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3. In a conditional proposition two false modes of reasoning may be adopted; what are these? To what fallacies in categorical syllogisms do they correspond !--and give examples.
4. How are nominal and real definitions related to each other? When do they agree ?—when differ?
5. How does Archbishop Whately explain the “fallacia figuræ dictionis”? He divides it into two cases ? Give examples of these; and state why this fallacy is so frequently employed.
6. What important instances does he give of the fallacy of “composition" ?-and state the reasoning in each.
7. When it is denied that new truths are brought to light by a process of reasoning, with what restrictions is this statement true!
8. According to Archbishop Whately, Plato reduces all Knowledge to a resemblance to Mathematical_hows and show how this accounts for one of Plato's doctrines.
9. Explain the mode of reasoning by Induction, and state the different circumstances which give strength to it in any case where it is applied.
1. No legitimate syllogism could violate both the rules of the first figure? (This is not to be proved by the Special Rules.)
2. Prove, from the Special Rules of the first figure, that it can have four distinct conclusions, and not more than four.
3. Is Reductio ad Impossibile applicable to all legitimate modes ?—if so, how would you use it, respectively, in the second, third, and fourth figures ?
4. In this kind of Reduction, if you substitute for a premiss the contrary or subcontrary of the conclusion, show that in each case, respectively, you draw a conclusion the contrary or subcontrary of the omitted premiss.
5. Is the Reduction valid in either case ?
6. What two modes would satisfy the rules of all the figures ? How is it, then, that there is only one mode common to all ?
7. Prove, without the special rules, that EIO is common to all.
8. One mode would violate five general rules; find it by tracing the effect of violating each rule, beginning at the first.
9. In substituting the conclusion for a premiss, in order that the new premises should be legitimate, how is the excluded premiss limited ?
10. Prove, by applying the three relative affections only, that if E or I be false, its converse E or I will be false.
1. Explain and exemplify the ambiguity of the term “Experience."
2. What advantages arise from fixing the meanings of terms ? By what process is this to be effected ? Illustrate your meaning in the case of the word “ Old."
3. Give the logical rules laid down by Whately, and the order in which they ought to be applied, so as to test the validity of apparent syllogisms.
4. Exhibit the following argument in a syllogistic form, and name the mode and figure :
“No sentence is triter than that example is more powerful than precept; but when the example is set by the rich and great, its influence on the herd of mankind becomes irresistible.”
5. Reduction ad impossibile having been employed, if the reduct conclusion be 0, determine the reducend mode (a) when the minor is suppressed, and (b) when the major. 6. State and prove the rules of the Sorites.
. 7. Compare the classification of sophisms made by Murray and by Whately.
Translate the following passages into English Prose :I. Beginning, Πώς, ώ Σώκρατες; Εγώ ερώ, έφη. γιγνώσκουσι γάρ, κ.τ.λ. Ending, ο δε αυτή ορά νοητόν τε και αειδές.
Phædo, xxxij. 2. Beginning, "Ω παΐ Ιππονίκου, αεί μεν έγωγέ σου την, κ. τ.λ. Ending, διαλεγομένους και το δημηγορείν.
Protagoras, xxii. 3. Beginning, Διά ταύτα ού νόμος εστί σεμνύνεσθαι τον, κ. τ.λ. Ending, συν τοις φιλτάτοις ή αίρεσις ημίν έσται ταύτης της δυνάμεως της εν τη πόλει.
Gorgias, lxvii. 4. Beginning, MEN. "Ω Σώκρατες, ήκουον μεν έγωγε πρίν και, κ. τ.λ. Ending, τάχ' αν ώς γόης απαχθείης.
1. In the third passage, explain how kaltep means “although.” What is the exact Latin equivalent for it?
Explain also μη ότι before κυβερνήτου, and give the Latin for it.
2. What is the meaning of ουχ όπως when followed in the next clause by αλλά or αλλά και ?
3. Translate the following sentences :
έπει Σωκράτη γε εγώ εγγυώμαι μη επιλήσεσθαι, ουχ ότι παίζει και φησιν επιλήσμων είναι.-Protag.
εί τις έρoιτο ημάς, των τί σοφών εισιν οι ζωγράφοι επιστήμονες. • dè copiots Tūv ti oopūv ļotiv.-Protag.
ώ αν τι σώματι έγγένηται θερμόν έσται.-Phed.
ουκούν ανάγκη γ', αν πολύ επιρρέη, πολύ και το απιόν είναι και μεγάλ' άττα τα τρήματα ταϊς εκροαίς.-Gorg.
δυνάμενον πληρούντα χαίροντα ευδαιμόνως ζην.-Gorg.
