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series) on Lucal History,—" Guildford and its Neigh- NATURE PRINTING.—As the priority of this invention is a
bourhood at the Time of the Doomsday Book.” Mr. matter of some interest at the present time, it may be useful to
Cowden Clarke, has given two lectures on the subordi- mention that Dr. Branson has written evidence of his attempts
nate characters in-1st "Cymbeline," and The Two at nature printing so far back as 1848; when he received from

Botanist," a letter
Gentlemen of Verona ; 2nd, "King John” and “The Mr. Maund. publisher and author of the “
Winter's Tale;' this gentleman invariably attracts acknowledging the receipt of certain specimens: Mr. Maund says:
large audiences; his truly, philosophic analysis of " forth ideas of progress in the art of copying. If an impression of

-The gutta percha impressions are interesting, and also shadow the variety of character, and his nice appreciation of " a fern be taken in gutta percha, with the ultimate intention of the lights and shadows so dexterously introduced by depositing metal in it, to produce a plate for surface printing, "Glorious old Willie," combined with a good-humoured "may not the gutta percha mould have thin coats of size and bluntness in the expression of his opinions, render him a “ wh ting repeatedly applied, so as to leave the impression great favourite. A Lecture on the “ Wonders of Me- deeper, and consequently to produce an electro-plate with the chanical Philosophy,” by Prof. Partington, was received " line more prominent, hereby enabling the letter-press printer with marked attention and interest, as was also one

" to obtain an impression from the lines alone, repre. (gratuitous,) by Mr. H. Medlock, of London, on the

senting the prominent views, without interference of Chemistry of Organic Life;" this lecture concluded on the 6th of December, 1850, Dr. Branson read a paper on the

" the intermediate spaces, which should be without colour,' the first division of the season.

subject to the Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society; and HORNCASTLE.—The Annual General Meeting of the on the next day the following notice appeared in the Sheffield Mechanic's Institution, was held on Friday, the 6th inst. Times :-“ Dr. Branson has described to the Sheffield Literary Mr. Thos. Meredith, V.P. in the chair. The meeting " and Philosophical Society this process. His mode of operation was one of the largest ever held in the Society's room. " is to place a frond of fern, algæ, or similar flat vegetable form, After auditing the Treasurer's accounts, the report of the * on a thick piece of glass or polished marble; then taking and committee was read, from which it appeared that the softening a piece of gutta percha of proper size, and placing it recent alterations in the rules, by which newspapers were

“ on the leaf and pressing it carefully down, it will receive a admitted into the reading-room had been productive of

sharp and accurate impression from the plant. The gutta

percha, retained level, and allowed to harden by cooling, is great advantage to the Institution. Several new members

" then handed to a brass-caster, who reproduces it in metal from had been elected during the year, not only filling up the

“ his moulding base. This, it will be obvious, is the most delivacancies caused by deaths, removals, and resignations, but "cate and difficult part of the process. Dr. Branson has many increasing the total number of members. The reading- “ brass plates thus produced from sand-casting, which only room was regularly attended by a large number of mem- require a little surface-dressing to yield at once, under the hers, and the sub-librarian's register showed the total - copperplate printing press, most beautiful as well as faithful niimber of books and periodicals taken out of the room for impressions of the original leaves ; indeed many of the exhiperusal during the year to have been upwards of 4,000,

“ bited specimens of ferns, printed in green colour, and slightly being an increase of 1,400 above the entry for 1852.

“ embossed, as they must be, by the printing, were such perfect

“ fac-similies of the natural pattern, that they might easily be Altogether the Institution appears to be in a more

“ taken for it. Besides, these matters, the Doctor exhibited a prosperous state than it has exhibited for some years.

large variety of patterns of embossed leather, which had been Sir Henry Dymoke, Bart., the Honourable the Queen's produced by a somewhat analogous operation. As, however, Champion, was unanimously elected a Vice Patron of the “ this invention is not so much for copying designs as for creInstitution. The following annual officers were also “ ating them, and at the same time saving all the expense of elected for the current year:-President, Richard die-cutting, the following is the course pursued :—The operator Clitherow, Esq.; Vice Presidents, Dr. Boulton and "takes a pieee of common hard white soap of the required size Messrs. S. Sketchley, J. Carter, and W. Smith; Trea- " and surface, and upon that executes any design, whether surer, Mr. W. A. Rayson ; Secretary, Mr. Charles Dee;

c of the depth and boldness of ordinary embossing, or Librarian, Mr. D. Worthington.

