does so.


This drawing is a back elevation of an astronomical will recognise this as a point of primary importance in any clock with this escapement, three-quarters of the real size improvement in escapements. (not that the size is of much consequence). The train is All other gravity escapements that I am acquainted the same as usual, except that it is inverted in position, so with involve at least as much delicacy of construction as as to get the scapewheel at the bottom, and the wheel the finest dead escapement. This, on the contrary, rewhich turns in a minute now has 80 teeth, and drives a quires so little that it is hardly possible for a workman pinion of 8 on the arbor of the three-legged scapewheel. intending to follow the rules given for its construction, to The scape wheel is behind the back plate of the clock make it so that it will not act perfectly. The makers of frame, and on its arbor, between the plates, is a fly like a other gravity escapements too, even the best of them, common striking fly, only larger; and the arbor of the never seem to have ventured to use a common train with minute wheel is made short, with its back pivot in a cock low-numbered pinions and thick pivots; whereas, if a screwed to the front plate (with the screw-head in front) gravity escapement does what it professes, it ought to go so as to leave room for a longer fly than could be got in just as well with a coarse train as a fine one.

And this if the arbor went through the clock frame.

The shortest proof of this is, that doubling the In this drawing the pendulum is just leaving the right the arc of the pendulum. I know how difficult it is to

clock-weight produces no effect, either on the time or on arm or pallet and taking upthe other; and as soon as the stop persuade clock-nakers that any clock can go as well with is drawn quite away from the tooth now resting on it, the scapewheel will turn, and raise the other pallet by means which has been made under my direction, either for my

a coarse train as a fine one; but every clock of this kind, of the pin which is now uppermost, until the tooth self or other people, has been purposely made with a train belonging to it is caught by the stop on that arm. If the no finer than that of a common house-clock, and the are at which the pendulum leaves one pallet and takes up turret-clocks with all the wheels of cast-iron. Indeed, I the other is called c, and the extreme arc a, each pallet ascends with the pendulum from c to a, but descends with

saw one a few days ago, made by a clock-maker at Donit not only to e, but to-c on the other side of zero ; and caster, with a scape-wheel pinion of only six leaves ; not consequently the pendulum receives an impulse from the that I mean to recommend that, because such pinions

a greater strain on all the wheels, and save weight of each arm alternately through the arc 2c. The scapewheel evidently turns once round in 6 beats of the very little in expense over pinions of eight. The first of pendulum; and that gives a large enough motion at each made with some old wheels, not even round, and brass

these clocks of regulator size which was finished, was beat for the fly to restrain its velocity, and thus prevent pinions, and was sent to Greenwich by Mr. Dent (of the it from moving so fast as to jerk the pallet too far out, Strand), by desire of the Astronomer Royal, and subin which case the tooth may not be caught by the stop; mitted by him, as he told me himself, to some “ malicious and then the wheel runs on still faster, misses several experiments,” and it bore them so well that he concurred beats, and perhaps breaks a tooth when it is canglit by with me in authorising Mr. Dent to use it in the great the stop descending again. This is called tripping, and Westminster clock; and it is well known to those who has been the principal mechanical difficulty of gravity

are acquainted with what he has written on escapements, escapements. In my late Cambridge paper I have men that he was before under the impression that no escapetioned the various contrivances which have been resorted ment of this kind could answer. to to obviate it, and it is not worth while to repeat them here, especially as none of them have even come into

In turret-clocks, besides the advantage of being able to general use.

use cast-iron wheels in the going part as wel as the

striking, there is no longer any occasion for long and Even those escapements which have been tolerably safe heavy pendulums.

