3. How does Gay-Lussac obtain the tension of vapours at temperatures lower than 0 centig.

a. Show by direct experiment that vapours are formed from ice. 4. Explain the method of determining the specific heat of a body by plunging it into a liquid whose specific heat is known.

a. Show how to remove the effects of the two sources of error, namely -1. The absorption of heat by the vase; 2. The cooling which takes place during the experiment.

Show at the error in the res arising from an error in the measurement of the final temperature will be the least if this temperature be an arithmetic mean between the temperatures of the body and the fluid.



1. According to what law does the loss of electricity of an electrized body, due to the contact of the air, vary; and how is it expressed ?

2. What is the law of tension of electricity in the voltaic pile, one of the poles being in connexion with the earth?

3. In what manner does the resistance of the pile vary with the number, magnitude, and interval of the plates ?

4. Describe Mr. Wheatstone's method of comparing electro-motive forces experimentally; and prove its validity.

5. How does M. Becquerel obtain the absolute thermo-electric powers of the several metals, the differences of their powers being given by experiment?

6. A horizontal magnet is acted on by a vertical current of indefinite length, which is equally distant from the two poles of the magnet; prove that the force exerted is equal to


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2 being the length of the magnet, and r the horizontal distance of the poles from the conductor.

7. A magnetic needle is moveable on a fixed point in the horizontal plane, and is acted on by a horizontal conducting wire situated in any vertical plane passing through the point; find the expression for the directive force.

8. Prove that the force exerted by a closed circuit on the pole of a magnet passes through the pole.

9. Two magnets of unequal strength are suspended successively by the same wire or thread, and in the horizontal position; find the position of the plane of detorsion of the thread, the angle contained by the axes of the two magnets being known, and also the ratios of the torsion force to the magnetic force for each of them.

10. In Gauss's method of deflection, show that the moment of the force opposed to the action of the deflecting magnet is

(mX cos + H) sin (u – uo),

I being the coefficient of torsion, and u and up the angles formed by the axis of the magnet with the magnetic meridian, when the deflecting magnet is present and removed.

11. Given the inclination of the dipping needle, in any plane whose azimuth is known, deduce thence the inclination in the plane of the magnetic meridian, or the dip.

12. The time of vibration of a bifilar magnet in its ordinary position (perpendicular to the magnetic meridian) is a geometric mean between the times of vibration in the magnetic meridian, with the poles direct and reversed. Prove this.

13. Describe the pyrheliometer of M. Pouillet, and the manner of using it.

14. Prove that the quantity of heat received from the sun in a day, on a given surface, and at the equinoxes, is proportional to the cosine of the latitude.

15. Describe M. Bravais' method of determining the height of clouds by observation; and deduce the formula employed.

Mental and Moral Science.


1. The approximation of Aristotle to some recent philosophical views is pointed out by Schwegler? He shows, however, that unsubdued dualism is still to be found in three important Aristotelian doctrines ?

2. Give an account of the principal theories which have been proposed respecting Space and Time; and state the objections to which each seems exposed. Kant's entire system is founded on his peculiar views upon this subject ?

3. How does Kant compare and contrast General and Transcendental Logic?-and what explanation does he give of the nature and limits of the “ Analytic of Principles” ?

State exactly what he means by the “Transcendental Synthesis of the Imagination"; and point out the importance of this operation in his general system.

4. Classify the forms assumed by Idealism previously to the time of Kant, and discuss his proposed refutation. He attempts to confirm his argument from a consideration of the conditions necessary to prove the objective validity of the categories ?

5. On what principle does Kant arrange the paralogisms of Psychology, and how does he show them to be deceptive? Cousin's enumeration is incomplete, and leads to a partial consideration of an important question ? Idealism is unavoidable on the Rationalistic System?

6. Explain Fichte's method of deriving the categories of Substance and Cause; and point out the relation of his theory to that of Spinoza. Give Mr. Mansel's general comparison of the earlier philosophies of Fichte and Schelling.

7. Examine the different theories which have been proposed to explain the process of attention, and the difficulties which have been suggested in respect to this operation.

8. Discuss the question respecting the way in which we acquire the knowledge of extension in reference to the theories of Platner, Sir William Hamilton, and Mr. Mansel.

9. In considering the question as to whether there can be a Science of Psychology, Mr. Mill criticizes the method employed by certain writers of his own school?

He gives instances to prove the necessity of such a Science, and makes an important observation as to the way in which organic differences may influence mental phenomena?

Give a summary of his views respecting Ethology, and its relation to Psychology

10. Sir William Hamilton notices several exaggerations of the principle of Association, and points out the connexion of one of these with another very general but erroneous opinion ? State the principal objections to the latter.

1. Mr. Mansel, in deriving the laws and limitations of Thought in general, differs from (a) Mr. Mill, and (8) Kant ?

12. Prove that the scholastic interpretation of the Aristotelian doctrine of Demonstrative Syllogisms is erroneous, and state what Mr. Mansel considers to be the true Aristotelic theory of geometrical reasoning: How does he infer this ?


1. Give an account of Warburton's doctrine of the origin of Society. a. How does he differ from Bacon? 6. And from Aristotle? c. State Warburton's opinion as to the defects of human Society. d. The protection afforded by Society not properly a reward ?

2. State Butler's argument to show that punishment for the good of Society does not imply ill desert. 3.

The opinion of necessity, considered as practical, is false.” Give a full abstract of Butler's argument in defence of this proposition.

