allies; when the yeuovia of Athens passed insensibly into a vals. The westernmost compartment at the rear of the Topoarts (Thucyd., i. 63); when the contribution of ships and cella was the Opisthodom us, which served as the national men was commuted in most cases for a money payment, treasury; hither poured in the tribute of the Athenian and the funds of the confederation were transferred from allics. It is important to remember that the Parthenon the Apollonium at Delos to the Athenian Acropolis,-an was never intended as a temple of worship; for this purenormous revenue became at the disposal of the Athenian pose there already existed another temple, presently to be Government. It is to their credit that so little of it found described as the Erechtheium,--standing upon the primeval its way into private pockets. It was patural for the site of that contest between Athena and Poseidon which thoughts of a Greek, especially of an Athenian, to turn to established the claim of the goddess to the Attic citadel the decoration of his city; it was politic that the central and soil. The Parthenon was simply designed to be the city of the Ionian confederacy should be adorned with a central point of the Panathenaic festival, and the storehouse beauty equal to her prestige. The buildings connected for the sacred treasure. The entire temple should be with the name of Cimon had been chiefly for utility or regarded as one vast åvá nua to the national deity, not as a defence; those of Pericles were mainly ornamental. The place for her worship. Thus directly in front of her statue first edifice completed by him seems to have been the in the cella there stood an erection, which has been mistaken Odeiam, on the E of the Dionysiac theatre, to serve as a for an altar, but which is more probably to be regarded place for recitations by rhapsodists, and for musical per- as the platform which the victorious competitors in the formances. It was burnt by Aristion during Sulla's siege Panathenaic contests ascended to receive, as it were from the of Athens, but afterwards rebuilt. Mention has already hand of the goddess, the golden chaplets and vases of olive been made of the building of the Long Walls and the laying oil that formed the prizes (seo Michaelis's Parthenon, p. 31). out of the Piræeus by Pericles; but it was the Acropolis This consideration londs significance_to the decorations of itself which witnessed the greatest splendours of his the building, which were the work of Phidias. Within administration. Within its limited area arose buildings the outer portico, along the outside of the top of the wall and statues, on which the genius of Phidias the sculptor, of the building, ran a frieze 3 feet 4 inches in height, and of Ictinus and Mnesicles the architects, were employed for 520 feet in total length, on which were sculptured figures years; while multitudes of artists and craftsmen of all kinds in low relief”, representing the Panathenaic procession. were busied in carrying out their grand designs. The Nearly all of these sculptures are in the British Museum, spoils of the Persian War had already been consecrated and the entire series has been recently made compléte by under Cimon to the honour of the national goddess, in the casts from the other fragments, and arranged in the order of erection of a colossal statue of Athena by Phidias between the original design. The marvellous beauty of these reliefs, the entrance of the Acropolis and the Érechtheium ; her which was heightened originally by colour, has been long warlike attitude gained her the title of Ilpóuayos, and the familiar to all the world from numerous illustrated descripgleam of her helmet's plume and uplifted spear was hailed tions. The procession of youths and maidens, of priests by the homeward seaman as he doubled Cape Sunium and magistrates, of oxen for sacrifice, of flute-players and (Pausan., i 28). But the national deity was to receive yet singers, followed by the youthful chivalry of Athens on greater honours at the hand of Pericles. That an old prancing steeds--is represented as wending its way from temple stood on the site afterwards occupied by the Par the west towards the eastern entrance. Outside of the thenon is proved, less by the doubtful expressions of Hero building, on the N. and S. sides, the metopes between the dotas (viii. 51, 55), and the testimony of later compilers Doric triglyphs were filled with sculptures representing like Hesychius, than by recent excavations, which reveal scenes from the mythical history of Athens. But the that a large temple must have been at least begun upon glory of the Parthenon were the sculptures of the E. and this spot when the Persian invaders destroyed the old W. pediments. Unhappily but a few figures remain, and buildings of the Acropolis by fire. Here, then, Pericles none are wholly perfect, of the statues which formed these proceeded to rear what has ever since been known as the groups ; and Pausanias appears to have thought it superParthenon. The designer of this masterpiece of architecture fuous to give a minute description of objects so familiar to was Ictinus; the foundations of the old temple were at his every connoisseur and traveller. The sculptures on the suggestion extended in length and breadth, and thus arose eastern pediment related to the birth of Athena ; the cenapon the & side of the Acropolis a magnificent temple of tral group was early destroyed by the Byzantine Christians the virgin goddess. It was completed in the year 438 in converting the Parthenon into a church, with the Pronaos BC. It stood upon the highest platform of the Acropolis, for its apse. But nearly all the subordinate figures are so that the pavement of the peristyle of the Parthenon was preserved in a more or less injured condition in the British on a level with tho capitals of the columns of the east Museum. The noble head of the horse of the car of Night, portico of the Propylæa. The temple was built entirely of the seated female figures of “The Fates," and the grand white marble from the quarries of Mount Pentelicus. torso commonly known as the “Theseus," are familiar to Ascending a flight of three steps, you passed through the us all. It would be out of place here even to enumerate great east entrance into the Pronaos, wherein was stored a | the many attempts that have been made to reconstruct the large collection of sacred objects, chiefly of silver. From groups of either pediment. The sculptures on the W. the Pronaos a massive door led into the cella, called represented the contest between Athena and Poseidon for Hecatompedos (véws & 'Ekaróunedos), because it measured the possession of Attica; and although scarcely any porin length 100 Attic feet. The treasure here bestowed tions of these figures are now existing, yet they are better consisted chiefly of chaplets and other objects of gold. known to us than the E. pediment by means of the faithful The west portion of the cella was railed off (by kuyxides), (if clumsy) sketches made by the Frenchman Carrey in and formed the Parthenon proper, i.e., the adytum occupied 1674, when they were in a comparatively perfect state. by the chryselephantine statue by Phidias of Athena Those who desire to know all that is to be known concernParthenos,- a work which yielded the pre-eminence only ing the sculptures of the Parthenon should consult the to one other statue by the same artist, viz., the Zeus at beautiful work of Michaelis, Der Parthenon, while the Olympia. In this adytum were stored a number of silver bowls and other articles employed at the Panathénaic festi