That of the Westminster clock, against actual tripping under any probable variation in the which weighs 6 cwt. (I suppose, the heaviest in the world!, force of the clock train, have sometimes been liable to had been made before this escapement was invented, or it another miscarriage quite sufficient to injure the character would not have been so heavy. All the other large clocks of gravity escapements generally, and the more so because which have been made with it have only a five-feet pen(as far as I know) it has never been noticed. Though the dulum (14 seconds), with a bob of 150 lbs. which is a conforce of the scape-wheel may not send the pallet so far as siderable saving in expense in a compensated pendulum, to let the tooth slip past the stop, it may send it farther and generally more convenient for fixing. This escapethan it ought to go and would go if it were listed more ment also (like a remontoire in the train, which is more slowly, and then the pressure of the tooth on the stop is expensive) allows you to put on weight enough to drive generally sufficient to hold it there; and the consequence the hands through any weather, without affecting the is that the pendulum does not begin raising as soon as it pendulum, as the escapement will bear three times the ought to do, viz., at the arc c before-mentioned ; and as weight that will make it go, if it is properly made, withthe pallet will always descend with the pendulum to the out any risk of tripping. And I now proceed to give the same place, the impulse is increased, and the rate of the rules for making it, which I have found from observation clock altered. In some of the gravity-escapement clocks of several clocks, since my Cambridge paper was written, in the Great Exhibition, I found that you could sensibly to be on the whole the best, with reference to various conincrease the are of the pendulum in a few minutes, by siderations, mechanical and mathematical; for the latter putting some extra force on the clock train ; which showed of which 1 must refer the reader to the aforesaid paper. that they failed in the very first essential of a gravity The distance of the points of the scapewheel teeth from escapement. In the three-legged escapement this is pre the centre should not be much less than 1-6th of the vented by two things; first, by the fly, which moderates length of the arms (down to the stops); and the listing the velocity of the scape-wheel; and secondly, by the pins should be 1-36th of that length' from the centre. length of the locking teeth, the points of which are five | The arc, which I have before called c, will then be about or six times as far from the centre as the lifting pins, and 45', or the pendulum will receive its impulse through 90. therefore the pressure on the stop is so much less than The stops and the lifting faces of the pallets may be so where the listing and the locking are both done by the adjusted as to make the depth of locking about 2-3rds of same teeth, and is so little, that if an arm is by accident the distance of the pins from the centre of the scapewheel, raised too high it will not stay there, but falls again, and or (in round numbers) 1-60ih of the length of the arms. the face of the pallet rests on the pin which lifted it, until The arms should be only heavy enough to make the penduthe pendulum arrives and carries it off. The small amount lum suing about 20 from zero. You need not be alarmed at of friction at unlocking also renders the pendulum indif seeing the pendulum have not much excursion beyond ferent to the absence or presence of oil on the stops, and the point of unlocking; it is better that it should be so, they require none, except just enough to keep them from because with this escapement the arc can never diminish rusting. Everybody who knows anything of clockwork so as to fail in unlocking, except from soine accidental ob

struction to the pallets, and it is better that such obstruc- | a series of weights for the purpose is to try the effect of tion should indicate its presence at once by stopping the some weight large enough to accelerate the clock a good elock, as it will, if there is only a small margin left many seconds a day; then you will know what any beyond the point of unlocking. In astronomical clocks aliquot part of it will do; and from that knowledge the length of the arms has generally been made six inches; make a series of weights in geometrical progression, in tarret clocks nine, or double the size of the above marked 1, 1, 1,2 (these will be quite enough), according drawing; but there is no particular virtue in these sizes. to the number of seconds a day by which they will The bend of the knee in the legs of the scapewheel is de- increase the rate when laid on the collar, and therefore termined by the rule, that the pins and the points of the diminish it when taken off; which can easily be done teeth alternately should lie on the radii of a regular without disturbing the pendulum. One ounce will do a hexagon. The stop on the pallet, which is struck up. second a day in a pendulum of more than a quarter of a wards, must be set a little higher than the scapewheel ton, and 10 grains in the common mercurial pendulum of centre, so that a straight line from there to the stop may an astronomical clock. form a right angle with the arm; for it the stop is lower

Yours faithfully, than this, the blow will not be given in the direction of

E. B. DENISON. the arm, and will have a tendency to throw it outwards, 42, Queen Anne-street, 10 Jan. 1854. which may as well be prevented, though it may not be enough to make the escapement trip. The other stop, however, should not be set so high as to forin a right