“ in the delicate lines of an etching; in either case the “ work is executed with the greatest case.

From this soap “ model or engraving an impression is taken

percha ; from that a secondary one, which, on being cast in Miscellanea.

brass, as before,

may be used for printing or embossing in the ordinary way. The Doctor stated that his main difficulty was

" in getting the last gutta percha coat to separate from the A METHOD of extracting the Iodine from its connection with

" mould of the same substance into which it was pressed. He
metals, up to the last remnant, and in a perfectly pure state, by “ had found, however, that by powdering both surfaces with
one operation, has, it is said, been discovered by Dr. H. Schwarz, “common bronze dust, before taking the impression, they did
Professor of Techmical Chemistry at Breslau.---It is reported not adhere."
that the method is no less simple then inexpensive.

EASE.- It is doubtless well known to most of our readers that MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
the vineyards of Southern Europe and the Madeiras have been
blighted by a microscopic acarus, the Oidium Tuckeri, and that Mon. London Inst., 7.-Mr. J. Phillips, “ On the Philoso-
the price of wines, raisins, &c., has been considerably raised. It

phy of Geology."
has, however, been ascertained that the use of manures rich in

Statistical, 8. iodine, enable the vine to resist these destroyers. In certain

Chemical, 8. districts of Spain decomposed seaweeds are ordinarily used as Tues. Horticultural, 3. In those parts in which the amount of iodine in the

Royal Institution, 3.-Prof. Tyndall“ On Hcat." soil may average 1-600,000, the vines have entirely escaped. - Civil Engineers, 8.-Renewed discussion Mr. The Artizan Journal.

Harrison's paper, ** On the Drainage of the District

South of the T'hames.'
ABAB CALCULATION.—The utmost exactitude is required at
Alexandria in checking the number of boxes which forms the

Linnæan, 8.
India, China, and Australian mail passing through Egypt.

Pathological, 8.
The illiterate Arabs who take charge of the mails in that Wed. Society of Arts, 8.-Mr. C. T. Judkins “ On Stitching
country have a unique and unerring method of keeping an

Machines." account of the number of boxes, and which is done by a string

Geological, 8.- Mr. J. Prestwich, jun., “On the of beads; as each box is passed before the eye of the Arab a

Structure and Origin of “Sand Pipes' in the bcad is thrown over his shoulder, where one end of the string

Chalk." rests. The power of mental abstraction possessed by the Arab,

London Institution, 7.-Conversazione. together with the simplicity of his numerical operation, enables Tours. Royal Institution, 3.-Prof. Wharton Jones “On him, amidst confusion and noise, to keep an exact account of any

Animal Physiology." number of boxes of which he is to take charge, without any

Antiquaries, 8. chance of a mistake.

Royal, 81.

in gutta

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FxI. Architectural Assoc., 8.

1633, Philippe Poirier de St. Charles, of Fulham-Improvements Professor Faraday On Electric Induction. A860

in apparatus for measuring and indicating the distance traciated cases of C. rrent and Static Effects."

velled by cabs and other vehicles.

1636. Ewald Riepe, of Finsbury squarc-Improvements in the maRoyal Inst., 84

nufacture of turret or clock tower and such like bells. Sat. Asiatic, 2.

1696. Jean Baptiste Jelic, of Alost, Belgium-Improred machinery London Inst., 2.-Mr. M. T. Master3, “On Elemen. for dressing or polishing thread. tary Botany."

1711. Donald Brims, of No. 159, Southwark Bridge road—Improvou Royal Botanic, 3.

safety apparatus for the protection and preservation of life

on water. Medical, 8.

1806, Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 4, South street,

Finsbury, and 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris-Improved

mode of regulating the electric light.

2042. John Clare, junior, of Liverpool - Improvements in the conPATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852.

struction of iron houses, vessels, masts, spars, smoke-funnels,

boilers, cyıinders, beams, and other like structures or APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.

articles. [From Gazette, 6th January, 1854.]

