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gave His name to a large gymnasium—the Ptolemaeum— built, by him near the Theseium. Attalus L, king of Pergamus, erected a stoa on the north-east of the Agora, and laid out a garden in the Academy. His successor, Eumcnes IL (197-159 B.o.),' built another stoa near the great theatre. Antiochus Epiphanes designed the completion of the Olympium, a work which was interrupted by his death.
Under the rule of the Romans Athens enjoyed the privileges of a libera eivitat, it,, no garrison was introduced into the town, no tribute was levied upon it, and the constitution was nominally left unaltered. The Areopagus, indeed, under Roman influence, recovered some of its ancient power, and was made to take precedence of the more democratic assemblies of the Boule and Eccleaia. The revision also of the laws by Hadrian would, of course, introduce aomo changes. Yet it may surely be maintained that Athens under the Roman dominion was in a far better position than in the days before the taking of Corinth by Mummius, when she had been at the mercy of each successive Macedonian pretender. The Romans appear to have shown a remarkable respect for the feelings of the Athenian people. It would be superfluous here to recall the warm expressions of admiration which fall from Cicero and Horace when speaking of Athens.. A visit to Athens was regarded by the educated Roman as a kind of pilgrimage.1 One groat disaster Athens did indeed undergo at the hands of Rome; this was the siege and plunder of the city by Sulla in the Mithridatic Wa» Yielding to the threats of the king and the representations of the villainous Aristion, the Athenians had joined the cause of the king of Fontus, and Sulla deliberately resolved to gratify his revenge (Athenreua, v. 47, foil.; Pbjt., Sulla, 12). After a protracted siege, in which the inhabitants suffered the extreme of famine, mocked at once by the insolence of Aristion within, and pressed by a remorseless foe without, Athens at length was taken on March 1, 86 B.C. Many of the public buildings (happily not the moat important) were overthrown, much of the sacred treasure was rifled by the soldiers, and many works of art, together with the library of Apellicon, containing the collections of Aristotle and Theophraatus, were carried off by the cultivated Sulla. The loss of life was also great: large numbers were butchered by the soldiery, and the Agora of Cerameicus flowed with blood. We are told that Sulla was wont to take credit for having "spared Athens." He did not indeed destroy it, but his conduct on this occasion alone would suffice to fix an indelible stain upon his memory. With this disastrous exception, Athens prospered under the Roman rule, and students from all parts of the GrsscoRoman world flocked thither to attend the lectures of the philosophers and rhetoricians, or to view the countless works of art that adorned the city. Athenian society grew more and more academic The current tone of educated circles was antiquarian even to pedantry.' The inscriptions relating to the Roman period clearly reveal to us the chief interests of contemporary Athenian life. Epitaphs in abundance testify to the &curio<u/u>Wa which delighted in proper names derived from deities and religious ceremonies,* and the pride of genealogical pedantry. Honorary decrees abound to justify the charge of adulation which was the reproach of the later Athenians. But the commonest class of monuments are the gymnastic inscriptions, which give
1 The^beautiful elegy of Propertiae, beginning "Magnum iter ad dodos proGcisci cogor Athenes" (it. 21), ir worth referring to.
a Bee note In Mo. 81 of Greek Inscription* in the British Museum, tkn No. 98.
