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tions subsisting between this science and other sciences, the reader cannot but feel the force of the claim put forth, that, in mastering the method of this one science, the mind receives an invaluable aid toward methodical habits of thought in all departments of knowledge, and grasps principles that "are applicable to all cases in which mankind are called upon to bring the various parts of any extensive subject into mental co-ordination.” To look on, and see any one part of man's intellectual work on earth so ably accomplished as the reduction of the apparent jumble and chance-medley of the vegetable world to the splendid order in which it now stands to the intelligent eye, gives a lesson in the possibility of method, the reign of law, the capacity of reason, and the final reward of patient persistence, which cannot but brace the mind, clear the eye, and assure the faith for every other department of mental labor. The value, moreover, of tbe terminology of botanical science in cultivating habits of accuracy and perspicuity in the use of language, is forcibly urged by Professor Henfrey. The same principles underlie a strong and vivid use of words alike in science and in poetry, - the observation of some fact first, and then a symbol to express it. Dry and technical as the terminology of botany may seem, its study, nevertheless, furnishes an admi. rable discipline for the right use of language in all other departments. Every adjective here is an honest adjective. It has its special reason for being. It sheds light; it fixes the eye on a real quality ; it gives the mind a quick sense of the thousandfold minutely differing shades of attributes that enter into all thorough description of objects, and furnishes it with a lesson of the first importance alike to the historian, the metaphysician, or the poet. The scientific description of a single flower, as, step by step, the language refers us to a long series of delicately observed facts, is a grand triumph in the art of expression, and shows the true method of discriminating and realizing speech on all subjects.
The article of Professor Faraday, on the Education of the Judgment, is absolutely religious in its tone, though not tech
nically so. A pure love of truth breathes through every line in which he dwells on the fallibility of the senses, and the needful correctives to the deceptions they so often impose on the judgment. This article, taken in connection with his replies to the English Public Schools' Commission, reveals a singularly simple and truth-loving nature, and speaks volumes for the ethical influence of ardent scientific pursuits. “The correcting blush of shame, which should be brought to the cheeks of all who feel convicted of neglecting the beautiful living instrument wherein play all the powers of the mind," expresses his own lowly reverence for the endowment of intelligence. And the rules he lays down, and the life-long self-restraint he urges, in the work of counteracting aberrations, and keeping the mind from running wild, can be studied with profit by all.
While the impression left by the strong and often eloquent appeals of each of the many writers in favor of the claims of his special department in the work of education is one not easily to be shaken off, still we cannot but feel, on closing the book, that the title chosen by Dr. Youmans — “ The Culture Demanded by Modern Life" - is too comprehensive. The " demanded” cannot be too strongly emphasized. No man can be other than an ignoramus, no man can do thorough work in any department — agriculture, manufacturing, history, politics, literature, medicine, theology — who is not more or less grounded in the methods and results of modern science. A new view of the universe has been reached, which exerts its influence on regions of thought seemingly at the farthest remove from abstract science. The very strains in which modern poetic sorrow pours out its hopes and dreads, as in Tennyson's “In Memoriam," are unintelligible except in the light of the change which has come over human thought through the discoveries of science. But the phrase " the culture” is too exclusive. It is only a part of the culture to which our attention is here drawn, - an indispensable part, a part we must have at any cost, — but still a part only. Of philology, literature, æsthetics, history, ethics, little, comparatively, is said. The "classical question" is indeed more
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or less discussed, and very sensibly, by Dr. Barnard. But, in the book as a whole, there is a want of balance, a one-sided view of education. Too narrow ground is taken. The superior question of linguistic and literary culture is subordinated to debating the issue, whether the classics shall be studied, or how much time shall be devoted to them. It is well enough to declaim against the exclusive devotion that has in the past been paid to Greek and Latin; against the wretchedly barren results of most of the time spent on them; against the pitiable ignorance of the laws and phenomena of the marvellous universe in which we live, which have accompanied, and come out of, such misdirected labor. But would not the opponents of the arrogant claims urged for the protracted study of Greek and Latin make a far more telling presentation of the case, did they emphasize the fact, that, in the mastery of the three most prominent modern languages, - English, French, and German; languages acquired in half the time that must be spent on the classics, and with the added advantage, that