2236. James Willis, of Wallingford--Improvements in gig harness.

2388. George Frederick Chantrell, of Liverpool - Improved appaDated 13th August, 1853.

ratus applicable to the manufacturing aud the rerivification 1900. J. Gwynne, Essex street, Strand-Black powder from coal,

of animal or vegetable charcoal, and other useful purposes. for paints, blackings, &c.

2158. Jobn Fordred, of Dover, and Thomas Boyle, of Forest Gate, Dated 29th November, 1853.

Essex - Improvements in daylight reflectors, and in appa

ratus to be used in consection therewith. 2776. E. J. Hughes, Manchester-Purifying, &c., the colouring matter of madder, munjeet, &c.

2480. Thomas Dunn, of Windsor Bridge Iron Works, Pendleton,

near Manchester, and William Gough, of 21, Old Compton Dated 22nd December, 1853.

street-Improvements in the manufacture of veneers, and in 2974. L. A. F. Besnard, Paris-Printing by means of lithography.

machinery and apparatus connected therewith. 2976. W. H. Woodhouse, Parliament street-Roads, ways, and ducts.

2632. William Hadfield, of Manchester--Certain improrements in 2978. B. Murgatroyd, Bradford-Washing, &c., wool, alpaca, mo

looins for weaving. hair, &c.

2636. Matthew Gray, of Glasgow-Improvements in weft forks for 2980. J. Gibbons, jun., Wolverhampton-Locks and latches.

power looms. Dated 23rd December, 1853. 2982. J. Gillow, jun., Northwich--Salt.

Sealed 9th January 1854. 2984. J. O'Neil, Bury-Drawing condensed steam and air from 1637. Ewald Riepe, of Finsbury square--Improvements in moulds pipes, &c.

for steel castings. 2986. 1. D. Pfeiffer, Paris, and 4, South strect, Finsbury-Machine 1641. Pierre Auguste Tourniere, of Lawrie terrace, St. George's for cutting paper, &c.

road, and Louis Nicholas de Meckenheim, of Birmingham Dated 24th December, 1853.

— Improvements in the manufacture of soap and washing 2988. J. Gaultier, Paris, and 4, South street, Finsbury-Washing

paste, and of the materials used therein. and bleaching.

1653. William Levesley, of Sheffield--Improved method of making 2990. J. Margerison, Preston-Railway breaks.

table knife blades. 2992. G. A. Buchholz, Gould square, Crutched friars-Cleaning, &c., 1736. William Huntley, of Ruswarp, near Whitby- Improvements grain.

in engines worked by steam, air, or fluids. 2994. T. Cooper, Leeds--Binding of ledgers and books.

1757. Thomas Banks, of Derby, and Henry Banks, of WednesburyDated 27th December, 1853.

Improvements in apparatus for retarding and stopping rail2998. G. J. Mackelcan, Lechlade, Gloucester - Winnowing machines.

way trains, which improvements are also applicable to 3000. T. S. Prideaux, St. John's Wood - Apparatus for regulating 1786. Peter Armand Le Comte de Fontainemoreau, 4, South street,

vehicles travelling on common roads. supply of air to furnaces, and for preventing radiation, &c.

Finsbury, London, and 39, Rue de l'Echiquier, Paris-ImDated 25th December, 1853.

proved mode of producing an electric current. 3002. J. Parkinson, Bury-Governors.

1919, William Hunt, of Lee Brook Chemical Works, near Wednes. 3004. J. Taylor, Birkenhead-Raising and lowering weights.

bury-Certain improvements in manufacturing sulphuric 3006. J. Alexis, Avignon-Railway break.

acid. 3008. J. Mackintosb, 12, Pall Mall East-Discharging projectiles. 1961. William Rettie, of Aberdeen-Improved construction of sub3010. F. Parker, Northampton-Gaiters.

marine lamp. 3012. D. M'Nee, Hill-Held, Kirkintillock, and A. Broadfoot, 128, 2065. Robert Harrington, of Witham-Improvements in umbrellas Ingram street, Glasgow-Printing with colours on cloth, &c.

and parasols. Dated 29th December, 1853.