1 Cf. ibid.. No. 47 ; and Cumanndee, 'F.Ti-ypofol 'Arrursr Hrriu0ioi, ratlin.
us lists of the students from all quarters who, while pursuing their studies at Athens, enrolled themselves at a gymnasium, and there had the advantage of a social life and regular discipline, which reminds one somewhat of the college system in the English universities.*
But enough has now been said of the condition of Athenian society under the Roman rule; it is time to enumerate the embellishments which the city received during this period. It is uncertain at what exact date the Horologium of Andronicus of Cyrrhus was erected, which is generally known as the Tower of the Winds. It is first mentioned by Varro (De Re Ruet., iii. 8, 17), and is therefore older than 36 ac., though certainly not earlier than the Roman conquest This monument, so familiar to every scholar, is described by Virruvius (i. 6, 4) as an octagonal tower of marble. It stands at what anciently formed the eastern extremity of the Roman Agora, presently to be described. On each face, beneath the cornice, is sculptured "the figure of the wind which blew from the corresponding quarter; on the top of the- roof was a pedestal supporting a bronze triton (now destroyed), which was constructed to turn with the wind, and to point out the wind's quarter with a wand which he held in hie hand. The sculptured figures of the winds are in good preservation, though of a declining period of art. They represent the four cardinal points and the intermediate quarters between these. Each has his emblems: Boreas, the north wind, blows his noisy conch; Notus, the rainy south wind, bears his water-jar; Zephyrus, tho west wind, has his lap full of flowers, and so on. Under each figure are the remains of a sun-dial; and besides all these external features, the interior was constructed to form a water-clock, supplied with water from the spring at the Acropolis called Clepsydra. Thus in cloudy weather a substitute was provided for the dial and the sun.
The Agora in Cerameicus has already been described, and it was there noticed that the name Cerameicus often appears to bo employed alone to denote the Agora, This may be easily accounted for. By the munificence of Julius Cteear and of Augustus, a propyheum of four Doric columns, which still exist, was reared at the N.E, extremity of the Cerameicus Agora. The space between tho central columns is about 12 feet, between the side columns not quite 5 feet Over the pediment is a pedestal, w ith an inscription in honour of Lucius Cassar, the grandson of Augustus, whose equestrian statue it appears to have supported. This propyheum has by some archaeologists been regarded as a portico of a temple to Athena Archegetis, to whom we learn, from an inscription on the architrave, that the building was dedicated out of the moneys given by Julius and Augustus. But there can be no reasonable doubt that these columns formed the entrance into a new Agora, dedicated to Athena Archegetis, just as it was customary with the Romans to dedicate a forum to Borne deity, and intended chiefly, it would seem, for the sale of the olive oil which formed so large and characteristic an export from Athens. This appears to be proved by the lengthy inscription (see Bockh, Corp. Inter. Grwc, No. 355) which exists immediately within the entrance, and contains an edict of the Emperor Hadrian regulating the sale of oil and. the duties payable upon it It is easy to understand how, after' the erection of the Roman Agora, the old market would be styled >) iyopa «V KepcuicuceJ or simply Cerameicus, while the new oil-market would be distinguished as the
4 Bee Ortck Inscriptions in- the British Museum, No. 89, and/oii The best account of the condition of Athena under the Boinans may be found in a dissertation by H. L% Ahrens, De Athenarum statu politico, &c, sad another by Professor Dittenberger, De Bphebia Attica,
Agora.1 The "Tower of tie Winds," -which had previously been erected, formed, with its useful timepieces, an appropriate embellishment at the north-eastern extremity. The market was enclosed by a wall, and it was reserved for Hadrian to complete its decoration by building a magnificent stoa on its northern side. Augustus himself received the honour of a small circular shrine upon the Acropolis, dedicated to Augustus and Roma. His son-in-law Agrippa was honoured by an equestrian statue in front of the Propvlsaa, the pedestal of which still exists. The Agrippeium was a theatre erected by Agrippa in the Cerameicus. It is possible, moreover, that the Diogeneium—the only gymnasium mentioned in the Ephebic inscriptions of the imperial period—was built about this time. Its Bite has recently been thought to have been discovered about 200 yards east of the Tower of the Winds. Whatever licentiousness and misgovemment might mark the reign of succeeding emperors, they at all events refrained from doing injury to Athens. It had been proposed to finish the great temple of Zeus Olympius in honour of Augustus, but the design fell through, and it was reserved for Hadrian to finally complete the building of this magnificent temple, some six centuries from the time when the first atone was laid.