the exigencies of reading and study in all departments keep them in constant use and freshness, the mind is introduced to a literature outweighing by far that of Greece and Rome; at any rate, as one in a thousand comes to appreciate the latter. The Greek and Latin of almost all college men are written on the sand, and obliterated by the first rising tide of pressing practical life. But it is not so with their French and German. They need these, in the study of their professions, for the ideas embodied in them, and retain and enhance their facility in using them through the very exigencies of actual life that divert them from the classics. In the acquisition of these modern languages, there is opportunity enough offered to secure any requisite amount of grammatical training, and knowledge of the laws of language: while the comparative ease with which they are mastered and retained leaves far more time, and above all inclination, for the enjoyment of the varied charms of the poetry, fiction, essays, dramas, histories, treatises, they give access to. Had the volume before us embraced two or three articles, from competent hands, setting forth the just claims of linguistic
and literary studies, showing how thorough and serious they need to be, and pointing out what vastly superior results would come, in most cases, of conducting them through the modern languages, or even one's vernacular alone, it would have proved much more rounded and satisfactory, as an exhibition of the full culture demanded by modern life. Had Dr. Latham, for example, developed and illustrated at length his words quoted on page eight, — “A man's mother tongue is the best medium for the elements of scientific philology, simply because it is the one he knows best in practice," — it would have done more to correct the fanaticism and traditionalism connected with the arrogant claims of the Greek and Latin, as the sole true media of grammatical training, than any amount of declamation against the abuses connected with classical studies.
Half the ardent defenders of the classics, in their controversy with the scientists, are battling, not so much for Greek and Latin, – though they think they are,- as for the study of language; for literary culture ; for the inspiring influence of the ever young, ever original thoughts and music of the men of genius, whom no progress of scientific discovery ever out-dates. Science, in all its departments, confirms, and never overthrows, a Homer or a Shakespeare. And so it does with all the great sons of inspiration. The best that science can do, with all its researches into the influences exerted on man by climate, position, food, temperament, disease, institutions, leaves the marvel and the mystery as great as ever. The Italian sun that ripens the beauty and passion of a Juliet, the physiological sequences that culminate in the sublime madness of a Lear, are interesting, are vitally important facts; but our chief interest ever has lain, and ever must lie, in the wonderful life itself. And he who can lead us through the moonlight under Juliet's balcony, or through the wild tempest to listen to the wilder imprecations of the raving king, does for us what no science, no mere analysis of physical connections, can pretend to do. The influence, too, exerted on man by the grand characters of history; by the men of heroic will, and sublime motives, and
lofty consecration, — nothing in education tells more than this. It is in behalf of the heroic men of Greece and Rome who have ennobled his own life, who must not be suffered to become forgotten, that many a defender of classical studies is battling. And yet, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, these very champions have learned more of Socrates and Plato from Grote, more of Epictetus from Higginson, more of Scipio from Arnold, than from all original sources put together. Greece and Rome are one thing, Greek and Latin another.
If the issue were put somewhat in this way, we believe it would receive, and deserve to receive, a fairer hearing than it now does in many quarters. Literary culture every educated man must have. If he can find time to add to his familiarity with Shakespeare, Goethe, and Pascal, a like familiarity with Homer, Æschylus, and Virgil, it is, of course, so much clear gain; but practically, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, if the real end be to come, soul to soul, in con. tact with great men and a great literature, it can be done far more effectively through the modern than the ancient languages : and this for the simple reason, that they are so much more easily mastered and heartily enjoyed, and that one of them is our home-bred mother tongue. This whole question of classical studies is largely one of time and capacity. The day has gone by when men can rationally congratulate themselves on proficiency in them, gained at the cost of ignorance of modern thought. But with improved methods of teaching, with the disposition now manifest to extend the time devoted to preparatory education, with the clearer conceptions that are gaining ground of the right periods of life for entering upon the various branches of study, we are fully persuaded that room will still be found, by a select class, for such attention to Greek and Latin as shall secure competency to enjoy the masterpieces of form and thought they embody. Greece and Rome have done some things in literature, that, in certain aspects, have never been equalled, that set up an eternal and imperishable standard. This decides the question whether they shall be studied. The true student