WILKINS'S NEW TELEGRAPH. angle in the same way, because it will make the beats

SIR,- In your Journal for December 30th, 1853, you disagreeably unequal, and there is no occasion for it, as have a description of " Wilkins's New Telegraph,” which the action of the teeth on that stop, if set lower, is not to is so erroneous, that, however I might pass over it in the throw the arm out, but rather the contrary. The size of journal in which that description first appeared, I cannot the fly in a regulator may be determined by trial. If you do so now that the Journal of the Society of Arts has Fant a loud beat, you must have as small a fly as appears inserted it. to be safe against any risk of tripping. In turrret clocks I

The following would be a more accurate, and, I hope, find the fly should be not less than five inches long, by an inch broad, in each vane.

more interesting description for your readers :-A point The seapewheel is made of steel not more than 1-8th or marker is held by a spring in contact with a ribbon of inch thick in a turret clock, and of course thinner in a moved by the hand, lines of any form might be traced.

paper against a marking surface, and if the marker were regulator; the pins of brass wire, rivetted in. The scape- The marker is mounted upon an iron armature between wheel of the great Westminster clock does not weigh four poles of two electro-magnets placed vis-a-vis. The half an ounce. The points of the teeth should be made | armature is fixed on a centre between the poles, and attolerably hard, but not quite sharp. The stops should be tracted each end in an opposite direction. The armature screwed on soft and adjusted to the proper depth of locking being at rest, equidistant between the magnets, it follows and then made quite hard and polished; and the lifting that while the ribbon of paper is travelling between the faces of the pallets the same. The pallets of turret clocks marker and the marking surface, a line is drawn in the may be of iron only faced with steel : in astronomical clocks middle of the paper, and any diversion of the armature they can hardly be made light and stiff enough unless they from the position of rest entails a corresponding diversion are of steel, and not above 1-16th of an inch thich, and of the line drawn, and by the number and form of about as broad as those in the above drawing. The lower

such diversions the

The ends are bent backwards at a right angle. to embrace the automaton repeater connected with this telegraph

message is composed. beat-screws in the pendulum, the action of which is is an apparatus devised to carry out the objects of Davey, obvious. It is better not to put oil

, as to the common (who to a certain extent succeeded to work a telegraphfork, on the points of contact, as there is no sensible recording instrument,) and to act as a relay of power to friction, and it may tend to stick the fork pins to the work other circuits. This instrument as now constructed, beat screws, and so resist the separation of the pendulum enables the longest circuits to be telegraphed over at once, from the pallets ; but the heads of the screws should be without the operation of repeating. The telegraph is one made of brasa. In a short time I hope to be able to lay before your would recommend it were expense only considered, but

wired, and one operator only is necessary, this advantage readers the results of the application of this escapeinent the addition of greater certainty is secured likewise. The to electrical clocks, for which it offers great facilities; insulator is a means evident to the most ordinary capacity and for that purpose the drawing which I have here of accomplishing the insulation of over-ground wires. given will be wanted again, as I have as yet said nothing November, even at the present day, is the purgatory of about the two pins marked e e. But before I finish this

Yours, &c., letter, I take the opportunity of mentioning a mode of


J. J. WILKINS. regulating pendulums, which (as far as I know) is new in practice, and particularly convenient, especially with this Excapement, which allows you always to set the clock right within one beat of the pendulum without touching

FLAX, AND ITS PRODUCTS, IN IRELAND(a). it, by merely lifting one of the pallets and letting the CONTRIBUTED BY WM. CHARLEY, SEYMOUR-HILL, BELFAST. apewheel run forward, or turning it back, which will alter the time by any even number of beats you please.

Contrary to the intention expressed in my last letter, I

have decided, after some consideration, to complete the If the ten-thousandth part of the weight of a pendulum history of the flax plant in Ireland to the present decade, is stack on to the rod half way down its length, it will before giving any detailed account of recent improvements. make the clock gain a little more than a second a day: In doing so, however, it is impossible to divide my subject that being the place where any given weight pioduces the maximum effect, and where any shifting of that weight up or down produces the minimum effect. Consequently, a

(a) It has been mentioned by Professor Hodges, in a paper sliding weight there is a bad way of regulating a pendu-l the old Irish or Celtic name for fax is Lhin.

on flax, read before the British Association when in Belfast, that

This closely relum: and on the other hand, if a collar is fixed there, sembles the French Lin, the Latin linum, and the English lint and the pendulum so adjusted that it goes nearly right and linen. It has been 'also stated that linen dyed yellow was with some small weight laid on the collar, it can always much worn by the ancient Irish ; and in the Brehon Laws the have its rate altered by any assignable quantity, by Brughaidho, or farmers, were obliged to learn and practice flax merely altering that weight. The best way of making cultivation.' (See Edward Campion's Annals.)





