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3. State concisely the plan you would adopt in order to ascertain the geological structure of some new locality.
4. State concisely proofs of elevation and depression of land, and mention examples in different parts of the world.
s. Explain fully, and with examples, the grounds of the three great divisions of stratified fossiliferous rocks.
6. Define gneiss, porphyry, syenite, grauwacke, tuff, travertin. How are igneous rocks usually distinguishable from aqueous ? Explain how the age of igneous rocks may be determined, and illustrate by any actual cases which may occur to you.
7. Give an account of Mallet's theory of earthquakes.
8. What is the mean density of the earth ? Explain how this is established. What is that of the external crust, so far as we are acquainted with it? What is there to account for the difference?
9. Explain the terms, lamination and foliation. How do you account for the lamination of some aqueous deposits, and the absence of this character in others ? Give examples.
10. What proofs are there of the former occurrence of a “glacial period" in this part of the earth? What means have we of ascertaining the (geo
gical) date of this period ?
11. What proofs have we of changes of climate in this country in former times? Draw a diagram showing the direction of the principal Atlantic currents, and point out how they affect at present the climate of this country.
12. What is the composition of the magnesian limestone, and where is this formation found in Great Britain ?
13. What is the nature of glaciers, and the effects they have produced on the surface of the earth?
14. Explain the action of ice as a transporting power. What proofs have we of the existence of a much colder clinate in our island at no very remote geological epoch?
15. Describe the phenomena of the boulder drift of Northern Europe. Appeal to causes now observed to be in action to account for it.
16. Explain the origin of springs; also the construction of an Artesian well, and the conditions necessary to the success of such a well.
17. Define denudation. Give some proofs of the extent to which this has contributed to the present external state of the earth. Explain how the action of aqueous agencies would tend to bring the earth to its present figure, whatever its original figure might have been.
18. Explain the relation between the occurrence of water springs and faults, and different kinds of strata.
19. What is an Artesian well : Describe the geological conditions under which Artesian wells are most available.
HEAT AND ELECTRICITY.
1. From the ordinary barometric formula for calculating the height of a mountain, prove that the following is nearly correct for the height in feet:
h-h' Height = 52000 x
h+h'' 2. From this deduce the difference of height of two stations near the sea-level, which corresponds to a difference of 1° F. in the boiling-point of water; assuming the temperature of the air to be 60° F., and metres to be the difference of pressures for 99° and 100° C.
3. What are the definitions of the boiling-points on the Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales ? To what point on the Centigrade scale does 212° F. correspond ?—and what is the exact ratio between Centigrade and Fahrenheit degrees ?
4. Prove that the product of the volume and elastic force of a given mass of gas is proportional to its absolute temperature.
5. A glass jar, whose section is 8 inches, contains over a water-bath 100 cubic inches of a gas saturated with moisture at a temperature of 122° F. (f = 3.62), the atmospheric pressure is 30 inches, and the water of the bath stands at the same level inside and outside the jar. If the temperature fall to 59° F. (f=0.50), the atmospheric pressure remaining the same, calculate the height which the water will rise to in the jar, neglecting its own weight.
6. What will be the position of stable equilibrium of a pair of crossed magnets under the Earth's influence ?
7. Give a construction for finding the magnitude and direction of the resultant force of the poles of a magnet on a distant point.
8. What is the law of the dissipation of electrical force in an insulated conductor? Give the expression for the force after the lapse of t mi. nutes.
9. Explain the manner in which electricity is accumulated by Volta's condenser.
10. State some of the experiments by which it is proved that the positive electric condition of the atmosphere increases as we proceed upward.
1. Ife be the coefficient of the lineal expansion of a solid for t degrees, what will be the value of its coefficient of cubic expansion for one degree?
2. If a rod of copper laid on a longer one of platinum be connected to the platinum by a rivet at their common extremity, and if such a heat is applied as causes the copper rod to move forward relatively on the platinum rod by foth of an inch, what is the rise of temperature which both
must have experienced; the lengths of the copper rod at 32° being l, and the coefficients of expansion of platinum and copper being 0.0000055, and 0.0000106, respectively?
3. If in a weight thermometer P be the weight of mercury filling ball and tube at 32°, and m the weight of mercury expelled by placing it in an oven, what has been the temperature of the oven ?
4. If a weight thermometer contains at 32° P grains of a liquid, and if, at ť, p grains are expelled; what is the coefficient of the cubic expansion of the liquid, k being that of glass?
5. Explain Dulong and Petit's method of finding the coefficient of the expansion of mercury.
6. A mass of air saturated with vapour has, at 60°, and under a pressure of 28.79 inches of quicksilver, the bulk of 84.37 cubic inches; what would its volume be if quite dry at temperature 38°, and pressure of 30 ?