The reign of Hadrian made literally a new era in the history of Athens.8 For Greece, and especially for Athens, this emperor entertained a passionate admiration. He condescended to hold the office of archon eponymus; in his honour a thirteenth tribe, Hadrianis, was instituted; and the emperor shared with Zeus the title of Olympius, and the honours of the newly-finished temple. While, however, many portions of the city bore witness to his munificence, it was* in the south-eastern quarter that most of his new buildings arose, in the neighbourhood of the Olympium. This suburb was accordingly styled Hadriauopolis, or New Athens, to distinguish it from the old city of Theseus and of Themistocles. The arch of Hadrian still stands in a fairly perfect state, and marks the boundary between the ancient town and the new suburb embellished by Hadrian. On the north-western front of the architrave is the inscription <u5' cur* 'A6*rjvcu ©t^tcojc rj vpty iroAtc; on the other front, cuB* cur" 'ASpuxvov Kcu. Ovyi Ghprfay; 7rd/Uc. At the same time many of the older buildings underwent restoration at his command. Nor was his bounty shown in works of building alone. He ceded to the Athenians the island of Cephallenia, and bestowed upon them large presents of money, and an annual largess of corn.
The immediate successors of Hadrian were guided by his example. Antoninus Pius completed an aqueduct which Hadrian had commenced for bringing water into the town from the Cephisus. Marcus Aurelius visited Athens for the purpose of initiation at the Eleusinian mysteries.
The list of distinguished persons who made themselves famous as benefactors of Athens may be said to close with the name of Herodes Atticus the rhetorician. Herodes had counted Marcus Aurelius amongst his pupils, and was sure of a distinguished career at Rome; but, like the friend of Cicero, he preferred the more peaceful atmosphere of Greece and took the surname of Atticus. His ambition was to excel as a sophist, but he owed his fame yet more to the enormous wealth he inherited from his father, which he spent in works of public munificence. Various towns of Greece and even of Italy were enriched by his bounty, but Athens most of all. In addition to his many other benefactions, two architectural works in parti
1 The name Cerameicus is never used by writers of pre-Roman times for the old market; they always speak of "the Agora." Pausanias uses both words in their more modern meanings respectively.
1 Many inscribed documents are found, dated "from Hadrian's first rtsit" 8e* DHtenberger in the ffrmu, 1872. o. 213.
cular immortalised his nameT* One was the Stadium? which he adorned with magnificent marble seats. The other was the Odeium (see Pausan., vii. 20), the ruins of which are still to be seen under the south-west of the Acropolis. An odeium resembled a theatre in its general plan and the purposes it served: it differed apparently in being roofed in. The ancient theatres were open to the sky; but the most remarkable feature of this odeium, built by Herodes in honour of his deceased wife Regilla, was its roof of cedar, fragments of which were actually discovered in the excavations made upon this site in 1857.
It is a fortunate circumstance that the best and only extant account of ancient Athens came from the pen of a traveller who visited the city just at the time when the munificence of Hadrian and of Herodes had left nothing more to be added to its embellishment. The Odeium of Regilla, indeed, had not been commenced when Pausanias visited Athens, and he describes it later on in his seventh book. We may place his tour through Athens about the year 170 A. r>. His manner of description is as methodical as a modern guide-book, and bis very knowledge and appreciation of the endless masterpieces of Grecian art prevent him from covering his pages, like some modern tourists, with rapturous word-painting and expressions of delight He begins his account of Athens (bk. i ch. L-ii § 1) with a description of the Piraeus and the harbours, and his first tour is along the road from Phalerum tu the city, where he enters by the Itonian gate, within which he finds a monument to the Amazon Antiope. In his next tour (ch. ii § 2—ch. v.) he supposes us to start again from Piraeus, and approach the city along the remains of the Long Walls. Thus entering the city by the Piraan gate,9 he conducts us along the southern side of the old Agora (which he styles ute Cerameicus), describing all the buildings that occur upon the way, from the Stoa Basileius and another stoa near it, adorned with a statue of Zeus Eleutherius, in an eastward direction past the temple of Apollo Patrons, the Metroum, the Bouleuterium, and Tholus, and other buildings, which lay at the northern and north-eastern foot of the Areopagus. This walk ends with the mention of