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into any regular and progressive series, except, perhaps, that Russia, and the chief part of the remainder from Holland of time. I purpose therefore to continue to give, from the and Prussia. As I will, on a future occasion, give some best authorities and in a condensed form, a statement of statistics of the present imports of flax, I shall leave this the events that have had an effect on the production or subject for the present, and at once pass on to the " Inmanuiacture of the plant, or have been in some way structions for making his Britannic Majesty's Navy Canvas," connected with its prosperity.

which are dated from the Navy-office, January 1814:The year A.D. 1816 was that in which Mr. Lee figured "1st. The chain or warp of the canvas to be spun from 80 prominently. The only interesting facts I find in the the longs of the best Riga flax, or the best St. Petersburgh following year are-1st, a report to the Linen Board by 12-head flax (if free from biacks), or the best English or one of their inspectors, of a tour through Scotland and Irish watered fax. The flax to be well dressed, and free Yorkshire, for the purpose of obtaining and imparting from any mixture of short fax, and the yarn to be well information ; 2ndly, a published account from the House and evenly spun, and better twisted than has been usual of Commons, giving a statement of all the importations of heretofore. 2nd. The weft or shoot to be spun from the fax into Great Britain from 1807 to 1816; 3rdly, the longs of the best Riga or St. Petersburgh 12-head fiax printed instructions issued by the government, directing (if free from blacks), and well dressed on the same hackles how the canvas for his Majesty's navy shouid be prepared. I that are used for dressing the flax from which the chain With regard to Mr. Marshal's report to the Linen Board, or warp yarns are spun. N.B.-Although different kinds I may state that he gives an account of the cultivation of of flax are named. yet the Navy board reserve to thenthe plant in North Britain, and recommends the great selves the right of restricting to either, as the quality of care taken by the producers and manufacturers there, flax, or other circumstances may render necessary from especially in the scutching process.

time to time. 3rd. The boils are ordered to be made The following is the result of a trial made by him on from American pot and St. Petersburgh pearl ashes." Irish and Scotch flax, the former dried by fire heat, the These are minutely described, and no operations of this latter by air :

kind to be allowed during the winter months. The rules 112 LBS. IRISH HACKLED. 112 LBS. SCOTCH HACKLED.

extended to twelve, and were distributed among all the

manufacturers for the fleet. Flax 56 Flax

80 During the years 1818 and 1819, I do not find much First Tow 32 First Tow

12 of importance; the Linen board and trade appear to have Second Tow 20 Second Tow

17 gone quietly on with their routine duties. The improved Waste


3 scutching machinery, recommended by Mr. Marshal, was,

to some extent, introduced into Ireland; a great many 112

112 scutch mills, of the most approved class, were erected in "These parcels were hackled the same quality for different parts of the country, and among other parties mill-spinning, and left a balance in favour of the Scotch that took an interest in this good work was the of about twenty-five per cent. The reason of this differ. Drapers' Company of London, on their estates in the ence, I, as well as those present, attributed to the fire. north of the island. Some seizures, I find, were drying of the Irish flax, by which it loses the oil, becomes made at various times of unsound fax seed, and an allu. hard, and the fibre easily broke. In Scotland the flax is sion is made to the demand for old Riga and Dutch flax air-dried in the field.” (See Linen Board Report.) Mr. barrels for the purpose of being refilled and sold in a deMarshal recommended the scutching-mill, for which a ceptive manner. Early in 1820 Mr. John Wilson, of premium of £50 was accorded by the Linen Board of Dundee, attracted some notice to his invention of a new Scotland(a)

