borne so frightfully inadequate a proportion to their toil and necessities; the voice of the philanthropist, the masculine denunciation of the public organs, the pitiful wail of the inspired Poet, the earnest combination of the charitable Gentlewomen, alive to the privations and struggles of poor Sempstresses, have all conspired, but, alas! with slight effect, to mitigate the sufferings generated by the pursuit of a calling, in which the maximum of labour realises but the minimum of reward. Emigration has rescued a few from the miseries of their position, and the extension of the fields of employment for females has led to the adoption by others of professions of a less prejudical character then that of the dressmaker; but as long as there is a demand for needlework, and that demand can be supplied by human hands, there will be numerous disciples of the trade, because it is learnt with ease, and can be followed at an early period of life : its ultimate effect upon the eyes, the influence of the position it necessitates upon the human form, the consequences to the lungs and the general health, of the confinement in crowded rooms or small and close apartments which must be the portion of the Sempstress, all are forgotten in the pressure of the moment, and the eager desire to eat the bread of industry. Hundreds of thousands at this moment toil in unwholesome localities at a pernicious avocation for many hours a-day, for wages that barely tend to hold life and soul together, neglecting, in the ardour stimulated by want, the adoption of pursuits of a more profitable and health-promoting character. In this view—and who shall say that it is false or exaggerated—the Sewing Machine is calculated to prove an incalculable blessing to the needle-plyers in Great Britain, for it must ultimately supersede their devastating profession. But the Sewing Machine is an American Invention. Machinery is the grand necessity of the United States, for population has not augmented to a point which renders the number of needlewomen adequate to the demand upon their industry. America almost denudes Germany of her Sempstresses, and still production falls, infinitely short of her requirements. She is thus compolled to employ steel and Iron to do the work of huiuanity, for what is machinery but a mimicry of the physical faculties, multiplied to an almost indefinite extent? And perhaps there is hardly an instance on record, of a more simple application of that principle, than the Sewing Machine presents. It can do the work of between thirty and forty hands; it can accomplish 500 stiches in one minute. An example of its great rapidity of motion may here be quoted:—The Messrs. Nicoll, of Regent-street, whom it will be afterwards shown.have been the chief introducers of the Sewing Machine for practical use in England, were directed to exhibit the Machine, and specimens of its productions, to the Royal Family of Belgium, when recently staying at Windsor Castle, and not having a specimen completed that they deemed to be worthy of the occasion, one or two Machines were set in motion, and that which was but shapeless cloth, was, within four hours from the receipt of ū. command, on the road to Windsor in the form of a travelling wrapper, containing a greater number
of stitches than one operative could, in the old manner, have produced in three weeks. I do not wish it to be supposed that I demand credit for originality in the present work. To have improved upon the ideas of others—to have overcome difficulties which to them appeared insuperable—to have discovered the vital defect of all previous attempts—and to have finally brought the machine into practical and profitable operation, forms the foundation of my claim to your attention. The first attempt at stitching by machinery was made by Mr. Ellis Howe, of Boston, in the United States. He conceived the principle of a stitch made by the use of two threads, worked by means of one needle, and a shuttle; but after the expenditure of a great deal of money it proved an utter failure, for want of practical mechanical means for working the needle and shuttle. This was in the early part of the year 1846. From that time until 1851 numerous attempts were made to remedy the deficiency, attempts as honourable to the ingenuity of their authors as they were unfortunate in their results. Collecting specimens of these inventions, I proceeded to examine in what respect they failed to fulfil the necessary conditions, and, detecting their deficiency, at length contrived to produce a practicable working machine, and offered it to the public. My exultation received an immediate check. The machine was alleged to be an infringement upon the invention of Mr. Howe, inasmuch as his machine consisted in the application of a shuttle in combination with a needle for the purpose of sewing and stitching, and I was advised that it could not be brought into practice until the expiry of his patent. Thus the law which was passed to protect for a time the monopoly of an inventor, became in this instance a clog to improvement. It rejected a desideratum to conserve a nullity. Baffled
plan for stitching upon quite a different principle, doing
Aided by the advice and suggestions of eight or nine American gentlemen, I was enabled to give substantial operation to this new invention, and, that I might not again encounter the opposition offered on Fo grounds in America, I brought it over to England. The favour with which it was received led to the foundation of a company under the designation of the “Lancashire Sewing Machine Company.” The progress of the invention was, however, slow and tedious; it suffered from a certain amount of interference with labour, excited jealousy and apprehension, and manufacturers dreaded to experimentalize with what might raise a rebellion in their establishment, without giving them a corresponding advantage. At length the matter was taken up by the enterprising and prosperous firm of Messrs. Nicoll, the clothiers already alluded to, and the practical uses of the machine are now almost universally recognized. The Messrs. Nicoll knew that Mr. Speckmen, of Belfast, who introduced one of the machines into his establishment, was at first assaulted and placarded, and his life placed in danger by his workmen, but they were also aware, that whereas the same person previous to the introduction of the machine had only been able to employ seventeen hands, he was now, after purchasing four more machines, enabled to give employment to about 150 hands. Balancing the chances of personal danger and unpopularity among the working classes, against the certain benefits derivable by the public and the operative from the uses of the machine, the Messrs. Nicoll decided for the adoption of my invention.
I will now proceed to describe the machine itself, and
in this instance, I now determined upon carrying out a
the manner in which it works.
