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2. Give a description Daniell's sustaining battery; and mention the manner of using a galvanic machine, so that the current produced shall be independent of the number of couples.
3. If the same current be made to pass successively through acidulated water, a solution of sulphate of copper, and melted chloride of silver, each undergoes electrolysis. What are the relative weights of the hydrogen, the copper, and the silver obtained in the experiment?
4. In what condition does the iron exist in most chalybeate waters ? what test would you apply to detect it ?--and why upon keeping do such waters deposit the iron?
5. How would you make the analysis of a mixture of aqueous vapour, carbonic acid, oxygen, and nitrogen?
6. Describe the mode of preparing the sulphide of hydrogen; and state the nature of the precipitates which are obtained on passing the gas into solutions of arsenious acid, sulphate of copper, and persulphate of iron.
7. What is the formula of crystallized hyposulphite of soda ?--how is it made ?—and what is its application in volumetric analysis ?
8. Chlorine, iodine, and bromine exert each a similar action on solution of potash; what is it?
9. Write the formula of amylic alcohol, and of valerianic acid; and describe how the former may be converted into the latter.
10. How would you examine the urine for bile, for albumen, and for sugar!
DR. HARVEY, 1. Give the characters by which modifications of the root may be known from underground, rootlike stems.
2. What difference of arrangement is observable between the cells in the upper and the under surfaces of leaves, and what purpose is thereby served ?
3. Explain the terms didynamous, tetradynamous, monadelphous, syngenesious, gynandrous, moncecious, diæcious ; giving examples of each.
4. Describe the usual structure and the functions of a stomate; and give an instance in which stomates are found on the upper surface of leaves, while absent from their under surface.
5. What is the usual structure of pollen? In what plants do the pollen-grains cohere in clusters or masses ?
6. By what floral character are Ranunculaceæ known from Rosacea ? 7. What is the structure of the ovary and seed in Caryophyllee ? 8. Describe the flower and fruit of the genus Linum. 9. In what monopetalous Orders do you find didynamous stamens ?
10. By what circumstance should you infer that an unknown Umbelliferous plant was probably wholesome or the reverse ?
11. In what parts of plants should you expect to find fixed oils, and in what parts volatile oils ?
12. Refer the plants before you to their natural Orders, and write a description of any one of them according to the following formula ::
Stem, General character.
Margin and incision.
stamens, noticing insertion.
Pistil, as to ovary, style, stigma, and placentation.
Arrangement of embryo in seed. Reasons for referring a specimen to a particular Order; general characteristics of the Order, and its geographical distribution.
EXAMINATION FOR DEGREE OF MASTER IN SURGERY.
1. Suppose the globe of the eye enlarged, and the seat of melanotic disease, what would be your prognosis, and surgical treatment ?
2. In a case of external melanotic disease which had been excised, recurred, and after three or four years proved ultimately fatal-in what organs or tissues would you seek for melanotic growths on making the post-mortem examination ?
3. In cases of obstinate strictures of the urethra, in which the treatment by simple dilatation has failed, what operations are proposed by surgery?
4. Describe Professor Symes' mode of performing the operation called by him the perinæal section, and by others, "external urethrotomy.”
5. Describe Mons. Civrale's mode, called “internal urethrotomy.” 6. Describe Mr. Holt's plan.
7. The advantages of these operations, respectively, as well as the dan. gers encountered
DR. SMITH 1. Contrast the symptoms and post-mortem appearances of acute and chronic necrosis.
2. What are the characters of the injury described by Mr. Hey under the name of “internal derangement of the knee-joint ?
3. Distinguish between prolapsus of the rectum and prolapsus of a portion of intestine through the rectum. What danger attends an error in diagnosis between these two different forms of disease ?
4. Mention the circumstances which, in a case of calculus in the bladder, would prevent your performing the operation of lithotomy. There are cases of vesical calculus in which constitutional treatment may be necessary previous to the performance of the operation. Mention them, and the treatment you would adopt in each.
5. In what cases would you prefer the operation of lithotrity to that of lithotomy? What preparatory treatment is necessary in such cases ?
6. Describe the operation of puncturing the bladder above the pubis ; in what cases would you have recourse to it?
7. Mention the danger attending anthrax in the following situations :on the back of the head; in the abdominal parietes; under the rectum. Write a prescription for a fermenting poultice.