2601. James Atkins, of Birmingham-Improvement or improve3014. H. Jackson, High street, Poplar--Moulding bricks, &c.

ments in ash pits for grates. 3016. M. Phillips, Birmingham-Detallic revolving shutters. (A 2609. Alexandre André Victor Sarrazin de Montserrier, of Paris, communication.)

and of 4, South street, Finsbury-New rotatory steam 3018. J. White, East street, Red Lion square--Friction joints.

engine. 3020. C. A. Roux, Belleville, Paris, and 16, Castle street, Holborn- 2613. Richard Dryburgh, of Leith-Improvements in the means of Printing warps of cut pile, &c.

holding staves while being cut. 3022. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Screws. (A communication.) |2621. Johan Martin Levien, of Davies street, Grosvenor square

Improved construction of expauding table.

Sealed 11th January, 1854.

1645. George Agar, of Witham, Essex-An apparatus for holding Sealed 4th January, 1854.

and turning over the leaves of music or music books. 1599. Marcus Daris, of 52, Gray's inn lane-- Improrements in car

1650. George Dalton, of Lymington-Improvemenis in reverberatory riages, scaffoldings, and ladders, which scaffoldings and lad

and other furnaces. ders are used as carriages.

1651. Felix Lieven Bauwens, of Pimlico-Improvements in the Sealed 6th January, 1854.

manufacture of candles. 1607. Thomas Newey, of Garbett ötreet, Birmingham-Improve- .652. Joseph Bacon Finnemore, of East Row, Birmingham-Imments in fastenings for wearing apparel.

provements in

sofa springs, useful for spring-stuffed 1616. John Woodward, of Platt street-An apparatus for curling upholstery work generally, and in the adaptation thereof to

hair. 1628. William Robertson, of Rochdale-Improvements in machinery 658. James Fletcher, of Facit, rear Rochdale-Certain improvefor preparing, spinning, and doubling cotton wool, and other

ments in machinery used for spining, doubling, and winding fibrous substances.

cotton, wool, flax, silk, and other fibrous materials.



Date of Rogistration.

No, in the


Proprietors' Names.


[blocks in formation]

An adjusting arm for reclining chairs...... Henry Hill&Richard Millard 7, Duncannon street, London,
The Windsor cravat

Dent, Allcroft, & Co. .......... Wood street, Cheapside.
Captain Field's improved parallel rule... J. P. Potter

31, Poultry.
Button ..........

Hammond Turner & Sons... Birmingham.
Metal button

Hammond Turner & Sons... Birmingham.

Stock & Son ...........


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No. 61. Vol. II.]


[Jan. 20, 1854.

Journal of the Society of Arts.

multiplied production to make him a participator of the cheapness of which they are the authors.

But such inventions as at once provide to a great extent

new channels of employment, and transfer the labourer FRIDAY, JANUARY 20, 1854.

from a task destructive of his constitution, to one which is promotive of health, must come into the category of public

blessings, instead of being resisted as a foe and a mischiev. SEVENTH ORDINARY MEETING.

ous intruder; the evil, if any, in the present instance, is

immensely counterbalanced by the vast benefit in the fuWednesday, JANUARY 18, 1854. ture. And this is the position claimed for the Sewing

Machine. The Seventh Ordinary Meeting of the One Hun Were the invention now before you entirely British, it dredth Session was held on Wednesday, the 18th would find its prompt excuse and justification in the deleinstant, Thomas WinkwORTH, Esq., in the Chair. terious vocation of the needlewoman. For years past

, The following candidates were balloted for, the fruits of whose industry have borne so frightfully and duly elected :

inadequate a proportion to their toil and necessities; Abhott, Robert Nicholon, G. T:

the voice of the philanthropist, the masculine denunciation Brooks, Vincent Pulman, James Heard

of the public organs, the pitiful wail of the inspired Poet, Eads, Charles James Rushbrook, Capt. the lIon. the earnest combination of the charitable Gentlewomen, Gedesden, Augustus Wm. George, M.P.

alive to the privations and struggles of poor Sempstresses, Hune, William Went Scott, Abraham Charles

have all conspired, but, alas! with slight effect, to mitigate worth Fitzwilliam, M.P. Whitwell, John

the sufferings generated by the pursuit of a calling, in Malcolmson, James

which the maximum of labour realises but the minimum

of reward. The following Institutions have been taken Emigration has rescued a few from the miseries of into Union since the last announcement:

their position, and the extension of the fields of employ

ment for females has led to the adoption by others of pro399. Ashton and Dukinfield, Mechanics' Institution.