See the remarks of Mr Ruskin, Aratro Pontelica, p. 174.

Ho who desires to enjoy these sculptures, should come from a

peru sal of Michaelis's eloquent work Dor Parthenon, and spend a day See the animated description in Plutarch, Pericles, 12, foll. l in the British Museum with the guide-book in his hand,

measurements and architectural details of the edifice have ways, still in existence, by which the citadel was entered. never been 80 splendidiy given as by our countryman The wall in which these doors were pierced was thrown Penrose, in his Principles of Athenian Architecture. back about 50 feet from the front of the artificial opening

We will turn now to the other buildings of the Acropolis, of the hill, and the whole may therefore be said to have none of which, however, are so full of significance as the resembled a modern fortification, although, in fact, the Parthenon itself. For, indeed, standing as it does on the Propylæa was designed, not for defence, but for decoration. hig) est point of Athenian soil, its erection marked the The whole building was of Pentelic marble. The Megaron culininating point of Athenian history, literature, politics, or great vestibule in the centre consisted of a front of six and art. The “ Birth of Athena," over the eastern entrance, fluted Doric columns, mounted upon four steps, which may symbolise to us the sudden growth of Athenian great supported a pediment, and measured 5 feet in diameter and ness, while in the contest between the armed goddess of nearly 29 in height, with an intercolumniation of 7 feet, peaceful wisdom and the violent god of sea, which adorned except between the two central columns, which were 13 the western front, we may see an allegory of the long foet apart, in order to furnish space for a carriage-way. struggle between the agricultural and the maritime interests Behind this Doric colonnade was a vestibule 43 feet in which forms the central thread of Athenian history. depth, the roof of which was sustained by six inner columns