N. B.-Force of vapour at 60o = 0.61.
7. How do you express the law of Marriotte so as to take into consideration the effect of temperature as well as pressure upon volume?
8. What is the simple method of comparing the specific heats of two bodies suggested by the law of cooling given by Newton ?
9. The relation, according to Woestyn, between the specific heat of a compound and the specific heats of its components is a very simple one. What is it?
10. If 2 lbs. of iron, 3 lbs. of mercury, and 5 lbs. of silver, all at 212°, be thrown into 6 lbs. of water at 40°, what common temperature will the metals and water assume ?
CHEMISTRY AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHY.
1. What is the rule of Berthollet for foretelling decompositions ?
2. Explain the action of oil of vitriol on bichromate of potash, and calculate the volume of oxygen which one pound of the salt is capable of yielding
3. What are the results of the action of muriatic acid on the red oxide of mercury, and on the black oxide of manganese ?
4. How is the bleaching salt of lime made; what is its composition, and what the action of muriatic acid upon it ?
5. Assuming liquid muriatic acid of specific gravity 1.16 to have the formula HCl + 3H0, what weight of this acid may be obtained from 16 ounces of chloride of sodium ?
6. What is the chemical composition of the preparation which is obtained by passing sulphide of hydrogen into solution of ammonia as long as the gas is absorbed ? and what the precise actions exerted by this preparation when it is added to a solution of sulphate of copper, and to a solution of sulphate of manganese ?
7. What course would you take for the purpose of ascertaining whether a natural water includes nitrates ?
8. Give the respective actions of dilute sulphuric acid, of dilute nitric acid, and of muriatic acid on metallic iron.
9. Write a complete list of the oxides of sulphur, and explain the processes by which the dithionic and tetrathionic acids are prepared and insulated.
10. What are the volumes of oxygen necessary for the complete combustion of a single cubic inch of the following gases, viz., hydrogen, carbonic oxide, marsh gas, and olefiant gas?
11. What is the name, and what the notation, of the compound form bounded by eight equilateral triangles and six squares ?
12. Mention the hemihedral forms of the first system with parallel, and those with inclined faces; and give the notation of each.
13. What simple form of the third system, and compound form of the fourth system, are very similar to each other? State also how they may be distinguished.
14. The hydrated sulphate of lime, or gypsum, sometimes occurs as a flattened four-sided prism, with oblique dihedral terminations; what is the notation of the different faces of this compound form?
History, Political Science, and English Literature.
1. Explain the italicised words in the following quotations from Shakspeare :
"When we have shuffled off this mortal coil." 6.
“ There's the respect That makes calamity of so long life.” “ Virtue itself of vice must pardon beg,
Yea, curb and woo, for leave to do him good.” d.
Defeat thy favour with an usurped beard.”
“To scant my sizes.” f. “ Bless thee from whirlwinds, star-blasting, and taking."
2. The following quotations are given as in the first Folio; what are the readings in the Quartos ?
“ The inobled queen.”
'Thy face is valiant, since I saw thee last.”
“There with fantastic garlands did she come." d. “Yet here she is allow'd her virgin rites.”
“Wherein the tongued consuls can propose
As masterly as he.” f.
“Not of the eye which their investments show.”
“ Of God, or hell, or worse He reck'd not, and these words thereafter spake.” What is meant by thereafter in this sentence of Milton ? Quote any other passages where it bears the same sense.
4. From what poems are the following extracts taken ? Who are the authors of those poems?
“Stone walls do not a prison make,
Nor iron bars a cage."
Subdued and cherish'd long."
Light dies before the uncreating word:
And universal darkness buries all."
“Like a poet hidden
In the light of thought,
To sympathy with hopes and fears it heeded not.” 5. a. Mr. Collier speaks of the following lines of Marlow as Alexandrines. Is he right in doing so ?
“But, for we know thou art a noble gentleman.”
“Yet will I call on him. Oh spare me, Lucifer.” b. What rule of the Alexandrine is violated in the following line of Dryden
“ And with paternal thunder vindicates his throne.” 6. State the rule for the correct use of the phrases,—"If I am," and “If I be."
1. Explain and illustrate the statement that demand for commodities is not demand for labour.
2. As a cause of variation in value, the quantity of labour is the most important element ?
3. High prices from restrictive laws cannot tend to increase wages ?
4. Rent does not enter into the cost of production of agricultural produce. What limitations are necessary to render this strictly accurate ?
5. To what circumstances does Mill attribute the peculiar force of the effective desire of accumulation in England ?
6. When money is the exclusive instrument of exchange, show that the quantity of money wanted will depend partly on the cost of producing gold, and partly on the rapidity of circulation.