fessions of a less prejudical character then that of the dress329. Croydon, Literary and Scientific Institution.

maker; but as long as there is a demand for needlework, 330), East Dereham, Institute.

and that demand can be supplied by human hande, thero 331. Masham, Mechanics’ Institution and Literary Society. will be numerous disciples of the trade, because it is

Previous to the reading of the Paper, the learnt with ease, and can be followed at an early period Secretary stated that he had received a commu- the position it necessitates upon the human form, the connication from M. Demolon, of Paris, relative to sequences to the lungs and the general health, of the Fish Guano, accompanied with a sample, in which confinement in crowded rooms or small and close aparthe said that he had been, for some time past, ments which must be the portion of the Sempstress, all manufacturing it to a considerable extent. With are forgotten in the pressure of the moment, and the


desire to eat the bread of industry. Hundreds of reference to the supply of fish for the purpose, thousands at this moment toil in unwholesome, localities M. Demolon had found there was no difficulty at a pernicious avocation for many hours a-day, for wages in procuring any amount at about 20 francs, that barely tend to hold life and soul together, neglecting, or 16 shillings, per ton. The Secretary also in the ardour stimulated by want, the adoption of pur

Buits of a more profitable and health-promoting character. called attention to some samples of a substance In this view and who shall say that it is false or exreceived from Madras, which appeared similar, aggerated—the Sewing Machine is calculated to prove in some respects, to Gutta Percha. Dr. Ferguson an incalculable blessing to the needle-plyers in Great Branson's Specimens illustrative of the applica- Britain, for it must ultimately supersede their devastating tion of Soap as a Means of Art, were exhibited


But the Sewing Machine is an American Invention. to the meeting, including drawings on soap, Machinery is the grand necessity of the United States, plaster and metal casts taken from Gutta Percha for population has not augmented to a point which renders impressions of the soap drawing, embossed leather the number of needlewomen adequate to the demand upon

their industry. America almost denudes Germany of her and paper, etchings, &c., &c.

Sempstresses, and still production falls infinitely short of The Paper read was

her requirements. She is thus compelled to employ Steel ON STITCHING MACHINES.

and Iron to do the work of humanity, for what is ma

chinery but a mimicry of the physical faculties, mulBy C. T. JUDKIN. tiplied to an almost indefinite extent?

And perhaps In submitting to the Society of Arts a specimen of a there is hardly an instance on record, of a more simple Machine which enjoys an almost unparalleled degree of application of that principle, than the Sewing Machine patronage in Great Britain and America, among those presents. It can do the work of between thirty and forty inanufacturers for the execution of whose work it is especi- hands; it can accomplish 500 stiches in one minute. ally intended, I derive a high degree of satisfaction from An example of its great rapidity of motion may here the reflection, that few inventions have wrought so little be quoted : -The Messrs. Nicoll, of Regent-street, whom injury to the interest of the labourers in the department it will be afterwards shown, have been the chief introducers into which it enters as a competitor. To say that a ma- of the Sewing Machine for practical use in England, were chine does not supersede a certain amount of human directed to exhibit the Machine, and specimens of its prohandicraft by an enhanced celerity and increase of produc- i ductions, to the Royal Family of Belgium, when recently tinn, would be tantamount to registering the uselessness staying at Windsor Castle, and not having a specimen of the jovention, and offering a puzzling anomaly for so- completed that they deemed to be worthy of the occasion, lution All machines must, more or less, interfere with one or two Machines were set in motion, and that which the artizan on their first appearance in the labour market, was but shapeless cloth, was, within four hours from the for the simple reason, that they rival his occupation, and receipt of the command, on the road to Windsor in the cast him upon other resources, before they have sufficiently form of a travelling wrapper, containing a greater number

of stitches than one operative could, in the old manner, plan for stitching apon quite a different principle, doing have produced in three weeks.

away with the shuttle entirely, and forming altogether a I do not wish it to be supposed that I demand credit different stitch. for originality in the present work. To have improved upon the ideas of others—to have overcome difficulties