Opposite to the Parthenon, on the northern edge of the in a double row, so as to divide the vestibule into three Acropolis, stands another remarkable temple, far smaller aisles or compartments; and these columns, although only in size, and built in the most graceful forms of the Ionic three feet and a half in diameter at the base, were, includ. order. The Erechtheium appears to be designed expressly | ing the capitals, nearly 34 feet in height, their architraves to contrast with the severe sublimity of the Parthenon; being on the same level with the frieze of the Doric and on the side which confronts those mighty Doric shafts, colonnade. The ceiling was laid upon marble beams, the columns of the smaller building are allowed to trans- resting upon the lateral walls and the architraves of the form themselves into Canephori. The temple of Athena two rows of Ionic columns,—those covering the side aisles Polias, which contained the ancient wooden image of the being 22 feet in length, and those covering the central goddess, and formed the centre of her worship, suffered aisles 17 feet, with a proportional breadth and thickness. from fire in the Persian War (479 B.C.) A building 80 Enormous masses like these, raised to the roof of a building, sacred would hardly have been allowed to remain for long standing upon a steep hill, and covered with a ceiling in ruins; but it was reserved for Pericles to set about a which all the resources of art had been employed to complete restoration of it. However, the Peloponnesian beautify, might well overcome the reserve of a matter-ofWar seems to have interrupted his designs, and in the year fact topographer like Pausanias, and at once account for 409 BO. the edifice was still unfinished, and soon after and justify the unusual warmth of his language when he is this it was totally destroyed by fire. But soon afterwards speaking of the roof of the Propylæa (i. 22). Of the five it must have been rebuilt, without doubt retaining all its doors at the extremity of the vestibule, the width of the original features. The temple in its present state consists central and largest was equal to the space between the two of an oblong cella extending fom E to W. From each central columns of the Doric portico in front, and the same side of the W. end of the cella projects a portico, forming a also as that between the two rows of Ionic columns in the sort of transept. The eastern portico formed the temple of vestibule ; but the doors on either side of the principal one Athena Polias, upon the site of her ancient contest with were of diminished height and breadth, and the two beyond Poseidon. The west portion was the Pandroseium, dedicated these again were still smaller in both dimensions. These to Athena Pandrosus. The building thus formed two five gates or doors led from the vestibule into a back portico temples in one, and is styled by Pausanias a διπλούν οίκημα. 18 feet in depth, which was fronted with a Doric colonnade It seems at a later time to have been commonly called the and pediment of the same dimensions as those of the Erechtheium, because of a tradition that Erechtheus was western or outer portico, but placed on a higher level, there buried on this site.

being five steps of ascent from the western to the level of Among the many glories of the Acropolis, the Propylæa the eastern portico. From the latter or inner portico are described by Pausanias as being exceptionally magni- there was a descent of one step into the adjacent part of ficent (i 22). They rivalled even the Parthenon, and the platform of the Acropolis. were the most splendid of all the buildings of Pericles. The wings of the Propylæa were nearly symmetrical in The western end of the Acropolis, which furnished, and front, each presenting on this side a wall adorned only with still furnishes, the only access to the summit of the hill, a frieze of triglyphs, and with antæ at the extremities. was about 160 feet in breadth,-a frontage so narrow, that the inner or southernmost column of each wing stood in to the artists of Pericles it appeared practicable to fill up a line with the great Doric columns of the Megaron ; and the space with a single building, which, in serving the as both these columns and those of the wings were upon main purpose of a gateway, should contribute to adorn as the same level, the three porticoes were all connected well as to guard the citadel. This work, which rivalled the together, and the four steps which ascended to the Megaron Parthenon in felicity of execution, and surpassed it in were continued also along the porticoes of the two wings. boldness and originality of design, was begun in the But here the symmetry of the building ended; for, in archonship of Euthymenes, in the year 437 B.O., and com- | regard to interior size and distribution of parts, the wings pleted in five years, under the directions of the architect were excoedingly dissimilar. In the northern or left wing, Mnesicles. Of the space which formed the natural entrance & porch of 12 feet in depth conducted by three doors to the Acropolis, 58 feet near the centre were left for the into a chamber of 34 feet by 26, the porch and chamber grand entrance, and the remainder on either side was thus occupying the entire space behind the western wall of occupied by wings projecting 32 feet in front of the central that wing; whereas the southern or right wing consisted colonnade. The entire building received the name of only of a porch or gallery of 26 feet by 16, which, on the Propylæa from its forming the vestibule to the five door S. and E. sides, was formed by a wall connected with

and of the same thickness as the lateral wall of the

Megaron, and, on the W. side, had its roof supported by 1 An important inscription in the British Museum gives a survey of the works as they stood in that year, drawn up by a commission ap

a narrow pilaster, standing between the N.W. column pointed for the purpose. See Groek Inscriptions in the British M

of the wing and an anta, which terminated its southern terum, vol i. No. 35.