machine for dressing flax, which he styled (perhaps In addition to the scutching-mills the inspector advised rather prematurely) “The Farmer's Friend;" the price the adoption, in Ireland, of a two-handed wheel for spin- was only five guineas; but “it did not take," and soon ning; some of these he brought over; but about this sunk into oblivion. At this time a new measuring matime steam power and machinery were being tried for chine was also talked about, the proposal of a Mr. yarn spinning, and this tended to distract attention from Coulter, and towards the end of the year a real genuine the old-fashioned system of hand labour. It appears improvement was invented and carried out, namely, the that so far back as 1793, mill spinning was begun in new patent "temples" for weaving. In the old system Scotland, but that the fluctuating prices for the raw ma

rows of teeth were used to retain the web at its width terial, from Russia and Holland, almost ruined the enter in the loom; these frequently so marked the selvage as prising proprietors. This fluctuation was caused by the to give it a torn and imperfect appearance, which was wars of the period, and in one year ranged from £30 to very objectionable. To obviate this, a mechanic at £150 per ton for the same quality of flax!

Dromore planned a set of “temples" to hold the cloth A desire was felt in Ireland to supply the Scotch manu- like pincers, and not to puncture it in any way. At a facturers who were in the habit of buying the Baltic flax, meeting of the Linen Trade, in Belfast, a committee(a) and Mr. Marshal having inquired the cause of their not was appointed to examine and report on the subject. taking Irish, was to the system of kiln-drying, so much The result was an order to the mechanic for 400 pairs for carried on in Ireland, and the fibre was so imperfectly gratuitous distribution, and a strong recommendation to scutched that they found, in these respects, it was interior the Linen Board for a reward. After some delay he to the continental, though, in some other points, it was received £100. These temples are now in general use, perhaps superior; it was added that the shipments from and have contributed very much to improve the quality Belfast were much the best in quality, and were rapidly of Irish linen cloth. It is mortifying to think of the improving

trouble there was in procuring any reward for this great The return of the imports of undressed flax into Great improvement, and how much more easily the money was Britain already referred to is as follows:

obtained for Mír. Lee. Perhaps it was thought "no good

thing could come out of” poor Ireland, and that all useful 1807...416,598 | 1810...511,383 1814...498,848 improvements must of necessity be imported from other 1:08...216,949 1811...234,390 | 1815...325,891

countries ! On the 23rd of August, 1821, His Majesty 1809...523,149 | 1812...362,894 | 1816...212,619 George IV. visited the Linen Hall and Board Room in Out of these quantities almost three-fourths came from Dublin, and received a complimentary address. The

Trustees made some reductions in their expenses this (a) This Linen Board appears to have had both influence and year, but the Parliamentary grant continued the same as friends at this time. A sum of £3000 per annum was entrusted to their care for the promotion and improvement of the manu- (a) These names were B. Williamson, J. Charley. F. Curteis, factures in North Britain.

J. Sinclaire, J. M'Cauce, A. Stewart, and J. S. Ferguson.

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usial. The following explains the particulars of the willing to grant three thousand pounds to the trustees of grant:-(See Linen Board report.)

the Linen Manufacture, to be expended in the purchase "The sum of two thousand pounds for one year

and distribution of flaxseed ; but his Excellency relies on to encourage the raising of sufficient quantities

the Trustees taking care that this sum is properly applied for of hemp and fax in this country

£2,000 the purpose required, and that their officers do not purchase The further sum of two thousand pounds for

any flaxseed except where they are satisfied that the one year, for the encouragement of the hempen

ground has been prepared to receive it, and that they do and flaxen manufactures in the provinces of

not give the seed to any persons except such as are unable Leinster, Munster, and Connaught .