the temple Eucleia and the Eleusinium. It is not easy to see why Pausanias here introduces an account of the fountain Enneacrunus and the temple of Demeter and Core, which every archaeologist hitherto has placed near the Hissus, in tie south-eastern extremity of the city.4 In his next walk (ch. xiv. § 5-xviii. § 3), having already described the south side of the Cerameicus Agora, he starts again from the Stoa Basileius, describes the buildings on the west and north of the Agora, and then enters the new or Roman Agora. In this tour he mentions the altar of Mercy, the gymnasium of Ptolemy, the Theseium, the temple of Aglaurus, and the Prytaneium. In his next walk he starts from the Prytaneium, and proceeding eastward (ch. xviii § 4, xix.), he mentions the temples of Sarapis and of Heithuia, until, leaving the eastern end of the Acropolis at some distance on bis right hand, he passes through the arch of Hadrian, and describes the Olympium and the other buildings of that emperor. This tour included the temple of Aphrodite <V Kiprow, the Cynoaarges, the Stadium, and other buildings on both sides of the IUssus. For his next walk he returns again to the Prytaneium (ch. xx.-xxviil § 3), and enters the Street of Tripods, which leads him to the temple and theatre of.Dionysus, which he describes. Thus he at length reaches the western extremity
• Curtius and others are probably mistaken in supposing the Dipylum to be the gate intended by Pausanias.
* Dr Dyer, in his recent work on Athens, Appendix 1., endeavours to explain this difficulty by assuming the existence of two fountains called Callirrhoe, one of which (Enneacrunus) he places on the northwest of the Acropolis,
III. — »
of tho Acropolis, and entering through the Propybea, he describes in order each object which adorned the summit, with an accuracy fully borne out by recent excavations. His last walk in Athens (ch. xxviii. § 4, J l) conducts us through the various building* at the western base of the Acropolis. From the temple of the Semme he passes to the court of the Areopagus, and the mention of this leads him to speak of the other judicial courts of Athens. The rest of his first book is occupied with an account of the suburbs of Athens—the Academy, the sacred way to Eleusis, &c, and the topography of Attica in general.
A few words may suffice to describe the ultimate fate of Athens. In the reign of Valerian the northern barbarians first appeared in the north of Greece, where they laid siege to Thossalonica. This extraordinary apparition having alarmed all Greece, the Athenians restored their city wall, which Sulla had dismantled, and otherwise placed the town in a state of defence sufficient to secure it against a coupde-main. But under Gallienus, the next emperor, Athens was besieged, and the archonship abolished, upon which the strategos or general, who had previously acted as inspector of the Agora, became the chief magistrate. Under Claudius the city was taken, but recovered soon afterwards. Constantine the Great gloried in the title of General of Athens, which had been conferred upon him, and expressed high satisfaction on obtaining from the poople the honour of a statue with an inscription,—a distinction which he acknowledged by sending to tho city a yearly gratuity of grain. He also conferred on the governor of Attica and Athens the title of Mnn Aovf, or Grand Duke, which soon became hereditary, and his son Conatans bestowed several islands on tho city, in order to rapply it with corn, in the time of Theodosius L, that is, towards the end of the 4th century, the Goths laid wasto Thcssaly and Epirus; but Theodonis, general of the Greeks, acted with so much prudence, that he saved the Greek cities from pillage and the inhabitants from captivity, a service which was most gratefully acknowledged. But this deliverance proved only temporary. The fatal period was now fast approaching, and, in a real barbarian, Athens was doomed to experience a conqueror yet more remorseless than Sulla. This was Alaric, king of the Goths, who, under the Emperors Arcadius and Honorius, overran both Italy and Greece, sacking, pillaging, and destroying. Never, indeed, did the fury even of barbarian conquest discharge itself in a fiercer or more desolating tempest The Peloponncsian citiej were overturned; Arcadia and Lacedaomon were both laid waste; the gulfs of Lepanto and .dSgina were illuminated with the flames of Corinth; and the Athenian matrons were dragged in chains to satisfy the brutal desires of the barbarians. The invaluable treasures of antiquity were removed; stately and magnificent structures were reduced to heaps of ruin; and Athens, stripped of the monuments of her ancient splendour, was compared by Synesius, a writer of that age, to a victim of which the body had been consumed, and the jkin only remained.