wall. In front of the southern or right wing of the Propylæa there stood, so late as the year 1676, the small , dedicate the prize tripods within the sacred precincts of Ionic temple dedicated to Athena Nike, and commonly | the theatre; but when this space was filled, they gradually known by the ancients as the temple of the Wingless extended all along this street, and their erection was made Victory (Níny antepos), which has already been mentioned more and more a matter of private display. One of these as probably one of the buildings of Cimon. Perhaps shrines still stands, and is well known as the monument of before the 18th century this building was pulled down by Lysicrates. It bears the following inscription upon its the Turks, and the only remains of it-parts of the frieze architrave :-“Lysicrates, son of Lysitheides, of the deme built into a wall—which were known in his day were carried | Cicynna, was choragus; the tribe Acamantis gained the off by Lord Elgin, and are now in the British Museum. prize with a chorus of boys; Theon accompanied then In 1835 careful excavations were made under the directions upon the flute; Lysiades of Athens tanght them; Euænetus of Professor Ross, when not only were the remains of the was archon." In other words, the date of this monument Propylæa opened up far more clearly than before, but also was 335 B.C. Fifteen years after that a somewhat similar nearly all the fragments of this little temple of Victory were shrine was reared at the topmost summit of the back of discovered ; they had been used for building & Turkish the great theatre, where an ancient grotto was by Thrasyllas battery, and so preserved. Thus the temple was at once converted into a choragic monument. "The Byzantine restored by a reconstruction of the original fragments. Christians transformed the building into 'a chapel of the Few quarters of ancient Athens have received more advan Virgin, under the title of Panaghia Spiliotissa, or Our tage from judicious excavation in recent years than this Lady of the Grotto. Early travellers describe this little western end of the Acropolis.

shrine as consisting of three pilasters engaged in a plain From the disastrous termination of the Peloponnesian wall, surmounted by an inscribed architrave;. above was war to the get more fatal defeat at Chæroneia, the architec supported a figure of Dionysus, now preserved, but in a tural history of Athens is a blank, only interrupted by the much injured state, in the British Museum. On the top restoration of the Long Walls and the rebuilding of the of the statue originally rested the tripod that formed the fortifications of Piræeus by Conon, both of which had been prize of Thrasylius. destroyed by Lysander. The financial genius of the orator The Macedonian period again márks a new epoch in the Lycurgus, whose administration lasted from 338 to 325 B.O., history of Athenian topography. Henceforward almost replenished to some extent the exhausted resources of his every embellishment Athens received was at the hands of country. He reorganised hor finance, he catalogued and the various foreign princes, whose tastes inclined them to rearranged the sacred and national treasuries, and brought patronise a city so rich in historical associations, and 80 order and efficiency into every department of state. This ready to reward each new admirer with an equal tribute new impulse made itself felt in building activity. The of servile adulation. But whatever decoration the city Dionysiac theatre was now first completed ; and though, as might owe to royal vanity or munificence, her connection we have already seen, many of the sculptures and other with these foreign potentates brought her far more of injury marbles recently uncovered on its site are the restorations than advantage. She became entangled in their wars, and of a very much later age, yet we may confidently assume usually found herself upon the losing side... that in all material points the theatre as we are now able Upon the death of Alexander the Athenians claimed to view it represents the condition of the building as it their liberty, but they at once had to submit to Antipater stood in the time of Lycurgus. Another remarkable work (322 B.C.), who placed a garrison in Munychia. It perhaps which signalised his administration was the Panathenaic was he who defaced the ancient Pnyx; at all events, from Stadium. On the southern side of the Ilissus, at right this time forward the political oratory of Athens became angles to the stream, a hollow space was scooped out of silent for ever. In 318 B.o. Demetrius the Phalerean was the soil, some 680 feet in length and 130 in breadth. It made governor of Athens by Cassander, and received every is possible that the site had been used for gymnastic contests kind of homage from his servile subjects. But as soon before the orator's time; it was he, however, who first as the other Demetrius, surnamed Poliorcetes, appeared andertook to level it properly and lay it out. But it was in the Piræens, the Athenians welcomed him with open reserved for the munificence of Herodes Atticus finally to arms. For restoring to them the forms of democracy complete it. He furnished the place with magnificent seats he was extolled with abject adulation, and had assigned to of Pentelic marble, tier upon tier, capable of accommodat him a residence in the Opisthodomus of the Parthenon ing, at the very least, 40,000 spectators. An attempt was itself, where he profaned the sanctuary of the virgin recently made to excavate the Stadium, but it was found goddess with unbridled sensuality. Upon the defeat of that every trace of antiquity had been destroyed, the Antigonus at Ipsis (301 B.C.), Demetrius fled from Athens, marble having been used as a quarry for building pur- and under Lachares, the leading demagogue of the time, poseen