Aided by the advice and suggestions of eight or nine which to them appeared insuperable—to have diecovered American gentlemen, I was enabled to give substantial the vital defect of all previous attempts—and to have operation to this new invention,

and, that I might not finally brought the machine into practical and profitable again encounter the opposition offered on patent grounds operation, forms the foundation of my claim to your at- in America, I brought it over to England. The favour tention. The first attempt at stitching by machinery was with which it was received led to the foundation of a made by Mr. Ellis Howe, of Boston, in the United States. company under the designation of the “Lancashire Sewing He conceived the principle of a stitch made by the use of Machine Company". The progress of the invention was, two threads, worked by means of one needle, and a

however, slow and tedious; it suffered from a certain shuttle; but after the expenditure of a great deal of amount of interference with labour, excited jealousy and money it proved an utter failure, for want of practical apprehension, and manufacturers dreaded to experimenmechanical means for working the needle and shuttle. talize with what might raise a rebellion in their establishtime until 1851 numerous attempts were made to remedy and prosperous firm of Messrs. Nicoll, the clothiers already This was in the early part of ine year 1846. From that ment, without giving them a corresponding advantage. their authors as they were unfortunate in their results. alluded to, and the practical uses of the machine are now Collecting speciinens of these inventions, I proceeded to almost universally recognized. The Messrs. Nicoll knew examine in what respect they failed to fulfil the necessary that Mr. Speckmen, of Belfast, who introduced one of the conditions, and, detecting their deficiency, at length con- machines into his establishment, was at first assaulted and trived to produce a practicable working machine, and placarded, and his life placed in danger by his workmen, offered it to the public. My exultation received an im- but they were also aware, that whereas the same person mediate check. 'The machine was alleged to be an in- previous to the introduction of the machine had only been fringement upon the invention of Mr. Howe, inasmuch as able to employ seventeen hands, he was now, after purhis machine consisted in the application of a shuttle in chasing four more machines, enabled to give employment combination with a needle for the purpose of sewing and to about 150 hands. Balancing the chances of personal stitching, and I was advised that it could not be brought danger and unpopularity among the working classes, into practice until the expiry of his patent. Thus the law against the certain benefits derivable by the public and which was passed to protect for a time the monopoly of an the operative from the uses of the machine, the Messrs. inventor, became in this instance & clog to improvement. Nicoll decided for the adoption of my invention. It rejected a desideratum to conserve a nullity. Baffled I will now proceed to describe the machine itself, and in this instance, I now determined upon carrying out al the manner in which it works.

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The Society is indebted for this woodcut to the proprietors of the IUustrated London News

o of Thave said that the general application of the sewing

It is composed of a flat iron surface, about twelve inches fancies in personal decoration; and, better than all, imsquare, resting upon four legs of substantial make and part to the poor the means of obtaining necessary articles forin. From one side of this surface an arm rises erect to of clothing. the height of about ten inches, and then passes over to the opposite side. From the extremity of the arm des machine will not have any material influence on the imcends a moveable bar, to the bottom of which is fixed a mediate interest of the artizans—that is to say, to the exneedle, the eye being about half an inch from the point, tent of depriving them of the means of subsistence. The and on the top of the arm is fixed a reel or bobbin filled machines wilt, in the first place, require the assistance of with silk or other thread. Fixed to a main shaft is a wheel one or two hands, thus converting the toilsome labourer turned by a handle, which also can be worked by a treadle, into an operative, whose duties will be of an easy and by or steam engine, that gives motion to a lever within the no means a health-destroying character. The vastly-inarm, and which moves the vertical needle up and down. creased quantity of articles partially produced by augBeneath the visible surface, or base, is a second reel of mented rapidity of stitch will create a demand for a thread supplying another needle, which instead of being greater number of hands in cutting and in finishing; for straightis circular and works horizontally, and consequently the machine can neither give a form to the cloth to be at right angles to its stitching companion, which des- sewed, nor work button-holes, por put on buttons. But, cends from the arm. Supposing the thread to be passed that one fact is worth a thousand conjectures, take the exthrough the eye of each needle, and the apparatus set to ample offered by the very house mentioned by me as giving work, the process is thus performed: The vertical needle the earliest encouragement to this machine. They, I am descends and passes through the two pieces of cloth to be informed, are accustomed to employ, in various ways, a united, carrying with it the thread to perhaps half an inch number of operatives, usually exceeding one thousand, below the under side of the cloth; as the needle rises the and not one has been discharged through the introducthread is left behind in the form of a noose, or loop, tion of the machine, but many have been employed in a through which the horizontal needle passes ; the hori- more profitable and healthy mapper. zontal needle instantly reversing its motion, leaves a loop into which the vertical needle descends. Both needles

