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15. There are three kinds of capitis deminutio mentioned; state the effect of each.

16. A filius familias might exercise the office of “tutor" or guardian ; what principle is referred to, to account for this?

17. A class of rights are known in the Roman law as Servitutes prædiorum; state the nature of the rights so designated, and state why called Servitutes, and why Servitutes prædiorum ?

18. Explain the maxim Servitus non potest esse servitutis.
19. Define Ususfructus.
20. Explain what is meant by pupillary substitution.
21. What class of heirs were called necessarii ?
22. What class were called sui et necessarii ?
23. Give Justinian's definition of a legacy (legatum).

24. Justinian states that in the earlier Roman law there were four different kinds of legacy; state the four.

25. State the precise effect of each of the four.
26. State the general object of the Lex Falcidia.
27. Define or describe fidei-commissaria hæreditas.
28. State the words ordinarily used in creating fidei-commissa.
29. Give Justinian's definition of “liberty.”
30. Give Justinian's definition of ingenuus.

31. Was the adopting father, under Justinian's modification of the law of adoption, compelled to leave by his will, or otherwise, any portion of his property to the person adopted ?

32. State the modes by which the patria potestas was terminated. 33. Might a person appoint more than one heir ? 34. Assume a Roman testator leaving part of his property undisposed of by his will ; what became of such undisposed residue ?

35. In Mr. Heron's “ History of Jurisprudence," a passage is quoted from Strabo with reference to the legislation of Minos, in which liberty is stated to be the greatest advantage citizens can have; state the reason assigned for this, and the general purport of the passage.

36. State, from Mr. Heron's book, an early definition of virtue, “ the oldest, Dugald Stewart says, we have, and the most unexceptionable.”

37. Give, from the same work, Socrates' definition of “justice.” 38. Define a law (lex) as understood in Roman jurisprudence. 39. Define a plebiscitum.

40. In the reign of Louis XIV. many attempts were made to reform the laws of France. The plan adopted was to systematize, and unite into one ordinance, all the laws on each particular subject; state the ordinances and the subjects to which they related, framed with this object in the 17th century; giving, from Mr. Heron's work, the names of the compilers, and the date of each ordinance.

41. Mr. Merivale states one important present advantage resulting from an examination of the steps by which the first Roman emperors changed the republic into a monarchy.

42. In the change from the early monarchy to a republic the prerogatives of the king were not essentially altered; what were the means then taken for “securing popular independence”?

43. At what period does Mr. Merivale describe the military oath of obedience“ to the imperator and the state” as first taken by the soldiery?

44. One of the titles which aided Augustus most in converting the republic into a monarchy was that of princeps senatus ; what privileges did the position of princeps senatus give ?

45. From the titles of the imperial constitutions Mr. Merivale infers the importance of the style of princeps ; state how this was.

46. The signification of the title had become varied in the times of Tiberius; state how Mr. Merivale proves this.

47. Augustus, in the year of the city 731, refused to allow himself to be elected Consul-he, however, managed to secure to himself more than the advantages of the consulate-state how this was.

48. He was given, without the tribuneship, the tribunitia potestas ; what were the great advantages this gave him ?

49. Dean Milman says, that when Christianity had become the religion of the Empire, new corporate bodies had been formed, holding property of every kind by a new tenure; what were those corporate bodies ?

50. A new offence was introduced into the criminal jurisprudence not only of the Church but of the Empire; what was it?

51. The barbaric codes, though for the most part embodying principles which had been those of the Teutonic peoples anterior to their conversion to Christianity, were deeply imbued with Christian feeling; how was this?

52. The peculiar and special jurisprudence of Christianity had gradually become vested in the clergy, and the Church enacted canons in local or national synods; of these canons what were the sanctions ?

53. The bounds of ecclesiastical and temporal jurisdiction became confused ? State the cause which Dean Milman assigns for this on the part of the State.

54. State the cause he assigns on the part of the Church.

55. In the sixth century there were three systems of jurisprudence ; what were they?

56. Justinian affirmed the right of the emperor of legislating for the Church. How is this proved ?

$7: A new order of magistracy acknowledged “at the inspiration of Christianity.” State how this was ?

58. State how the law of persons, as it had previously existed in the Roman Empire, was affected by Christianity. State this as fully as you can with reference to the different relations of life and society.

59. A law of Leo and Authemius, limited to Constantinople, which was confirmed among other laws for the security of Church property by Justinian, and by him extended to the whole empire, is described by Dean Milman as “the palladium of Church property." State this law.

60. Dean Milman eulogizes the person who seems to have been the first who enfranchised slaves on the pure and noble principle of the common equality of mankind.” Whom does he name?

61. In the changes which the system of trial by jury has undergone, one principle has remained unchanged; what is that principle ?

62. Jurors were, at one period, fined when the court regarded them as bringing in verdicts contrary to evidence; state at what time this practise ceased, and the particular case in which it was determined to be illegal.