the city enjoyed the shadow of independence. But the The administration of Lycurgus is an important era indemagogue soon developed into a tyrant, and when Athepian architecture ; for after his time we never seem | Demetrius reappeared in 296 B.C. and besieged the city, to hear of any more buildings having been reared by the Lachares had to fly from the indignatiou of the citizens, Athenian Government. The best-known extant edifices of taking with him the golden shields that adorned the eastern the period immediately following were the work of wealthy | front of the Acropolis, and having rifled the chryselephanprivate persons. Round the eastern end of the Acropolis, tine statue itself.. Again, in 268 B.o., Athens endured a starting from the eastern entrance of the Dionysiac theatre, long siege from Antigonus Gonatas, who laid waste the then leaving the Odeium of Pericles to the left, and thence surrounding country. Still more disastrous was the in. sweeping westward to the Agora, there ran a street which effectual siege by Philip V. in 200 B.O., who, pitching his formed a favourite promenade in ancient Athens, commonly I camp at Cynosarges, destroyed everything that lay aroundknown as the “Street of Tripods." It gained this name the temple of Heracles, the gymnasium there, and the from the small votive shrines which adorned it, supporting | Lyceium as well. At length, in 146 B.C., Greece became upon their summit the bronze tripods which had been a Roman province, and Athens succumbed peacefully to obtained as prizes in the choragic contests. The tripods the Roman yoke. thus mounted often themselves served as a frame to some During the inglorious period of Athenian-listory which masterpiece of sculpture, such, for example, as the famous has just been sketched, several rew buildings were reared by satys of Praxiteles. It had early become the custom to the munificence of foreign princes Ptolemy Philadelphus gave his name to a large gymnasium-tho Ptolemæum-/ us lists of the students from all quarters who, while pursubuilt, by him near the Theseium. Attalus I., king of ing their studies at Athens, enrolled themselves at a Pergamus, erected a stoa on the north-east of the Agora, gymnasium, and there had the advantage of a social life and laid out a garden in the Academy. His successor, and regular discipline, which reminds one somewhat of the Eumenes IL (197–159 B.C.), built another stoa near the college system in the English universities.* great theatre. Antiochus Epiphanes designed the comple But enough has now been said of the condition of tion of the Olympium, a work which was interrupted by Athenian society under the Roman rule ; it is time to his death.

