16. This is one of the few cases in which we can with certainty explain an inflexion. There is one good case, also, in the English verb, and one in the Romance verb ?

17. Dr. Latham has said, “The earlier the stage of a language is, the greater the amount of its inflexional forms." Is this true ?

18. What two causes of linguistic revolution appear to Mr. Marsh sufficient to account for quite as great changes as have actually taken place in the speech of Europe ?

19. State the general principle of the effect of inflexion on accentuation.

20. It used sometimes to be employed as a possessive, before the introduction of its. Where have we an example of this in Shakspeare ?

21. Mr. Marsh remarks that the attention of English scholars was drawn, at a very early period, to the relations between sounds and signs, or, in other words, to systems of orthography. How may this be shown, and how may we account for it?

22. The ordinary spelling of the word rhyme is incorrect. Whence has the error arisen ?

23. Sir Philip Sidney com of contemporaneous rhyming poets, that one verse did but beget another.” Of what English poet of the last generation does Mr. Craik make the same remark ?

24. What effect does the frequent use of double or polysyllabic rhymes tend to produce on our language ?

25. What is assonance ? and of what European literature is it characteristic ?

26. Our language has abandoned a subtle distinction which used to prevail between yea and yes, nay and no?

27. A distinction regulating the use of since and its cognates sprang up just when that of yea and yes was disappearing?

28. The astonishing diversity of duplicates of common words found in the vocabularies of certain arts is exemplified by a curious passage from an early writer?

29. What is the simplest explanation of the phrase, “ the house is a building''?

30. “Civilization” is a recent word. How does this appear ?

31. Boucher speaks of the verbs “to advocate” and “to progress” as recent Americanisms. Is he correct in this?

32. Give examples in English of what the Germans call umlaut.

33. Who was Giraldus Cambrensis ? and how is his name connected with the history of Ireland ?

34. What two influences from without acted on the Northern French poetry at the epoch of its origin ?

35. What foreign influence does Mr. Craik suppose to have affected the Provençal poetry?

36. What “notes of time” are to be found in the Brut of Layamon?

37. The Brut of Layamon and the Ormulum may be regarded as representing two coexisting and different forms of the national language ?

38. In what does Layamon's English differ remarkably from that of the “Ancren Riwle"? How may this difference be accounted for?

39. What characteristic of Chaucer's heroic verse has been remarked on by Leigh Hunt? Whence did Chaucer probably borrow this fea

ture >

40. Mr. Craik notices one of the characters in the Canterbury Tales as being “admirably sustained throughout” ?

41. What passage does Mr. Craik quote to show the depth and delicacy of Chaucer's pathos ?

42. At what result does Mr. Marsh arrive from a comparison of the vocabularies of Langland and Chaucer ?

43. A statement made by Caxton shows remarkably the change which had been going on in the English language during the earlier half of the fifteenth century ?

44. Whom does Hallam name as the earliest among eminent English writers who had largely imbibed the spirit and tone of the philosophers of antiquity ?

45. What work of Sir Philip Sidney did Horace Walpole profess to consider the best specimen of his abilities ?

46. How is the brother of the poet Herbert known in our literature ?

47 “Characters” were once a favourite species of composition. What English authors have produced works of this kind ?

48. What biographies were written by Izaak Walton ?

49. Two Harringtons meet us in the history of English Literature (rather, a Harington and a Harrington]?

50. Of all the cavalier poets, who did his cause the heartiest and stoutest service?

51. Who is believed to have been the original of Hudibras ? 52. On what book, according to Lord Macaulay, might the character of what is called the old unpolluted English language be safely staked ?

53. In what passage does Bunyan appear to satirize the conduct of State trials in the time of Charles II?

54. Under what name does Sir Edward Seymour appear in “ Absalom and Achitophel”? 55. “But hospitable treats did most commend

Wise Issachar, his wealthy western friend." Who was the person here referred to ?

56. Who is the Helon of the second part of “ Absalom and Achitophel”?

57. Who are the Ziph and Shimei of the same poem?

58. Who is Sheva What is the special significance of the line relating to him,

Observes and shoots their treasons as they fly”? 59. What was the name originally given by Pope to the Epilogue to his Satires ?

60. What remarkable book appeared on the same day with the first of these Dialogues ?

61. The “humble Allen" of Pope was the original of a celebrated character in English prose fiction ? 62. Near the end of the “Dunciad” Pope has the line,

“Even Palinurus nodded at the helm." What is the point of this line ? 63. “Or, at the ear of Eve, familiar toad,

Half froth, half venom, spits himself abroad." Of whom is Pope here speaking and who is intended by Eve ? 64. “Ask you why Phryne the whole auction buys?