8. Mention the characters of separation of the upper epiphysis of the humerus, and the mode of treating the injury.
9. Describe the characters of the vertical displacement of the patella, and of the complete luxation of that bone outwards.
10. Contrast benign and malignant nasal polypi ; describe Levret's canula.
11. In what cases of hydrocele of the tunica vaginalis would you select the treatment by incision ? Describe Kinder Wood's operation.
12. Mention the characters and treatment of venereal disease of the testicle.
1. What are the pathological characters of osteo-aneurism ? Give a short abstract of the observations of Breschet and Handyside upon this disease.
2. Contrast the pathological characters of ganglions and synovial cysts.
3. Describe the skeleton of a foot that has been for many years affected with varus.
4. What are the anatomical characters of congenital luxation of the hip-joint ?
5. Describe the condition of the arteries and veins of the fore-arm in cases of varicose aneurism situated at the bend of the elbow.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY.
PROFESSOR MÓDOWEL. 1. Enumerate the bony connexions which must be severed in the removal of the superior maxillary bone.
2. Enumerate in order the parts that must necessarily be removed in order to expose the hyoglossus muscle.
3. State the anatomical differences which exist between congenital and infantile hernia.
4. What structures are divided in Amussat's operation for artificial
5. Mention the principal channels by which carbon is eliminated from the system, and give an approximation as to the quantity discharged through each.
6. Describe the thorax in birds, and mention the peculiarities of their mode of respiration.
7. Enumerate the muscles which elevate and those which depress the acromion process.
8. Give the distribution of the glosso-pharyngeal nerve, and assign its functions.
1. Describe otorrhoea and its consequences; mention the conditions under which it becomes a fatal disease ; describe the cases in which surgical interference becomes necessary.
2. How would you treat peritonitis following on the operation of paracentesis of the abdomen ?
3. What are the circumstances in which you would decline to operate in fistula in ano?
4. Describe two pulsating tumours of the thorax which are not examples of aneurisms of the aorta.
5. What cases of external cancer are most likely to be followed by malignant disease of viscera ?
6. In hot climates, what disease commonly precedes abscess of the liver ?
1. Write the formulæ of calomel and corrosive sublimate, and explain how you would detect the latter if present in the former.
2. How would you examine a powder consisting of morphia and strychnia so as to determine the amount of each ?
3. How would you distinguish a solution of tannic from one of gallic acid, a solution of citric from one of tartaric acid, and a solution of potash from one of soda !
4. How would you ascertain whether sulphate of quina included cinchona ?
5. Write the formula of the bleaching salt of lime, and explain the action of muriatic acid upon it,
6. What is the readiest mode of ascertaining whether oil of vitriol has been purified by distillation, and whether it is arsenical or not?
7. Red oxide of mercury is sometimes adulterated with the red oxides of iron and of lead; how are such adulterations discovered ?
8. Mention the method of the London Pharmacopeia for determining the strength of hydrocyanic acid.
9. How, by the soap-test, would you determine the degree of hardness of a water?
10. Enumerate the acids used in medicine, write their formulæ, and give the action exerted by each on metallic zinc.
EXAMINATION FOR PREMIUMS IN CIVIL LAW.
1. Give Justinian's definition of liberty.
3. Sir Edward Creasy quotes a passage from Guizot, who, speaking of the Restoration in England (1660), says that the Revolution through which England had passed terminated in three great results ; what were they ?
4. State the date of the Petition of Right.
8. In the law of adoption, as modified by Justinian, was the relation of the adopted person, with respect to his original family, varied by the fact of his being given by his father in adoption to a stranger to the family!
9. Did such adopted son lose his rights of inheritance from his father ? Did he gain any rights with respect to the property of the stranger to whom he was so given in adoption ?
10. In the previous state of the law what serious disadvantage, with respect to property, existed, to such adopted person ? II. Where the relation of brother and sister existed as the
consequence of adoption, did it interfere with intermarriage between persons so connected ?
12. Where the relation of father and daughter existed by adoption, did it interfere with the intermarriage of such persons ?
13. State any distinction that existed between the cases adverted to in the two last questions.
14. Give the definition of capitis minutio, or deminutio, which you find in Gaius and Justinian.