enumerate the embellishments which the city received Under the rule of the Romans Athens enjoyed the during this period. It is uncertain at what exact date the privileges of a libera civitas, i.e., no garrison was intro Horologium of Andronicus of Cyrrhus was erected, which duced into the town, no tribute was levied upon it, and is generally known as the Tower of the Winds. It is first the constitution was nominally left unaltered. The mentioned by Varro (De Re Rust., iii. 5, 17), and is thereAreopagus, indeed, under Roman influence, recovered fore older than 35 B.C., though certainly not earlier than some of its ancient power, and was made to take pre the Roman conquest. This monument, so familiar to cedence of the more democratic assemblies of the Boule and every scholar, is described by Virruvius (i. 6, 4) as an Ecclesia. The revision also of the laws by Hadrian octagonal tower of marble. It stands at what anciently would, of course, introduce some changes. Yet it may formed the eastern extremity of the Roman Agora, surely be maintained that Athens under the Roman presently to be described. On each face, beneath the domi

minion was in a far better position than in the days be cornice, is sculptured the figure of the wind which blew fore the taking of Corinth by Mummius, when she had been from the corresponding quarter; on the top of the roof at the mercy of each successive Macedonian pretender. was a pedestal supporting a bronze triton (now destroyed), The Romans appear to have shown a remarkable respect which was constructed to turn with the wind, and to point for the feelings of the Athenian people. It would be out the wind's quarter with a wand which he held in his superfluous here to recall the warm expressions of admira hand. The sculptured figures of the winds are in good tion which fall from Cicero and Horace when speaking of preservation, though of a declining period of art. They Athens.. A visit to Athens was regarded by the educated represent the four cardinal points and the intermediate Roman as a kind of pilgrimage, I One great disaster quarters between these. Each has his emblems : Boreas, Athens did indeed undergo at the hands of Rome; this | the north wind, blows his noisy conch; Notus, the rainy was the siege and plunder of the city by Sulla in the south wind, bears his water-jar; Zephyrus, the west wind, Mithridatic Wan Yielding to the threats of the king and has his lap full of flowers, and so on. Under each figure the representations of the villainous Aristion, the Athenians are the remains of a sun-dial; and besides all these external had joined the cause of the king of Pontus, and Sulla features, the interior was constructed to form a water-clock, deliberately resolved to gratify his revenge (Athenæus, v. | supplied with water from the spring at the Acropolis called 47, foll.; Plut. Sulla, 12). After & protracted siege, in Clepsydra. Thus in cloudy weather a substitute was prowhich the inhabitants suffered the extreme of famine, vided for the dial and the sun. mocked at once by the insolence of Aristion within, and The Agora in Cerameicus has already been described, pressed by a remorseless foe without, Athens at length and it was there noticed that the name Cerameicus often was taken on March 1, 86 B.C. Many of the public appears to be employed alone to denote the Agora. This buildings (happily not the most important) were over- may be easily accounted for. By the munificence of thrown, much of the sacred treasure was rifled by the Julius Cæsar and of Augustus, a propylæum of four soldiers, and many works of art, together with the library Doric columns, which still exist, was reared at the N.E. of Apellicon, containing the collections of Aristotle and extremity of the Cerameicus Agora. The space between Theophrastus, were carried off by the cultivated Sulla. the central columns is about 12 feet, between the side The loss of life was also great : large numbers were columns not quite 5 feet. Over the pediment is a butchered by the soldiery, and the Agora of Cerameicus pedestal, with an inscription in honour of Lucius Cæsar, flowed with blood. We are told that Sulla was wont to the grandson of Augustus, whose equestrian statue it take credit for having "spared Athens." He did not appears to have supported. This propylæum has by indeed destroy it, but his conduct on this occasion alone some archæologists been