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able—give it an obsequious House of the increasing power and encroachCommons, a venal House of Lords, and a

ments of the democracy, the subvercorrupt Court-allow it all the wish to

sion of the Union, the overthrow of overstep the bounds of the people's free free institntions, and the final estab. dom-and he fairly made his appeal from lishment of a despotic authority. Of the King's Court at Windsor to the King's the Supreme Court of Judges of the Court at Westminster there, in that temple of justice, he knew he should find butes, De Tocquevillo says-“Their

Union, yet untouched in its high attriimperishable the palladium of the consti. tution. Let the danger come from any

power is enormous; but it is clothed

in the authority of public opinion. quarter_let there be a vacillating House of Commons—a Parliament in which the They are the all-powerful guardians people's representatives knew not their

of a people which respects law; but own minds, but voted one day this way they would be impotent against popuby a narrow majority, and the next day lar neglect or popular contempt." voted in another way by an equally nar

And such is the precise character of row majority-let the force of the consti. the position to which the administratution, thus left without equipoise, reside tion of Lord Normanby degraded the entirely in the House of Lords, and let judges and the justice of Ireland, the mixed monarchy of this country, the and of whom his system, fairly folbalance being destroyed, be converted lowed out, would perpetuate the into an aristocratical government-still, degradation. against all that the corruption of courts Lord Normanby is now tranferred and the domination of the aristocracy to the Colonial Office, from whence, could effect, he fled for protection to the after but a short probation, he is about judges, who would protect the subjects of to be somewhat unceremoniously dethe Crown against every oppression. Or, ported, if report speak true, to a place if the danger should come (as we might live to see it , though he thought the event that of dancing attendance on the

more analogous to both heels and head not likely) from the fury of democracy - court, in a household capacity. He if the pressure should proceed from the lower region of the body politic-and if Secretary Stephen of the same office,

is dismissed as incapable, by Mr Underthe outrages of the multitude threaten to demolish the walls of the constitution,

of whom Sir Francis Head has rethen he opposed to them as an impregna- corded, in an official despatch to Lord ble bulwark the judicial system, against Glenelg, that he is a "rank republiwhich, as against a rock, all the surges of

can :" an accusation sufficiently borne popular sury would dash, but would dash out by extracts from certain evidence in vain," (hear, hear.).

of his before a Committee of the And so also De Tocqueville and Commons on the affairs of Canada, not Chevalier, in their respective and un. necessary to quote here, in which colorivalled works on the United States.* nial revolution and separation are bePublic liberty, the integrity of the forehand advocated. That Mr Stephen, union, and the preservation of the like most of the anti-slavery jobbers, constitution, are safe-they remark- is a renegade in politics and consistso long as the independence of judges, ency, we can both believe and 'tesand the consequent purity of justice, tify. But our generally well-informed are not invaded and tampered with. contemporary of the Newcastle JourOf late years the judges, in various nal, is incorrect in stating that Mr of the states of the Union, have been Jannes Stephen, junior, now Colonial made removable at pleasure, have Under-Secretary, was ever Member been constituted durante bene placito, of the Committee of the famous Conor for a term of years; and in this stitutional Association of 1821 or 1822, dependency of the judicial power, and in Queen Caroline's days. He was, consequent pliability or corruption, we believe, a subscribing member of those profound observers discern, with that association; but his brother



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* It is extraordinary that to two French writers the world is respectively indebted for the most comprehensive, accurate, and philosophical account and examination of the institutions and statistics of the United States. There is not one English work on America worthy to be named in the same page with those of these two distinguished savans,


George it was, now, if we are not the cases of Lord Durham, Turton, mistaken, Sir George Stephen, attor Buller, Chapman, and a host of other ney-at-law, who was a member, and subordinate agitators—the weakly Caone of the most zealous, of that fire- binet has been found ever as prompt to eating and liberal press-prosecuting offer terms as the patriots at market committee, which decreed and had to close a bargain. To independent entered on its minutes, duly affirmed members like Mr Hawes, the grant of according to form, orders for about L.170,000 for his father-in-law, Brunel, twenty-four prosecutions for libel at in aid of the Thames Tunnel, of which one time against various journals, of Mr Hawes himself is a large proprietor, which not far from one-half were has not been deemed a bribe too magagainst the Times alone, some half- nificent; Mr Hawes could tell besides dozen against the Chronicle, and the of other unpublished, because more rest various. That they were abruptly private obligations. After liberality stayed, and never proceeded with was so splendid, Mr Spring Rice may owing, not to the after scruples or surely be pardoned the Shannon grant improved liberalism of Sir George of L.250,000 for improving his lands Stephen, Knight, the committeeman, on that noble river, into a majorât or Mr James Stephen, the associator, worthy the peerage of which he is to whose loyal rage was unbounded at be the founder, seeing that the Parthe check; but to the admonitions, the liamentary allocation of the former threats even, of one who, himself then L.250,000 had made his fortune only of the press, chief defender of the by half. association in the press, and once high Among the memorable mementos in the Times himself, but then at bitter of his passage through the Cabinet, strife with it, held the rights of the and existence in the chrysalis state in press--those of his order—to be sacred, the Commons House, previous to the and it's excesses to be leniently con- expansion into the gaudy butterfly of strued-a noble oblivion of party feel the peerage, Mr Spring Rice has beings and private animosities in the queathed to the country an empty excommon cause.