It is composed of a flat iron surface, about twelve inches square, resting upon four legs of substantial make and form. From one side of this surface an arm rises erect to the height of about ten inches, and then passes over to the opposite side. From the extremity of the arm descends a moveable bar, to the bottom of which is fixed a needle, the eye being about half an inch from the point, and on the top of the arm is fixed a reel or bobbin filled with silk or other thread. Fixed to a main shaft is a wheel turned by a handle, which also can be worked by a treadle, or steam engine, that gives motion to a lever within the arm, and which moves the vertical needle up and down. Beneath the visible surface, or base, is a second reel of thread supplying another needle, which instead of being straightiscircular and works horizontally, and consequently at right angles to its stitching companion, which descends from the arm. Supposing the thread to be passed through the eye of each needle, and the apparatus set to work, the process is thus performed: The vertical needle descends and passes through the two pieces of cloth to be united, carrying with it the thread to perhaps half an inch below the under side of the cloth; as the needle rises the thread is left behind in the form of a noose, or loop, through which the horizontal needle passes; the horizontal needle instantly reversing its motion, leaves a loop into which the vertical needle descends. Both needles thus progress, making a series of stitches, each stitch being quite fast, even should its neighbour be severed. More than five hundred stitches can be made in this manner in one minute. The eloseness and tightness of the threads are regulated by a screw, and as each stitch is of equal tension a great advantage is secured in the regular appearance of the work. The length of the stitch, by furning a small nut, can be increased or diminished to any degree of fineness, and perfect uniformity secured. The cloth to be worked upon is adjusted by an attendant, who with one hand turns the wheel, and with the other guides the cloth forward after each stitch. Sometimes two hands are employed, a girl or boy giving rotatory motion to the wheel, while the other attendant regulates the movement of the cloth. The operative by his actions can cause the sewing to be straight, angular, or circular.
It will be obvious that, upon the principle of sewing herein applied, an infinite variety of work can be com: pleted; from delicate cambric work to the sewing of the hempen cloth of which sails, sacks, and bags are composed, everything is germane to the machine. In the Operation of the tailor and the sempstress it is of the greatest importance. Trousers and shirts are made with extraordinary rapidity. It has been proved over and over again that, excepting in the construction of the buttonholes, a pair of trousers can be fashioned and stitched in less than an hour. And of what vast importance in the altairs of life is this economy of time? A vessel in a gale of wind, or a sudden squali, has her sails rent and oš. The sailmaker's hands could not supply their places in many days. The machine refits the yards in a few hours. Thousands of bags are needed for erecting fortifications and batteries. The exigency of the service demands the instant raising and equipment of a military force. The contractor for army clothing would require weeks for the production of a thousand of loosely manufictured suits. The machines could equip an army in a day or two. A person has a sudden occasion to leave England for India, or Australia, or China, within twentyfour hours. He needs an outfit of clothes; the machine Promptly ministers to his requirements. . The cases might be multiplied a hundred-fold. And how many articles to which sewing is now a stranger, may be sug$oted by the appearance of a process of manufacture hitherto unknown, if not unimagined? Parva componere "snis. The railway has given an impetus to travelling Thas created new towns and villages—enlarged th flemand for literature, and excited new tastes and desires. In like manner the sewing machine may engender fresh
fancies in personal decoration; and, better than all, inpart to the poor the means of obtaining necessary articles of clothing. I have said that the general application of the sewingmachine will not have any material influence on the immediate interest of the artizans—that is to say, to the extent of depriving them of the means of subsistence. The machines will, in the first place, require the assistance of one or two hands, thus converting the toilsome labourer into an operative, whose duties will be of an easy and by no means a health-destroying character. The vastly-increased quantity of articles partially produced by augmented rapidity of stitch will create a demand for a greater number of hands in cutting and in finishing; for the machine can neither give a form to the cloth to be sewed, nor work button-holes, nor put on buttons. But, that one fact is worth a thousand conjectures, take the example offered by the very house mentioned by me as giving the earliest encouragement to this machine. They, I am informed, are accustomed to employ, in various ways, a number of operatives, usually exceeding one thousand, and not one has been discharged through the introduction of the machine, but many have been employed in a more profitable and healthy manner.
Mr. Judkin here showed, by means of a board perforated with holes, and two pieces of cord, how the stitch was made, it being a combination of loops which gave on the under side of the work a “chain” stitch, and on the upper the ordinary-looking “stiching” stitch. The machine was also put in motion, and did its work with great rapidity. The CHAIRMAN, in inviting discussion, stated that the paper opened, up two or three questions of political economy which it would appear to be hardly necessary to discuss in the present day, were it not for the fact that the operatives appeared, from time to time, to forget that the introduction of machinery had always, after a short time, proved advantageous to themselves; for though in the first instance it might appear likely to displace labour, yet, from the increased stimulus that was given to production, and the cheapening the article produced, a demand arose by which, though the same operatives might not be employed, others obtained work at good wages, and added to the wealth of the country. Mr. Powell, wished to know, supposing one or two of the vertical stitches of the work were to be cut or wear through, what effect it would have in causing the others to run. Mr. Jupkin could not say exactly, but certainly very few would run—not so many as in ordinary stitching. The SECRETARY wished to mention that he had received from Mr. Douglass some specimens of stitching by another machine, of which, however, he had no explination beyond this--that it was called a “back-stitching” machine, and only one thread was used. Mr. HEAL wished to know on what data it was stated the machine would do the work of 30 or 40 women. He could bear testimony to the advantages of the machine, but his experience did not lead him to anything like such a difference. He should therefore like to know, in making the calculation, what kind of work was referred to, Mr. Judkin replied, in sewing the seams of garments, such as coats, trowsers, &e.,where close and fine work was required. It was not pretended that it would make buttonholes or put on buttons, neither would it earn the same proportion with regard to cheap work, such as bags &c., where long stitches were taken by the workwoman, whilst the machine gave them short and close stitches. Mr. HEAL said that he employed the machine in making mattresses, but he did not find it would do more than the work of two or three women. Mr. Stocquel.ER had been round to the shops of some most eminent shirt-makers, and asked them what they paid for shirts—how long it would take to make the boons