regarded as a portico of a temple would suffice to fix an indelible stain upon his memory. to Athena Archegetis, to whom we learn, from an inscripWith this disastrous exception, Athens prospered under tion on the architrave, that the building was dedicated out the Roman rule, and students from all parts of the Græco of the moneys given by Julius and Augustus. But there Roman world filocked thither to attend the lectures of the can be no reasonable doubt that these columns formed philosophers and rhetoricians, or to view the countless the entrance into a new Agora, dedicated to Athena works of art that adorned the city. Athenian society grew Archegetis, just as it was customary with the Romans more and more academic. The current tone of educated to dedicate a forum to some deity, and intended chiefly, circles was antiquarian even to pedantry. The inscriptions it would seem, for the sale of the olive oil which formed relating to the Roman period clearly reveal to us the chief so large and characteristic an export from Athens. This interests of contemporary Athenian life. Epitaphs in appears to be proved by the lengthy inscription (see abundance testify to the devoidaquovia which delighted in Böckh, Corp. Inscr. Græc., No. 355) which exists immediproper names derived from deities and religious ceremonies, ately within the entrance, and contains an edict of the and the pride of genealogical pedantry. Honorary decrees Emperor Hadrian regulating the sale of oil and, the abound to justify the charge of adulation which was the duties payable upon it. It is easy to understand how, reproach of the later Athenians. But the commonest class after the erection of the Roman Agora, the old market of monuments are the gymnastic inscriptions, which give would be styled ŷ dyopà èv Kepapielko or simply Cerameicus, Agora? The “ Tower of the Winds," which had previously I cular immortalised his name. One was the Stadium, been erected, formed, with its useful timepieces, an appro- which he adorned with magnificeni marble seats. The priate embellishment at the north-eastern extremity. The other was the Odeium (see Pausan., vii. 20), the ruins of market was enclosed by a wall, and it was reserved for which are still to be seen under the south-west of the Hadrian to complete its decoration by building a magnificent Acropolis. An odeium resembled a theatre in its general stoa on its northern side. Augustus himself received the plan and the purposes it served: it differed apparently in honour of a small circular shrine upon the Acropolis, being roofed in. The ancient theatres were open to the dedicated to Augustus and Roma. His son-in-law Agrippa sky; but the most remarkable feature of this odeium, built was honoured by an equestrian statue in front of the Pro- by Herodes in honour of his deceased wife Regilla, was pylæn, the pedestal of which still exists. The Agrippeium its roof of cedar, fragments of which were actually diswas a theatre erected by Agrippa in the Cerameicus. It covered in the excavations made upon this site in 1857. is possible, moreover, that the Diogeneium—the only It is a fortunate circumstance that the best and only gymnasium mentioned in the Ephebic inscriptions of the extant account of ancient Athens came from the pen of a imperial period—was built about this time. Its site has traveller who visited the city just at the time when the recently been thought to have been discovered about 200 munificence of Hadrian and of Herodes had left nothing yards east of the Tower of the Winds. Whatever licen- more to be added to its embellishment. The Odeium of tiousness and misgovernment might mark the reign of Regilla, indeed, had not been commenced when Pausanias succeeding emperors, they at all events refrained from doing visited Athens, and he describes it later on in his seventh injury to Athens. It had been proposed to finish the great book. We may place his tour through Athens about the year temple of Zeus Olympius in honour of Augustus, but the 170 A.D. His manner of description is as methodical as a design fell through, and it was reserved for Hadrian to modern guide-book, and his very knowledge and appreciation finally complete the building of this magnificent temple, of the endless masterpieces of Grecian art prevent him some six centuries from the time when the first stone was from covering his pages, like some modern tourists, with laid.