It has been with no chequer, and leaves it a bankrupt in small astonishment, therefore, that we credit. His last, and one year's, ex. have since witnessed the sudden trans. ploits, have been to increase the performation of the zealous anti-slavery manent debt by four millions sterling ; Tory, Mr James Stephen, into a to present a budget of deficiency in “rank republican" under-secretary, income below expenditure of nearly and of his equally thorough-going one million, non-inclusive of charges Tory brother into a Whig knight or for the augmentation of the army voted baronet, and most obsequious corres- since, of provision for further Canadian pondent and supporter of that same invasions, of reinforcements for the Times, formerly by him devoted to navy, which the complications of the vengeance of the harpies of the foreign affairs would seem to render law. The elevation, as the conver- inevitable, and of other contingencies sion, of Mr Under-Secretary Stephen for the repair, fortification, and dewas, we presume, influenced by the fence of our coasts, which, from the same policy which has uniformly pre following mysterious paragraph, would vailed under the sway of the Whigs. appear somehow, and from some quarThey have ever preferred to pay off ter, to be menaced with invasion. the foe, as the Romans in their decay Dover, August 13.- Sir James Gor. bought off the Hun and Vandal, with don, and the other naval and military ofgold instead of the steel of Camillus. ficers and civil engineers, named in the In Canada we have seen the policy Parliamentary commission for an inquiry in operation on every nomination to into the state of the harbours on the southoffice-in the elevation of Bedard and eastern coast of England, having completed Vallières to the bench, treason-mongers their survey of this port, proceeded in a both, less dangerous, only because Government steamer, this morning, to the inferior in talent to the arch-traitor westward, to continue their labours.” Papineau, to whom, moreover, as to As if the deficiency under such his great compeer in Ireland, the heads were not sufficient evidence to highest judgment-seat was likewise warrant a fiat of insolvency, Mr Spring proffered, but honestly and consist- Rice has further proposed and carried ently, at least, refused. So also in a resolution for the abolition of post





age duties, which clears off one million never in the proudest annals of its and a half sterling more of revenue glory can one epoch be found, when at one fell swoop. Yet the last year in Parliament and in the nation the of Tory financial management left union and array of both were so grandly the Whigs with nearly three millions pre-eminent. Never, also, were they of surplus means in the National Chest, more needed; for in times of revoluavailable for the reduction of debt, tion it is not fields that have to be which, as per the following accounts Talleyrands baffled, or Napoleons current contrasted, has now disap

Genius and talent are not peared :

required to infuriate the masses and “ The last budget of a Tory Adminis.

demoralize the people, but the meaner tration was brought forward on the 15th

souls and the vulgar attributes of Ro. of March 1830. Its totals of receipt and bespierres and Marats. Whatever and expenditure were as follow:

wherever else the bizarre, the frightful, Income


heads of the hydra of revolution, its Expenditure

47,812,000 heart's blood is ever in the court, and Actual surplus towards re

from the court circulates to its extreduction of debt

2,668,000 mities and vivifies its energies. For The budget for the present year is brought good or for evil; for weal or woe; forward on the 6th of July, and its totals for conservation or disorganization;

for commanding respect or inspiring Income

£48,128,000 contempt abroad; for ensuring contentExpenditure £47,988,954

ed obedience to the laws and the powers Do. for Canada 1,000,000

that be, or assisting their subversion 48,988,954 and promoting insubordination—for

all these the court is all-powerful-for Deficiency

£860,954 all these tremendous is the responsiTo which add the postage and other bility lodged there. Causes however contingent defalcations,as before noted. trivial, however apparently contemp

With all the elements of confusion tible, thence originating and therein in full chaotic action in the country, fermenting, may come to affect

the with Chartists in open revolt, or wait

future destinies of half a globe. The ing the propitious moment for open graces and grimaces of a flaunting, revolt, in scores of thousands—with dis. fly-away bedchamber woman, sufficed traction and dissensions in the Cabinet, for the overthrow of a Wellington where the cry of sauve qui peut has

and Peel. Sully in his memoirs obbeen raised—how fares the palace and

serves, that “the most grand, magnithe court? Is that peace so ruthlessly ficent and serious affairs of state, deaffrighted from the cottage, reposing rive their origin, and their most vioits silken wings, adjusting its downy lent movements, from the sillinesses, plumage, and nestling more happily jealousies, envy, and other whims of in the bosom serene of a brightly fair the court; and are rather regulatand maiden sovereignty ? Alas, no!

ed by these, than by meditation, or the palace is no more exempt from by considerations of honour and good cares and crosses than the humblest faith,'