2,000 from poverty to purchase it." The further sum of seven thousand two hun

This distribution of seed appears to have done much dred and fifty pounds for one year, &c., to

good, as the Earl of Clare wrote to the government for a encourage the growth of flax in this kingdom 7,250 renewal of the grant the following year,

This was And the further suin of ten thousand three

brought under the notice of the Linen Board, in a letter hundred and fitty pounds for one year, &c.,

from the Right Hou. Henry Goulburn, then Irish Chief to be by the said Trustees appliei in such

Secretary. manner as shall appear to them to be most

Dublin Castle, Nov. 30, 1822. conducive to promote and encourage the said

“ I send you herewith, by command of the Lord Lieumanufacture, the said sun to be in the place

tenant, a letter which has been received from the Earl of and stead of a like sum paid to them fout of

Clare, requesting to be informed if it is the intention of the produce of the duties on teas and coffee 10,350 Government to furnish a supply of flaxseed during the

ensuing year, and pointing out the advantages which Total

£21,600" are likely to result from such a measure, if adopted. And About this time two evil practices pursued by the weavers

I am desired by his Excellency to acquaint you that, in attracted much notice among the merchants, namely, appropriating the balance of the original grant for this that of plaistering the brown linen, so to give purpose, during the ensuing scason, to the objects to them an artificial appearance of weight and strength; which it was at first destined, the county of Limerick and the other, the habit of rubbing or calendering appears to his Excellency to have a fair claim to be consithe linen to such an extent as to injure its dura- dered in any further distribution of seed which you may bility, especially at the selvage; this rubbing gave judge proper to make, of which Lord Clare has been acthe piece a tiner and richer appearance than it otherwise quainted.” would have had, and thus deceived the eye of the buyer.

In addition to the labours of the Linen Board in Dublin, Thuse two systems of trickery were thoroughly exposed by local efforts towards improvement were not wanting in the merchants at various meetings, and stringent measures the Provinces. The North Western and North Eastern were adopted to remedy the nuisance and keep up the Agricultural Societies offered premiums, and assisted in reputation of the manufacture. As the existing laws did many ways to improve the cultivation of all crops, innot prove quite sufficient for this emergency, a new Bill cluding flax. was desired, and on the 2nd of April, 1822, I find that We are now approaching the period when Parliament Mr. John Charley, of Belfast, as a representative of the withdrew the annual grant from the Linen Board ; from linen merchants, was called before the Linen Board in this (1823), to the conclusion of their operations-emDublin to confer with them on the subject of a new Bill bracing upwards of five years~ will be aescribed in a fun to be introduced for the better regulation of the trade.

In addition to the frauds attempted by the petty manufacturing weavers on the merchants I find that the farmers ran considerable risk of deception from the dealers

DECIMAL COINAGE. in flax seed. On the 10th of April in this year a respectable Sır,-I ubserve in the papers, and hear also a good dea Newry merchant writes to his friends at Belfast, “But of discussion on the subject of the Decimal Coinage, but little genuine Dutch flaxseed now remains unsold, but there seems generally a want of a complete and accurato they are making Dutch here as fast as they can get empty knowledge of the requisite data for deciding the question hogsheads!" "It is some consolation to think that the –What system of decimal coinage shall we adopt? It class of linen manufacturers and flaxseed dealers are now has occurred to me that a tabular view of the features of 80 respectable that very few instances of such foul play the leading plans might be useful, and I send you herewith

No doubt if the agriculturist is too parsi, such a sketch for insertion in your Journal, which, with monious to pay a proper price for flaxseed he may find the following explanations, will, I trust, be intelligible. some cunning rogue able and willing to accommodate

It is assumed that, under any system, we shall require him with a low priced article.

The self-satisfied farmer | about ten coins, in value near our present pound, half may be proud of his apparently cheap bargain at seed time, but when the crop arrives near maturity he finds to halfpenny, farthing; that, as at present, not more than

pound, crowd, florin, shilling, sixpence, threepenice, penny, his horror that one half of the produce is some useless four of these shall be used as money of account; and that weed and that the little flax among it is scarcely worth each of the others shall bear the simple relation of two or saving. In his despair he blames everything but his own half to one of these coins of account. The fourth folly; he does not adroit that he " was penny-wise and column, under the head “Value," is for farthings or parts pound-foolish,” but protests with obstinate determination of one farthing; the term “Basis," is applicd to the to his neighbour that he will never grow flax again, and leading coin of our present money, which is made a coin returns to his old-fashioned rotation of crops.