After this dreadful visitation Athens sank into insignificance, and became as obscure as it had once been illustrious. We are indeed informed that the oities of Hellas were put in a "state of defencs by Justinian, who repaired the walb of Corinth, which had been overturned by an earthquake, and those of Athens, which had fallen into decay through age. But from tbo time of thia emperor a chasm of nearly seven centuries ensues in its history: except that, about the year 1150, it furnished Roger, tho first king of Sicily, with a number of arti£ccr3, who there introduced the culture of silk, which afterwards passed into Italy Tho worms, it seems, had been brought from India to Constantinople in the reign of Justinian.
Doomed, apparently, to become the prey of every spoiler, Athens again emerges from oblivion in the 13th century, under Baldwin and his crusaders, at a time when it was besieged by a general of Theodonis Lascaris, the Greek emperor. In 1427 it was taken by Sultan Amurath II; but some time afterwards it was recovered from the infidels by another body of crusaders under the marquis of Montferrat, a powerful baron of the West, who bestowed it, along with Thebes, on Otho de la Roche, one of his principal followers. For a considerable time both cities were governed by Otho and his descendants, with the title of dukes; but being unable to maintain themselves in their Greek principality, they were at length succeeded by Walter of Brienne, who, soon after his succession, was expelled by his new subjects, aided by the Spaniards of Catalonia. The next rulers of Athens were the Acciajuoli, an opulent family of Florence, in whose possession it remained until 1455, when it was taken by Omar, a general of Mahomet IL. and thus fell a second time into tho hands of the barbarians. Tho victorious sultan sottlcd a Mahometan colony in his new conquest, which ho incorporated with the Ottoman empire; and Athens, as well as Greece, continued to form an integral part of tho Turkish dominions, until tho treaty of Adrianople in 1829, following up tho provisions and stipulatious of tho treaty of London, 7th July 1827, established within certain limits tho now state of Greece, of which Athens is now the capital.
From tho period of the Ottoman conquest to tho commencement of tho insurrection in 1821 Athens was only known in history by two attempts, on the part of the Venotians, to expel the Turks and make themselves masters of the city. The first of these took place in 1464, only nine years after its capture by the Osmanlis. and proved an entire failure. But the second, which was undertaken in 1687, more than two centuries later, was crowned with a temporary and fatal aucccss. In the month of September of that year, Count Konigsmark, a Swede in tho service of Venice, having disembarked at the Piraeus a fores of 8000 foot and 870 horse, forming part of the armament under Francesco Morosini, afterwards dorje. marched to Athens, and having summoned the citadel wfAoat effect, ho erected a battery ofjhoavy orduanco or. 0 o h'U of the Pnyx, and placing two mortars near tho Latin convont at tho western foot of tho Acropolis, bombarded .t :oi several days. Tbo fire of the cannon was cLiofly directed against the Propyloea, and tho modern defences below that edifice, whilst tho mortals continued, without intermission, to throw Khells into tho citadel lhe consequence was, that the beautiful little temple of Nike Apteroj, the frieze of which i i now in the British Museum, was completely destroyed by the breaching battery, and the Parthenon, besides being greatly injured by the bursting of the shells, was, towards the closo of the attack, almost rent in pieces by the explosion of a powder magazine, which reduced the middle of the ton.pie to a heap of ruins, throw down the whole of tho wall at the eastern extremity, and precipitated to the ground every statue on the eastern pediment The western extremity was fortunately less injured, and a part of the Opisthodonios was still left standing, together with somo of the lateral column* of the peristyle adjoining to the cell. But the shock was nevertheless abundantly disastrous; and when the Turks afterwards regained possession of the citadel (from which, on this occasion, they wore expelled), they did all in their power to complete the destruction which the Venetians had so vigorously begun, by defacing, mutilating, or burning for lime every fragniont of the edifice within their reach.