DISCUSSION, thus progress, making a series of stitches, each stitch Mr. Judkin here showed, by means of a board perforbeing quite fast, even should its neighbour be severed. ated with holes, and two pieces of cord, how the stitch was More than five hundred stitches can be made in this man-made, it being a combination of loops which gave on the ner in one minute. The closeness and tightness of the under side of the work a “ chain” stitch, and on the upper threads are regulated by a screw, and as each stitch is of the ordinary-looking stiching" stitch. equal tension a great advantage is secured in the regular The machine was also put in motion, and did its work appearance of the work. The length of the stitch, by with great rapidity, turning a small nut, can be increased or diminished to The Chairman, in inviting discussion, stated that the any degree of fineness, and perfect uniformity secured. paper opened up two or three questions of political The cloth to be worked upon is adjusted by an attend- economy which it would appear to be hardly necessary ant, who with one hand turns the wheel, and with the to discuss in the present day, were it not for the fact that other guides the cloth forward after each stitch. Some the operatives appeared, from time to time, to forget that times two hands are employed, a girl or boy giving the introduction of machinery had always, after a short rotatory motion to the wheel, while the other attendant time, proved advantageous to themselves; for though in regulates the movement of the cloth. The operative the first instance it might appear likely to displace labour, by his actions can cause the sewing to be straight, yet, from the increased stimulus that was given to proangular, or circular.

duction, and the cheapening the article produced, a deIt will be obvious that, upon the principle o sewing mand arose by which, though the same operatives might herein applied, an infinite variety of work can be com- not be employed, others obtained work at good wages, and pleted; from delicate cambric work to the sewing of the added to the wealth of the country. hempen cloth of which sails, sacks, and bags are Mr. Powell wished to know, supposing one or two of composed, everything is germane to the machine. In the the vertical stitches of the work were to be cut or wear operation of the tailor and the sempstress it is of the through, what effect it would have in causing the others greatest importance. Trousers and shirts are made with to run. extraordinary rapidity. It has been proved over and over Mr. JUDKIN could not say exactly, but certainly very again that, excepting in the construction of the button- few would run--not so many as in ordinary stitching. holes, a pair of trousers can be fashioned and stitched in The Secretary wished to mention that he had reless than an hour. And of what vast importance in the ceived from Mr. Douglass some specimens of stitching by affairs of life is this economy of time? A vessel in a gale another machine, of which, however, he had no explinaof wind. or a sudden squall, has her sails rent and tattered tion beyond this--that it was called a back-stitching The sailmaker's hands could not supply their places in machine, and only one thread was used. many days. The machine refits the yards in a few Mr. Heal wished to know on what data it was stated hours

. Thousands of bags are needed for erecting the machine would do the work of 30 or 40 women. He fortifications and batteries. "The exigency of the service could bear testimony to the advantages of the machine, demands the instant raising and equipment of a military but his experience did not lead him to anything like such force.

The contractor for army clothing would require a difference. He should therefore like to know, in making weeks for the production of a thousand of loosely manu- the calculation, what kind of work was referred to. factured suits. The machines could equip an army in a

Mr. Judkin replied, in sewing the seams of garments, day or two. A person has a sudden uccasion to leave such as coats, trowsers, &e., where close and fine work was England for India, or Australia, or China, within twenty- required. It was not pretended that it would make buttonfour hours. He needs an outfit of clothes; the machine holes or put on buttons, neither would it earn the same promptly ministers to his requirements. The cases proportion with regard to cheap work, such as bags &c., might be multiplied a hundred-fold. And how many where long stitches were taken by the workwoman, whilst articles to which sewing is now a stranger, may be sug- the machine gave them short and close stitches. gested by the appearance of a process of manufacture Mr. Heal said that he employed the machine in hitherto unknown, if not unimagined ? Parva componere naking mattresses, but he did not find it would do more magnis. The railway has given an impetus to travelling than the work of two or three women. -has created new towns and villages-enlarged th:

Mr. STOCQUELER had been round to the shops of some demand for literature, and excited new tastes and desires. most eminent shirt-makers, and asked them what they paid lo liko manner the sewing machine may engender fresh for shirts-how long it would take to make the hitsons


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