4. Cicero says: “Virtus omnis tribus in rebus fere vertitur.” Explain this. What are the three things ?

5. Write an Essay on the Argument from Final Causes, discussing particularly the following topics :

a. The use made of Final Causes in the Platonic and Aristotelic philosophy.

b. The censure of Final Causes, as “sterile," by Lord Bacon; and his remark, “Magis in hac parte accusandus Aristoteles quam Plato.”

c. The relation of the Argument from Final Causes to the Analogical argument of Bp. Butler.

d. The objection from the waste of animal and vegetable life, and from the more formidable consideration of loss of souls.

6. Το δ' ότε δεί και εφ' οίς και προς τους και ού ένεκα και ως δεί, μέσον τε και άριστον, όπερ έστι της αρετής. ομοίως δε και περί τας πράξεις έστιν υπερβολή και έλλειψις και το μέσον. ή δ' άρετή περί πάθη και πράξεις εστίν, εν οις ή μεν υπερβολή αμαρτάνεται και η έλλειψις ψέγεται, το δε μέσον επαινείται και κατορθούται: ταύτα δ' άμφω της αρετής. μεσότης τις άρα εστίν η αρετή, στοχαστική γε ούσα του μέσου. έτι το μεν αμαρτάνειν πολλαχώς έστιν (το γάρ κακόν του απείρου, ώς οι Πυθαγόρειοι είκαζον, το δ' αγαθόν του πεπερασμένου), το δε κατορθούν μοναχώς διό και το μέν ράδιον το δε χαλεπόν, ράδιον μεν το αποτυχείν, του σκοπού, χαλεπόν δε το επιτυχείν. και διά ταύτ' ούν της μεν κακίας ή υπερβολή και η έλλειψις, της δ' αρετής ή μεσότης

εσθλοι μέν γάρ απλώς παντοδαπώς δε κακοί. "Έστιν άρα η αρετή έξις προαιρετική εν μεσότητι ούσα τη προς ημάς, ωρισμένη λόγω και ώς άν ο φρονιμος ορίσειεν.

Translate this passage, and write a commentary upon it, with especial reference to the Aristotelic principle of μεσότης. .

7. Give an account of the Ideal Theory of Plato, as explained by Archer Butler; showing its relation to Dialectics as well as Ethics.

8. Explain the Platonic conception of Matter, as contrasted with that of Aristotle, Des Cartes, and Locke. Plato and Aristotle used different Greek words to express the materia of modern philosophers ?

9. Give an account of the principal doctrines in Aristotle's Ethics, , which appear to have been borrowed from Plato.

10. Explain the principal differences between the Ethical doctrines of Aristotle and Plato.

11. Give an account of Archbishop King's theory on the Origin of Evil.

Classics. .


Translate the following passages into English :1. Beginning, τούτο μέν ειδώς άπαθε Μάγνης άμα ταϊς πολιαϊς κατι

ούσαις, κ. τ.λ. Ending, θόρυβον χρηστών ληναΐτην.

ARISTOPHANES, Eq., 520. 2. Beginning, αλλά παλαιά γάρ, κ. τ.λ. Ending, έκαλος έπειμί γήρας ές τε τον μορσιμον αιώνα.

PINDAR, Isthm., vi. 16.

3. Beginning, πώς γαρ τις εχθρούς έχθρα πορσύνων, φίλοις, κ. τ.λ. Ending, πλησας αραίων αυτός εκπίνει μολών.

ÆSCHYLUS, Agam., 1345. 4. Beginning, Πολλή μεν γαρ εκατέροις προθυμία από τών, κ.τ.λ. Ending, αεί γαρ' παρ' ολίγον ή διέφευγον ή απώλλυντο.

THUCYDIDES, vii. 70, 71. 5. Beginning, Και των μεν άλλων εσθ' εκάστη τις πρόφασις, κ. τ.λ. Ending, δήλον ότι πάνδεινος εί τις.

DEMOSTHENES, De Fals. Leg., 128-131.


Translate the following passages into English :-
I. Beginning, Και Τιτυόν είδον, Γαίης έρικυδέος υιόν, κ. τ.λ.
Ending, τας δ' άνεμος ρίπτασκε ποτέ νέφεα σκιόεντα

HOMER, Odyssey, XI. 576-592. 2. Beginning, tϋγξ, έλκε τυ τηνον εμόν ποτί δώμα τον άνδρα, κ. τ.λ. Ending, α θεός εν τριόδοισι το χαλκίον ως τάχος έχει.

THEOCRITUS, Pharmak., 17-36. 3. Beginning, "Οτ' ούν δη τα νύν οία τέκτοσιν ημίν ύλη, κ. τ.λ. Ending, αισθήσει τε άλόγω και επιχειρητή παντός έρωτι:

Plato, Timæus, s. 43, 44. 4. Beginning, Τα μεν πάντα ου ράδιον, ώ εταίρε, κ. τ.λ. Ending, εφ' όν αι ασκήσεις αύται, και οι πόνοι άγουσιν.

LUCIAN, De Gymnasiis, 15.


Translate the following passage into Greek Prose :Beginning, If, too, there be indeed any one who fancies that the Syra

cusans, , Ending, neither ye nor others have shown any such promptitude.

From Translation of Thucydides.


Translate the following passage into Greek Tragic Tambics :-
Beginning, Gordon. My Prince !
Ending, For still unsteady are the scales of fate.

COLERIDGE, The Death of Wallenstein, act v. sc. 2.

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