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The Flood. Emigration to Egypt. IV. The formation of Semism, and Nimrod’s.
Turanian kingdom . . . . . . 10,000 to 7,250 B.c. V. Of Iranism in Persia . . . . . . 7,250 to 4,000 , VI. Chaldeeism in Babylon, and Menes in
Egypt . . . . . . . . . . 0,000 to 3,623 »
In the first age, Sinism was first deposited in North China. In its language, every syllable was a word, every word a picture. In its worship, the cosmic agencies and the souls of ancestors were adored.
Turanianism deposited itself in Thibet. Its language, like that of the South-American tribes, was a pure agglutination, from which particles soon originated.
Khamism deposited itself in Egypt. The roots and stems of language were formed, and hieroglyphs began.
Then came the Flood; and, just before it or with it, an emigration of Aryans from the regions of the Oxus and Jaxartes, and of Semites from the Euphrates and Tigris.
In the first period of the second age, the Aryans and Semites separate still farther in Asia; the invasion of Nimrod takes place; a watch-tower is built on the plains of Babylon; and the Aryans move into Bactria.
In the second period of the second age, the Aryans gradually separate into Kelts, Armenians, Iranians, Greeks, Sclaves, and Germans. The Northern Semites separate from the Southern, and a central Aryan civilization begins in Asia. The Aryans move to the Indus, the Chaldæans to Babylonia. Zoroaster appears about 3000 B.C. Babylon is built by the son of Belus. Abram is born, and moves toward Mesopotamia.
In the third age, not only does Abraham move into Canaan, but the convulsion in the neighborhood of the Dead
Sea drives the inhabitants of the five cities to the coast; and Tyrian chronology begins, and, by astronomic and other synchronistic points, establishes the era.
In the first period of the second age, Egypt forms its “ nomes" or provinces, and the republican power in them comes to an end. They have their first priestly king; and then, in the second period, elective kings for 817 years. Then a double government, and the original worship of the sun develops into three forms, — the worship of Seth, of Ra, and of Ammon.
In the third period of the second age, while Babylon is building, history begins in Egypt. Menes is on the throne, and the whole country under one government. The system of writing changes: the hieroglyph takes on a cursive charac. ter, and becomes bieratic. Animal worship begins, and the largest pyramids are built.
In the third age, while the descendants of Abraham are in Canaan, Sesortosis employs Joseph as his " shalith " in Egypt; and, under the pressure of the great famine, the tenure of land is changed throughout Egypt. This put it in the power of the kings to oppress their people. It was according to poetical justice, that, Joseph having advised and consummated this great iniquity, his people, in remote centuries, should smart beneath the power it conferred.
To resume: The first emigration from the Garden is described as moving east; and the emigrants are not shepherds, like Abel, but husbandmen, dwellers in towns. The Turanian language shows the first step; the Khamitic (i.e., the Egyptian), the second. Khamism disappears slowly in Asia; but from the districts about the Euphrates; through Mesopotamia and Palestine, a body of people moved, of whom we know nothing except their language. This language, rediscovered in the "Book of the Dead," speaks to us in syllables that were ancient 4,000 years ago. From this language we discover that the emigration took place before the Flood, and that, by breaking up old ties of race, it opened a new historic consciousness to the emigrants. The shortest line from in. organic language to the organic is through the Chinese, the Turanian, and the later Semitic. But the history of our Iranian languages carries us back to the remotest periods. When the Aryans separated, they already possessed an orderly system of family life. They tended their flocks, practised husbandry, and their language teemed with philosophic germs, with suggestions of mythology. The whole grammatical structure, the terms for designating all family relations, are common to Bactrians, Indians, Greeks, Sclaves, Germans, and Latins. The latest of the grand emigrations was probably that of the Aryans into the Punjaub. Their oldest hymns date from 3000 B.C.; but at that time they had a national existence. Between 10,000 and 4000 B.C., a Semitic development was attained, separate from the Egyptian ; an Iranian, separate from the Semitic. That is to say, as the Aryan stream moved westward, it deposited itself first as Iranian, then as Semitic, then as Egyptian; but the crystallization of this deposit into prior forms of life and government may have been in the inverse order.