63. Mr. Story commences his work on “The Conflict of Laws," or private international law, by stating three maxims or axioms upon which all reasoning on the subject must rest; what are they?

64. He quotes from Boullenois five general principles on the subject; state them.

65. In every discussion on this subject three axioms laid down by Huberus are cited, which he deems sufficient to solve all the intricacies of the subject; state them.

66. Give Cicero's definition of war (Bellum). 67. State Grotius's objection to this definition, 68. Give Grotius's definition of war.

69. Is what Grotius calls “jus naturaleimmutable, or can any circumstances be imagined in which the principles to which he gives that name may be supposed changed.

70. How does he define jus voluntarium humanum ? 71. What is his definition of civile jus ?

72. Grotius distinguishes the jus gentium from he jus naturale, and says, sæpe in una parte orbis terrarum est jus gentium quod alibi non est;" and he illustrates the statement by examples; what are the illustrations he gives ?

EXAMINATION FOR PRIZES IN POLITICAL ECONOMY.

PROFESSOR HOUSTON.

Morning. 1. The conduct of a miser, according to Archbishop Whately, produces different effects in different states of society ?

2. Describe the aim and general scope of Mandeville's “Fable of the Bees."

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3. Define the following terms according to Mr. Senior :- Capital,” “ Labour,” “Abstinence, Rent,”

,“ Cost of Production." 4. Compare the views of Mr. Senior and Mr. Mill on the circumstances which regulate the rate of wages.

5. The "value of money' is an ambiguous expression. Explain what regulates the value of money in its several significations.

6. How does Dr. Longfield account for the decline of profits in the progress of society? How was the same phenomenon accounted for by Adam Smith ?

7. Explain the influence of changes in the price of food on the rate of wages.

8. What are the views taken by Smith, Senior, and Mill, respectively, on the subject of Productive and Unproductive Labour ?

9. By what circumstances is the natural amount of currency in a country determined, according to Dr. Walsh ?

10. What is the nature of an Economic Law, and of the truth which it represents ? 11. Rent, according to Professor Cairnes, arises from two distinct

Point out what these sources are, and what differences exist between the two species of rent resulting from them, respectively.

12. Has the present distribution of landed property in these countries any, and if so what, effect on the price of agricultural produce ?

sources.

Evening. 1. Trace the effects of a Commercial Crisis on the Production and Distribution of Wealth.

2. Commercial Crises are attributable to a variety of causes ?

3. The periodical recurrence of Commercial Crises, so far as it is a fact, can be accounted for on economic principles ?

4. a. Detail the provisions of the Bank Charter Act of 1844.

b. State the principle on which that measure is founded, and how far you consider it to be sound.

c. Within what limits may an extension of credit safely take place during the descending phase of a Commercial Crisis ?

5. Explain the meaning of the phrase, “ freely-produced commodities.” What is the law by which the value of such things is governed, and how does it operate ?

6. Some important distinctions exist between the laws which govern the value of agricultural and those which govern that of mineral produce ? The rent yielded by the latter does not admit of so simple a measure as that yielded by the former?

ENGINEERING EXAMINATION.

MIDDLE CLASS.

THEORY OF THE STEAM-ENGINE.

PROFESSOR GALBRAITH.

1. The boilers of a pair of marine engines evaporate 400 cubic feet of water per hour, the diameter of the piston is 82 inches, and length of stroke 6 feet 9 inches; find the horse-power when the steam is cut off at half stroke, the number of revolutions per minute being 12.

2. Find the pressure in the cylinders before the steam is cut off.

3. From the same data find the number of revolutions in order to obtain the maximum useful effect, if the boiler be loaded to 10 lbs.

4. Express the velocity of the piston of a locomotive, and also the pressure in the cylinder due to the weight of the train, in terms of the speed in miles per hour on a level road.

5. How is the expression for the pressure modified if the train ascends or descends a gradient.

6. Prove the following equation for the motion of a locomotive on a level rail

4

KS y3 + 5y2 + 16 10+ T

λα2

X 391000, in which

1 y=1M and 1=

D 7. If the diameter of driving wheel be 5 ft., length of cylinder 16 in., diameter of piston 12 in., and weight of train 100 tons; calculate the number of gallons of water required for an hour's drive along a level road.

8. Calculate the quantity required to ascend a gradient of 1 in 250 during the same time.

9. If the weight of the train be 48 tons, and, S=0.7; find the speed of train in miles per hour on a level rail.

10. If the diameter of driving wheel be 8 ft., length of cylinder 2 ft., diameter of piston 20 in., weight of train 100 tons, and S=2.4; calculate the speed in miles per hour on a level rail.

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PRACTICAL MECHANICS.

MR. TOWNSEND.

1. A weight of 112 lbs. rests on a rough inclined plane whose length and height are 76 and 43 feet, respectively; if the coefficient of friction be , required the least horizontal force that will suffice to sustain it.

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