This is

of account in any of the new systems; the term “Conthe way that many experiments made by uneducated farmers in cultivating flax are conducted and terminated; vertible,” applied to a new coin, signifies that it can be

exchanged exactly into our present coinage; those as this class becomes better informed and more generally with fractions of a farthing in their values are not possessed of sufficient capital such errors will of course convertible. By the “Continental System,” is meant inore rarely occur. On the 28th of May, 1822, the fol- that in which the franc (ten pence) is the basis or a leading lowing letter was addressed to the secretary of the Linen coin, as in France, Belgiuni, Holland, and the kingdom Bcard from Dublin Castle :

of Sardinia, while other states have coins nearly of the "I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of same value. If Britain were to adopt the franc or half the 17th and 23rd instant, which together with their franc (as in 3 and 4 of the Table), it would be easy to inclosures I have submitted to the Lord Lieutenant, and have one uniforın system throughout Europe. The dollar am directed by his excellency to acquaint you, that he is and the franç-ig reality the penny-enable us to assimij

ture paper.

occur now.

late with almost all the world. I do not wish to enter on one exception) are convertible, and which readily assimi any discussion at present, but should like to draw attention late with the systems of other countries, to Nos. 3 and 4 of the table, the new coins in which (with



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S. d.

New Money of Account.
1.- Pound






the d. 1. Old Coins, 4, New Coins, 6.

1 0 0 0

Pound 4 Shilling piece 4 0 0 Crown
2 0 0
Pound 2 Cents.

4 3 1-5ths Sixpence 2 1 3-5ths Florin


2 1 3-5ths Threepence 24-25ths Shilling


1 4-öths. Penny 2 Mils.

1 23-25 Half-penny 1 Mil.

0 24.25 Farthing

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4.-Dollar or Crown

Fivepence (half

franc) Half-penny

Old Coins, 3.

New Coins, 7.
16s. 8d. piece
8s. 4d.
4s. 2d.


5 0


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r Pound

1 Pound

or 16. 8d.


5d. 24d.

LEADING FEATURES. 1. Basis, the pound; four degrees; least coin, nearly one farthing; four coins retained; sixpence, penny, halfpenny, and farthing given up; six new coins, of which five are not convertible.

2. Basis, the shilling; four degrees; least coin, nearly one half-farthing; five coins retained; sixpence, penny, halfpenny, and farthing given up; six new coins, of which five are not convertible.

3. Basis, the penny; four degrees; least coin, nearly one half-farthing; two coins retained; pound, half-pound, crown, florin, shilling, and sixpence, given up; eight new coins, of which seven are convertible; by the franc, assimilates with the continental system, and by the 4s. 2d. (dollar) with the American system.

4. Basis, the halfpenny; three degrees ; least coin of account, one halfpenny (but the farthing retained); three coins retained ; pound, half-pound, crown, florin, shilling, and sixpence, given up; seven new coins, all convertible; by the half-franc, easily assimilates with the continental system, and by the dollar with the American system.

P. Q. R.

change between the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingProceedings of Institutions. doms. He concluded his lecture by strongly urging his

hearers to use every effort to procure for themselves

and their neighbours a removal of all nuisances GUILDFORD. — The Lecture Season at the Insti- calculated either to deteriorate the quality, or tute was opened by Dr. Lankester, who, in his usual to limit the quantity of " the air we breathe." popular and instructive style delivered a lecture on Mr. Edmund Wheeler has delivered two highly

The Air we Breathe." The lecturer, after giving a interesting and instructive lectures on the Electric Telesketch of the component parts of the air, proceeded to graph; the collection of models (working and otherpoint out the benefits derived by the animal and vegetable wise) and of carefully drawn diagrams possessed by kingdoms from the gases-oxygen and nitrogen of the lecturer, aided by his lucid explanations, kept a which it consists. He described the processes of putre- large audience quietly attentive for nearly two hours faction, combustion, and respiration, and pointed out the each evening. Robert Austin, Esq., Vice-President of fact that the atmosphere acted as a medium of inter- the Institute, gave a gratuitous lecture (the 6th of a

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