Phryne foresees a general excise.” Who is Phryne ?

65: What was the nature of Lauder's forgeries, and by whom were they exposed ?

66. Who brought to light Sterne's many plagiarisms? He borrowed largely from an earlier English author?

67. What earlier writer had anticipated the manner of Moore in his “Fudge Family”?

68. “Like angels' visits, few and far between.” From whom did Campbell borrow this line, changing it, not for the better?

69. Blair was not the original author of the thought? .
70. What are the principal poetical works of James Montgomery?
71. Who was the author of “Plays on the Passions”?
72. Who was the subject of Moore's song beginning,

“I saw thy form in youthful prime” ? By what work is she known?

73. What are the most remarkable poetical and prose writings of John Wilson ?

74. What are the most remarkable characteristics by which the literature of the Victorian era is distinguished from that of the period which preceded it?

75. Whom does Mr. Craik name the only really eminent poets of the Victorian era ?

Moderatorships in Logics and Ethics.

Thomas K. ABBOTT, M. A.



1. Discuss the importance of a sound education in connexion with natural religion ; and show how our views in reference to that religion may be influenced by education.

2. Hamilton thinks that in every state of the mind the same elements may be traced. Discuss this view, and examine how far these elements are separable, or not, in conception ? and how they are related to each other.

3. State accurately the ingenious arguments urged by M. Jouffroy to prove that the mind is always active in sleep; and examine how far they are opposed to Stewart's views ?

4. State clearly the various distinctions drawn by Hamilton between immediate and mediate knowledge; and whether these have been for the first time noticed by him ?

5. Hamilton points out facts connected with the phenomena of reminiscence which ordinary explanations by association fail to account for. State as fully as you can his explanation of those facts, noticing the illustration which he introduces in order to make it intelligible; and the principles on which he accounts for the vividness of some notions.

6. Hamilton divides “the primary elements of reason,” or “laws of thought,” into two classes. State accurately the distinctions which he seeks to draw between them; and explain the expression, “the law of the conditioned.”

7. State Hamilton's arguments in favour of resting the causal judgment on a negative impotence, instead of on a positive power, of the mind.

8. What is Thompson's view as to the true question in dispute between the Realists and Nominalists? He gives instances in support of it?

9. Give Thompson's discussion of the question, "Whether a philosophic criterion of truth is possible ?” How far is it valuable ?

10. Give a short statement as to how far, in your opinion, innate ideas seem to have a legitimate foundation, and your reasons for thinking so ?

11. Gravesande, as quoted by Stewart, in his strictures on Leibnitz' view of the impossibility of mind and body directly influencing each other, makes some valuable observations ?

12. To what does Bacon attribute the minute study of syllogism? He points out the dangerous tendency in men's minds which gives rise to it?


1. Determine by quotations from Locke's Essay the functions assigned by him to Reflection. State, also, and refute, the charges of confusion and inconsistency brought against him by Reid, Stewart, and Cousin.

2. Criticise from Mansel's point of view the position defended by Stewart, that demonstrative evidence depends upon the employment of hypotheses and definitions as principles.

3. How has Mansel defended Logic from the charge of being either futile or false ?

4. Determine separately, and in detail, the forms of the concept proper and of the judgment.

5. On what grounds does Mansel exclude from the latter relation and modality, which have been added to them by the school of Kant?

6. Trace and expose the errors which have arisen in consequence of philosophers confounding the Aristotelian and the Baconian Induction.

7. Give the substance of Mr. Mill's observations upon the explanation of the laws of Nature.

8. It may be proved that Locke anticipated Kant in the recognition of the distinction between rational and empiric knowledge, as well as in the recognition of the criterion by which they are to be distinguished ?

9. Review the opinions of philosophers respecting the nature and formation of Abstract Ideas.

10. Write an abstract of Cousin's Classification of Philosophical Questions and Schools,” and criticise his mode of handling the subject.



1. Give an account of the ethical system of Dr. Mandeville, and point out its fallacies.

2. State briefly Smith's theory of the “Moral Sentiments ;” and account, on his principles, for the origin of our sense of merit and demerit. 3. Explain the following phrases as they are used by Aristotle :

(α.) αρετή ηθική.
(6.) σοφία.

(c) ppóvnois. 4. Write a criticism on the Aristotelic pecórns, and its connexion with his ethical system.

5. Give an accurate account of Aristotle's views on the doctrine of final



1. Give an account of the historical genesis of Plato's ideal theory 2. Discuss the place of the emotions in a Platonic system.


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