1. Give the leading characteristics of the five sub-kingdoms.
2. How may the Infusoria be distinguished from other Protozoa !

3. What number of primitive types, according to Carpenter, may be reasonably supposed to have given origin by the ordinary course of " descent with modification” to the vast multitude of forms among the Foraminifera ?

4. Describe the aquiferous system in Sponges. 5. What forms of reproduction are met with among the Protozoa ? 6. Contrast the two sub-kingdoms Protozoa and Coelentera. 7. Compare the classes Hydrozoa and Actinozoa. 8. Describe the structure of a typical Corallite. 9. Define the order Rugosa. Where does Agassiz propose to place it?

10. Refer the precious Coral of commerce to its proper order and family.

11. Compare the nutrient system in Actinia and Beroe.

12. How has Mr. Darwin explained the true nature of Barrier Reefs and Atolls ?

13. Give some account of the distribution, bathymetrical and geographical, of the reef-building Corals.

14. Describe the ambulacral vascular system in Echinodermata. 15. Describe the corona of an Echinus.

16. What are the chief characteristics of Echinoida, Clypeastroida, and Spatangoida?

17. Name some extinct genera of Echinoderms in which the antambulacral region predominates ; also some in which the two regions are nearly equal.

18. Give an outline of the digestive system in Holothuridea, Echinoidea, Crinoidea, Asteridea, and Ophiuridea.

19. What families of Echinoderms possess an oral skeleton ?

20. Describe the metamorphosis of the common fly and of the common grasshopper.

21. Refer the following genera to their respective orders :-Stylops, Pulex, Pediculus, Podurus, Termes, Forficula.

22. Give the chief orders of the class Crustacea, marking those which are extinct.

23. Give an account of the reproduction of the Salpidæ.

24. Contrast a Cardium (both the animal and shell) with a Terebratula.

25. Contrast the vertebræ of Lepidosteus with those of Gadus.

26. Give a brief description of the “chorda dorsalis” as it occurs in the different orders of fish.

27. Give the geographical distribution of the different species of Crocodiles.

28. Give an account of the various modifications of horns which are met with among the Ruminantia.

29. Give the dentition of the common hare.

30. Refer the following to their native countries :-chimpanzee, giraffe, reindeer, turkey, common fowl, peacock, emeu, rattlesnake, boa, axolotl, tunny, lepidosteus.

31. Refer the following to their respective orders and families :-anteater, ayeaye, canary, cinchilla, dodo, flamingo, flying fox, giraffe, hornbill, lyre bird, mole, paradise bird, porpoise, swift, walrus.



1. In what cryptogamic plants have stomates been observed ? 2. Describe the evolution and name the varieties of vascular tissue. 3. Of what do the fibro-vascular bundles in a Fern consist ? 4. Describe the cortical system of an Exogen.

5. What structural difference is observable in the epidermal cells of leathery or succulent leaves, as contrasted with those of soft or thin leaves ?

6. By what contrivances are the interior tissues of plants brought into contact with air? and what varieties of the “aërial system” commonly occur?

7. What is the structure of a sting (as of a nettle), and how does it act

8. What is the structure and what the function of laticiferous tissue, and in what plants is it most readily observed ?

9. Contrast the fibro-vascular system of the stem of a Tree-fern with that of a Palm-tree.

10. State the origin, structure, mode of development, and use of the medullary rays.

II. Define the terms palmifid, palmisect, palmipartite, palmate, pedatifid, pedatisect, pedate, as applied to leaves.

12. Define the terms hastate, sagittate, cordate, reniform, panduriform, auricled, connate, perfoliate, oblique, as applied to leaves.

13. Describe the leaf of Dionea muscipula.
14. How are the pitchers of Sarracenia formed ?
15. What British plants have circinate vernation of leaf?
16. Give examples of simple and compound scapes.

17. Describe the inflorescence of a Fig, and contrast it with that of a Mulberry.

18. Give examples of herbaceous and coloured perianths.
19. Give examples of valvate sepals and petals.
20. Describe the principal modes of dehiscence of anthers.

21. Define the terms raphe, chalaza, micropile, primine, and secundine, as applied to ovule or seed.

22. Give examples of seeds with horny, floury, and oily albumen, and of exalbuminous seeds.

23. Give examples of plants having excentric embryos. 24. Name, in the order of their importance, the structural characters which assist in the determination of the natural affinities of plants.

SYSTEMATIC BOTANY.—(Bentham's British Flora.) 25. What exceptional characters occur in the calyx among the British genera of Ranunculaceæ ?

26. What is the chief distinction between Papavaraceæ and Ranunculaceæ ? and how do the former differ from Fumariaceæ ?

27. On what special characters are the genera of Cruciferæ chiefly based ?

28. How is Cerastium known from Stellaria? 29. What are the floral and carpological characters of Linum? 30. How are the stamens inserted in Rhamnacea ? 31. In what group of Leguminose are the stamens often indefinite ? 32. Distinguish the suborders of Rosacee, giving examples of each. 33. How is Potentilla distinguished from Fragaria ?