Who shall pretend to say of cots; misery, which disdains not what mishaps may flow from early the lowest, mounts also into the high. tastes and habits, imbibed, we may est places; civil and kindred strife say, from the maternal breast, and may rage as rifely, and inflame as re- sedulously fostered by the prejudices morselessly, in the splendid abodes of of education! That is, if we are to the mightiest and most glorious of believe Lord Melbourne, who has not royalties, at the same moment that scrupled to declare that Queen Vic. social and civil wars may desolate the toria “ hates the Tories by education meanest of huts. Intrigues and fac

and the Radicals by nature.” Accordtions may create as much deep-seated ing to this grave, and, as many may wretchedness in the court as New consider, undoubted authority, the Poor-Laws in the country; they may

Queen was educated for a party and act, as they do act, with spell more not for her people. The policy suited malign upon the interests and the doubtless the mercenary views and happiness of a great empire, than all the ambitious aspirations of Leopold, its concentrated wisdom and patriot- its author, with whom the interests of ism are equal to counteract, although the empire were subordinate to the aggrandizement of the Coburgs; for spotless as the unsullied nobility of the Whigs, as well he knew, were the her lineage, who fell the melancholy most pliant of tools and the most pro- victim of Court calumny and courtly digal of paymasters. But that this malignity-of the noble Lady Flora mighty realm should come to be sacri. Hastings, and that dreadful business, ficed, or made to pander to the pounds we would only say, requiescat in pace; shillings and pence calculations of a she sleeps in that peace which has fled huckstering sovereign of its own ele. for ever from the pillows of her per. vation_that its power, wealth, and secutors. resources, should be made subservient But what confusion_what dissenonly to the profit of a cabbage-garden sions—what, disorganization every like Coburg_monstrous the convic- where, and in all departments, from tion, more monstrous still the reality ; the Court to the Cabinet, and from yet so is the fact!

both to the Country! Well might We dwell not--we loathe to dwell that enlightened statesman and that -on the deadly perils, the baleful in- eloquent orator, the ornament of his trigues, the officials corrupt and de- own, and the admiration of other counpraved, which environ and pervade tries-Daniel Webster_say to the the Court of a youthful Queen, un- assembled élite of the Whigs at Hol. suspicious because guileless, confiding land House.* " There never was butone because inexperienced, pure and spot England-there never will be but one less herself as the freshness of opening England—there never can be but one spring. Nor will we enter on the England! Ye, oh Whigs, have done history of the wrongs, and of the un- your best to spoil and ruin this grand. timely fate of that lady of high de. est of all the creations of the Alscent, of royal blood, and of fame mighty!"

At a great dinner there given him, when all the Ministers were present,

Edinburgh : Printed by Ballantyne and Hughes, Paul's Work.




Vol. XLVI.




It is the custom for many of the led into a wrong direction by his imi. liberal writers, both of Germany and tation of the vulgar fate school of Mullof our own country, to depreciate the ner, who seems himself to have been led literary character of Austria. It is astray by a misconception of the prinspoken of as a German Boeotia- —a soil ciple on which Schiller had composed wherein the fine arts, with the exceps his Bride of Messina. But of the tion of music, can take no root; and tragedies constructed on that unhappy where poetry, in particular, has never model, the Ancestress of Grillparzer displayed any vigour or originality of was certainly the best. He effected

* character. In all this there is, with all that could be done for such a subsome truth, also much exaggeration. ject; for he contrived to infuse a true It is true that Austria has produced no supernatural grandeur into a legend Goëthe or Schiller; but, when we de which in ordinary hands would have scend to writers of a respectable been simply ludicrous. This Castlethough lower order of genius, we Spectre style, however, he soon excan perceive, at the present moment, changed for one of a higher and purer but little difference between her posi- character. His Sappho † and his tion and that of the other states of Golden Fleece I are classical plays in Germany. In none can any writer the best sense of the word; and his of commanding ability in poetry be King Ottocar's Prosperity and Death, pointed out; while in all there are (Konig Ottocar's Gluck und Ende,) many who respectably support its pre- and his True Servant of his Master, tensions, both in thelyricaland dramatic (Treuer Diener Seines Herrn), are hisdepartments : the epic being left very torical plays of great dramatic beauty much in the same state of abeyance in and interest. Germany as it is among ourselves. In None of the plays of the Baron von the drama in particular, Austria will Zedlitz have as yet been translated not suffer by a comparison with any into English, though many of them or all of its German rivals; and the have been successful on the German names of Grillparzer and the Baron stage. The author has distinguished von Zedlitz may safely be opposed to himself in more than one capacity. those of Immermann and Raupach, He was originally in the army, and who, though not an Austrian, has com- served in the war of 1809 under the posed all his best dramas for the Vien- Prince of Hohenzollern; was present na theatre. Grillparzer' was at first at the battles of Ratisbon, Aspern, and

* Blackwood's Magazine, Vol. vi, p. 247.

| Id. Vol. xxiv. p. 155. NO, CCLXXXYIII, YOL, XLYI,

| Id. Vol. xix. p. 404.
$ Id. Vol. xxii. p. 300.

2 E

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