while the new oil-market would be distinguished as the 1 The beautiful elegy of Propertius, beginning “ Magnum iter ad doctas proficisci cogor Athenas" (iv. 21), is worth referring to.

• See Greek Inscriptions ini the British Museum, No. 39, and soul. Soo noto in No. 81 of Greek Inscriptions in the British Museu The best account of the condition of Athens under the Romans may also No. 93.

be found in a dissertation by H. L. Ahrens, De Athenarum statu Cf. ibid., No. 47; and Cumapudes, 'Emypagal 'ATTiKS &ATÚM politico, &c., and another by Professor Dittenberger, De Ephebia Biol, passim,


rapturous word-painting and expressions of delight. He The reign of Hadrian made literally a new era in the begins his account of Athens (bk. i. ch. i.-ii. $ l) with a history of Athens.2 For Greece, and especially for Athens, description of the Piræeus and the harbours, and his first this emperor entertained a passionate admiration. He tour is along the road from Phalerum tu the city, where he condescended to hold the office of archon eponymus; in enters by the Itonian gate, within which he finds a his honour a thirteenth tribe, Hadrianis, was instituted ; monument to the Amazon Antiope. In his next tour (ch. and the emperor shared with Zeus the title of Olympius, ii. $ 2-ch. v.) he supposes us to start again from Piræeus, and the honours of the newly-finished temple. While, and approach the city along the remains of the Long Walls. however, many portions of the city bore witness to his Thus entering the city by the Piræan gate, he conducts munificence, it was in the south-eastern quarter that most us along the southern side of the old Agora (which he of his new buildings arose, in the neighbourhood of the styles the Cerameicus), describing all the buildings that Olympium. This suburb was accordingly styled Had occur upon the way, from the Stoa Basileius and another rianopolis, or New Athens, to distinguish it from the old stoa near it, adorned with a statue of Zeus Eleutherius, in city of Theseus and of Themistocles. The arch of Hadrian an eastward direction past the temple of Apollo Patrous, still staaris in a fairly perfect state, and marks the boundary the Metroum, the Bouleuterium, and Tholus, and other between the ancient town and the new suburb embellished buildings, which lay at the northern and north-eastern foot by Hadrian. On the north-western front of the architrave of the Areopagus. This walk ends with the mention of is the inscription gia Aqva ongs Tpy Tos; the temple Eucleia and the Eleusinium. It is not easy to on the other front, aid' cio'Adplavoû kal o'xi Onoéws móds. see why Pausanias here introduces an account of the founAt the same time many of the older buildings underwent tain Enneacrunus and the temple of Demeter and Core, restoration at his command. Nor was his bounty shown which every archæologist hitherto has placed near the in works of building alone. He ceded to the Athenians Ilissus, in the south-eastern extremity of the city.* In his the island of Cephallenia, and bestowed upon them large next walk (ch. xiv. § 5-xvii. $ 3), having already descrikud presents of money, and an annual largess of corn.

the south side of the Cerameicus Agora, he starts again The immediate successors of Hadrian were guided by from the Stoa Basileius, describes the buildings on the his example. Antoninus Pius completed an aqueduct west and north of the Agora, and then enters the new or which Hadrian had commenced for bringing water into the Roman Agora. In this tour he mentions the altar of town from the Cephisus. Marcus Aurelius visited Athens Mercy, the gymnasium of Ptolemy, the Theseium, the for the purpose of initiation at the Eleusinian mysteries. temple of Aglaurus, and the Prytaneium. In his next

The list of distinguished persons who made themselves walk he starts from the Prytaneium, and proceeding eastfamous as benefactors of Athens may be said to close with ward (ch. xviii. $ 4, xix.), he mentions the temples of the name of Herodes Atticus the rhetorician. Herodes Sarapis and of Ileithuia, until, leaving the eastern end of and counted Marcus Aurelius amongst his pupils, and was the Acropolis at some distance on his right hand, he passes sure of a distinguished career at Rome ; but, like the through the arch of Hadrian, and describes the Olympium friend of Cicero, he preferred the more peaceful atmosphere and the other buildings of that emperor. This tour included of Greece and took the surname of Atticus. His ambition the temple of Aphrodite év K rous, the Cynosarges, the was to excel as a sophist, but he owed his fame yet more Stadium, and other buildings on both sides of the Ilissus. to the enormous wealth he inherited from his father, For his next walk he returns again to the Prytaneium (ch. which he spent in works of public munificence. Various xx.-xxviii. & 3), and enters the Street of Tripods, which towns of Greece and even of Italy were enriched by his leads him to the temple and theatre of.Dionysus, which he bounty, but Athens most of all. In addition to his describes. Thus he at length reaches the western extremity many other benefactions, two architectural works in parti

3 Curtius and others are probably mistaken in supposing the Dips: 1 The name Ceramneicus is never used by writers of pre-Roman times lum to be the gate intended by Pausanias. for the old market; they always speak of "the Agora." Pausanias • Dr Dyer, in his recent work on Athens, Appendix i., endeavours uses both words in their more modern meanings respectively.

to explain this difficulty by assuming the existence of two fountains - Many inscribed documents are found, dated" from Hadrian's first called Callirrhoe, one of which (Enneacrunus) he places on the northvisit." Seo Dittenberger in the Hermes, 1872. D. 213.

west of the Acropolis.

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