34. What relation do the stamens bear to the petals in such British Onagracea as have petals ?

35. Which of the British species of Saxifraga are peculiar to the west of Ireland ?

36. How is Araliaceæ best known from Umbelliferæ ?

37. State how the parasitism of the Mistletoe differs from that of the Dodder ?

38. Describe the floral envelopes in Dipsacea. 39. Of what organ is the pappus in Composite a modification ? 40. In which of the Composite are the ligulate flowers complete ? 41. How do Erica, Arbutus, and Vaccinium differ; and in what do they


42. Distinguish Solanaceæ from Boraginea. 43. What are the British genera of Amentaceæ ? 44. Describe the structure of a pine cone. 45. Describe the arrangement of the floral organs in Orchidee. 46. How does Crocus differ from Colchicum ? 47. Describe the female flower of Carex. 48. What are the chief modifications of the flower in British grasses ?

49. Enumerate the genera of British Ferns which have an indusium, and those that have none.


Moderatorships in History, Political Science, and English


Examiners. John TOLEKEN, M. D. MOUNTIFORD LONGFIELD, LL. D., Professor of Feudal and English Law. GEORGE MÓDOWELL, M. A. John K. INGRAM, LL. D., Professor of English Literature. JAMES W. BARLOW, M. A., Professor of English History.



1. Who was the author of the “ Dialogus de Scaccario," and when was it written ? What important inference as to the condition of the Saxons in England under William I. does Hallam deduce from this treatise :

2. Compare the English Revolution of 1399 with that of 1688 with respect to the attention shown by the principal actors to the formalities of the Constitution.

3. Write a short account of the Irish Rebellion of 1534.

4. How does Hallam account for the secret connexions formed by Lord Hollis, Lord Russell, and Algernon Sidney, with Louis XIV., through his ambassadors, Barillon and Rouvigny, in 1678 ?

5. He speaks of the year 1696 as “the very nadir of English prosperity.” For what reasons ?

6. Give the dates, and a short account of the different partitions of Poland.

7. On what grounds does Mr. Knight defend the character of William III. with respect to the massacre of Glencoe ?

8. Write a sketch of the history of the newspaper press in England from its origin till the commencement of the present century.


1. Discuss the question, whether the difference of origin and language sufficiently explain the great revolution in France at the close of the roth century.

2. What, according to Hallam, constitutes the essential element of the feudal system; and to what causes does he attribute its establishment ? State the views of Sir F. Palgrave and M. Lehueron on the subject.

3. What circumstances are mentioned by Hallam as favouring the aggrandizement of the Papacy in the 12th and 13th centuries ? Give some account of the Canon Law.

4. Give a summary of the principal events which occurred in the reign of Francis II. of France, and describe the position of parties at his accession and death.

5. How does M. Guizot describe the fermentation of the human mind at the close of the 15th century, and what comparison does he draw between the policy of the Court of Rome and the Reformation ?

6. What was the origin of the two Houses of Austria, and how long did they continue in the direct line ? Show how the disunion amongst the German princes favoured the aggressions of France, and describe her acquisitions at the expense of Germany.

7. Give a short account of the struggles maintained by the Parliaments (1) against Royalty, (2) against the Clergy.

8. State the most important occurrences in the history of France in connexion with the papacies of Alexander VI., Sixtus V., Innocent XI., and Clement XIV.



1. Are the Civil and Canon Laws properly classed among the leges scripta, or leges non scriptæ ? and why?

2. State the most important general rules to be observed in the interpretation of Acts of Parliament.

3. Is the right of inheritance a natural right, or a right depending entirely on municipal law? Give the reason of your opinion, briefly.

4. Money is bequeathed to a man and the heirs male of his body; he survives the testator, but does not receive the legacy; who is entitled to it on his decease?

5. If an infant under the age of twenty-one years accepts a bill in consideration of necessaries supplied to him, will that bill bind him ? State the reason ?

6. Can a lunatic bind himself by a contract! Is his disability in this respect greater or less than that of an infant ?

7. What exception is there to the general rule, that, a corporation can enter into a binding contract only under its common seal ?

8. What qualification is there to the general rule, that, if an agent makes a contract in his own name for sale of certain goods, the principal may adopt and enforce the contract, as if he had made it himself?

9. What is the meaning of marriage brocage contracts ? are they valid, or void ? and for what reason ?

10. What was the old law on the subject of the marriage of a man with the sister of his deceased wife, and the reason of that law?

11. A married woman has greater privileges in a court of equity than in a court of law ?

12. What are the differences between a court of record, and a court not of record ?

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