4. Arrange the Greek prepositions according to the cases they govern; and point out the difference between αντί and πρό, από and έξ, αμφί and περί διά with the genitive and with the accusative, κατά with the genitive and with the accusative. 5. Grote says,
“the appearance of the Sophists (during the last half of the fifth century B. c.), was no new fact.” Develop this statement. How does he explain the hostility of Plato against them ?
6. Grote points out the three leading peculiarities of Socrates ; discuss each at some length.
Translate the following passages into English :1. Beginning, Num igitur dubitamus, sicut pleraque, sic et hoc?..... Ending, sive quod a gravioribus leviora natura repellantur.
Tusc. Disp., lib. i. c. 18. 2. Beginning, Sed in animo tantummodo cogitatione possumus Ending, dum est insipiens, sed non distorta nec prava.
Tusc. Disp., lib. iv. c. 13. 3. Beginning, Populares isti jam etiam modestos homines ..... Ending, millies coactus est dicere.
Epist. ad Att., lib. ii. e. 19. 4. Beginning, Quid ergo dubitamus, quin, si non dolere voluptas.. Ending, quum dolore careamus.
De Fin., lib. ii. c. 9, 10. 5. Beginning, Itaque aut tutela cogito me abdicare, aut, Ending, At Scaptius quaternas postulabat.
Epist. ad Att., lib. vi. e. 1.
1. Enumerate the philosophical works of Cicero, mentioning the subject treated of in each, and the condition in which it has come down to
2. State the subject of each book of the Tusculan Disputations, and the mode of treatment adopted by Cicero.
3. State briefly, and in order, the principal arguments developed in the first book.
4. How does Cicero render into Latin the words επιχαιρεκακία, θυμός, φθόνος, επιθυμία ?
5. What distinction does he draw between lætitia, gaudium ; libido, voluptas ? What are the species of Ira ?
6. Write historical notes on
Turbatur Sampsiceramus, ... ομολογουμένως τυραννίδα συσκευάζεται. Quid enim ista repentina affinitatis conjunctio, quid ager Campanus, quid effusio pecuniæ significant.
L. Cæsar mandata Cæsaris detulit ad Pompeium. ... Probata conditio est, sed ita ut ille de iis oppidis, quæ extra suam provinciam occupavisset, præsidia deducerit.
7. Describe the manner of instituting and carrying on a Judicium Publicum, and a Judicium Populi.
8. In what manner were the Judices appointed at different times ?
9. What is meant by a family of languages, and how is the relation established ?
10. Why is it incorrect to say that Latin is derived from Greek, or either from Sanscrit?
11. In comparing Latin or Gre roots with English (Anglo-Saxon), what differences of form are to be expected ?
Translate the following passage into Greek Iambics :Beginning, It pleas'd your Majesty to turn your looks...... Ending, To this we sware our aid.
SHAKSPEARE, King Henry IV., act v. sc. I.
Translate the following passage into Greek Prose :Beginning, Some in their discourse desire rather commendation of wit,..... Ending, and, as we say now, to jade anything too far.
Bacon, Essay xxxii.
Translate the following passage into Latin Prose :-
BURKE, On American Taxation.
Translate the following passage into Latin Hexameters :Beginning, If thou beest he; but 0, how fallen! how changed ..... Ending, And shook his throne.
Milton, Paradise Lost, book i. JUNIOR FRESHMEN.
1. Given of two lines their sum or difference, and the sum or difference of their squares; construct them.
2. Given of two lines their sum or difference, and the sum or difference of their reciprocals; construct them.
3. Prove the value for the area of a triangle in terms of the three sides.
4. Prove the value for the radius of the circle circumscribing a triangle in terms of the three sides.
5. Determine the locus of a variable point the sum of whose distances from any number of fixed lines is constant.
6. Determine the envelope of a variable line the sum of whose distances from any number of fixed points is constant.
7. Prove Prop. 24, Book I., and state the reason of the construction given by Euclid.
8. Prove that in equal circles equal angles stand on equal arcs.
9. What is Euclid's definition of equality of ratios ?-and show how it is employed in proving Prop. 1, Book VI.
10. Cut a given line, so that the square of one part equals the rectangle under the remainder and another given line.
11. Given base, rectangle under sides, and vertical angle; construct the triangle.
12. If from either point of intersection of two circles, two right lines be drawn cutting the circles in four points, prove the lines joining these points diagonally cut at a constant angle.
13. Through the middle point of the base AB of a triangle a right line is drawn intersecting the sides BC and AC in the points L and M, respectively; from the vertex draw a line parallel to LM to meet the base, produced if necessary, in E. Prove that the triangles AME and BEL are equal.
14. Construct an equilateral triangle which shall be equal to a given rectilinear figure.