The “Ethiops” of the classics lived beyond Syene, where the Nubians now live. They did not speak the Egyptian language, and were governed by kings controlled by priests, – kings who were the tools of that caste. Between the Tigris and Euphrates lived peaceable Semites. In Palestine was a medley of tribes, nomadic and bandit. Egypt was the granary of the world, and the caravan trade still greater than it is now. The influence of Ethiopia upon her in the middle empire was very great. The wife of Amosis, the founder of the new empire, was an Ethiopian heiress; and, although nothing would seem more certain than that Pharaoh was swallowed up with his hosts, what he really did was to flee to Ethiopia, with his son and his gods, in the panic of the Exodus. The civilizing power came into Egypt from Asia. It went first to Upper Egypt, and thence descended to the Delta. The first emperors were Thinites, who came from Abydos to found Memphis. Theban kings were on the throne at the close of the old empire, and during the whole of the middle empire, or Hyksos usurpation. They form the most brilliant element of the new empire which came after; and we find it reflected in the poems of Homer. Memphis was the focus of the old empire. From the twenty-first dynasty, it was the cradle of royal races. The nations of the old world turned towards the Mediterranean, as plants turn towards the light. Alexandria and the great cities of the Delta began to draw vitality from Asia; and Upper Egypt sank into the shade. Egypt was always the child of both Asia and Africa. In Ethiopia, the priest had the upper hand; in Egypt, the warrior. The king the Theban once chose on the Libyan mountain, as Synesius tells, must have been a priest.
All this was over when Menes came to the throne. Sacerdotal government was the ultimatum of Ethiopia. In Egypt, it was only transitional. Only a generation after Joseph made over to the crown the whole fee simple of the country, we find a second Sesortosis building the Labyrinth. When Strabo says that the representatives of each nome, or province, assembled there, at the great festival of the Panegyrics, he transmits its history. At Thebes, every vestige of the early freedom was now destroyed. The independence of the nomes was lost in the gigantic building, the monster of imperial power, that devoured freedom.
The following tables will give a bird's-eye view of the development of Egypt:
PRIOR TO MENES.
I. Rule of sacerdotal kings in the Thebaid, Bytis. II. Elected kings in the Thebaid. Last Ethiopic constitution. III. Hereditary princes. Confederation in two groups. Asiatic
influence prevailing. IV. Double empire. National civilization. V. Predominance of Lower-Egypt and Asiatic ideas.
FROM MENES TO THE LOSS OF INDEPENDENCE.
I. Unity of empire under the first dynasty.
of animals becoming national, under the 2d, 3d, and 4th dyn-
III. Separation. The 5th (Theban) dynasty gives way to the 6th
(Memphite). IV. Separation into two governments. Conquered Memphites dis
appear in the 8th dynasty. The North revolts. At Pelusium, a way is opened for Asia to prevail, when the
Sesostridæ at Thebes become extinct. V. The power of the Pharaohs becomes restricted to the Thebaid.
They form marriage connections in Ethiopia. Iu dynasties
13, 14, and 17, the Ethiopian element becomes fixed. VI. The Thebans restore the empire. Theban kings reign down
to the 20th dynasty. VII. A Re-action. The Thebans die out. Princely houses of the
Delta, especially the Saite, furnish the kings for the 21st and
the 26th dynasty. VIII. The Ethiopians dethrone Bochoris the Reformer, and reign
fifty years as the 25th dynasty. IX. Supremacy of the Asiatic element shows itself throughout the
reign of Psammetichus of Sais. Egypt is in friendly relations with Greece. Its great bodies of feudal soldiery are
breaking up. X. It is subjugated by Persia, and later by Macedonia.
At the risk of seeming repetition, we must give one more tabular view, to indicate the position of Egypt as regards the development of civilization and government. The last table showed what races swayed her, what divisions of races occurred within her own limits. We divide the story now into five epochs, indicated in outline below. Our object is to show, that a very much longer period of time was needed for her development than has been hitherto accorded.
First Epoch, 1,500 years. — Egypt's primeval time; the formation of language; the development of the Khamitic character, language, and picture-writing. Latest point, 9500 B.C.
Second Epoch, 2,000 years. — Transition period; formation of mythology; age of Egyptian idiographic characters, up to syllableism; development of the worship of Osiris. Latest point, 8000 B.C.
Third Epoch, 1,100 years. — Political commencement; for.