In the course of the revolutionary war Athens sustained three sieges. The first was laid by the Greeks in 1822. Having carried the town by storm, and driven ffa Turks into the citadel, they establisned a strict blockade of the fortress, which was continued until the advance of the Pasha at the head of 4000 men induced them to abandon their enterprise, and fly, with the Athenians, to Salamis and ^Egina. Two months afterwards, the Pasha having left Athens to the defence of 1500 men, the Greeks again ventured to attack the town, and succeeded in obliging the Turks to seek refuge in the citadel, which they forthwith determined to besiege; but, from ignorance and want of means, no progress whatever was made in the operation until they obtained possession of the well which supplied the garrison with water, when the Turks agreed to capitulate upon condition of being immediately embarked with their families and sent to Asia Minor. On various pretences, however, embarkation was delayed from time to time; and when intelligence at length arrived that a large Turkish force was advancing upon Athens, the Palicari, instead of manning the walls and preparing for a vigorous defence, rushed in a body to the houses where the prisoners were confined, and commenced an indiscriminate massacre. For this atrocity it is no palliation to remember that the Greek character had morally suffered from centurieB of servitude, and that they had terrible arrears of vengeance to exact The third siege was laid by the Turks in 1826. The Greeks had left a strong garrison in the Acropolis, with provisions for several months; and a spring of water having been discovered in the cave of Pan, and enclosed by Odysseus within the defences of the citadel, there was no danger of its being starved into a surrender. But the Turks having established batteries near the Pnyx and on the iill of the Museinm, and having drawn a line of trenches round the citadel, with the view of intercepting all communication between the besieged and the Greek army, the garrison was hard pressed; and although Colonel Fabvier succeeded in forcing his way through the Turkish lines with 500 men and a supply of ammunition, and thus affording immediate relief, yet the total defeat of the Greek army under General Church at the battle of Athens, fought in the hope of raising the siege, led soon afterwards to the surrender of the Acropolis, which remained in the hands of the Turks until the termination of the revolutionary war.
In 1812 Athens could boast of a population of 12,000 souls, but during the war the greater part of the city was hid in ruins, and most of the inhabitants were dispersed. In 1834 it was declared the capital of the new kingdom of Greece. Great exertions have been made since then to restore the city; Btreeta have been opened, levelled, widened; the ancient sewers have been cleared and repaired, and the marshes of Cephisus drained. Excavations of ancient sites and buildings have been carried out,—
chiefly through the efforts of the Archaeological Society of Athens, but the antiquaries and scholars of all Europe have anxiously watched their endeavours, and France and Prussia have vied with Great Britain in the prosecution of Athenian discovery. The Theseium has become a treasury of ancient sculpture, and a new archaeological museum has been also erected to contain the ever-increasing stores of ancient inscriptions and sculptures. The royal palace is a large building of Pentelic marble, situated in the eastern quarter of the city, on the highest part of the gentle eminence which rises from the level of the Ilissus and Cephisus towards Lycabettus. The University (iravnrumjjuov) was founded in 1837, and numbers over 1200 students, while its staff of 52 professors includes the names of some of the most learned Greek archaeologists in Europe. In fact, the schools and other educational institutions of Athens are very numerous, and thoroughly efficient The archaeological journals of Athens are full of information concerning the progress of excavations, and publish the texts of newly-discovered inscriptions. The population in 1871 was over 48,000, exclusive of the population of the Piraeus, which would bring the total up to about 60,000. The harbour is visited by ships of all nations. A railway connects the Piraeus with the city, and enters the ancient town about half-way between the site of the Dipylum and Piraean gates The terminus stands in the midst of what once was the Agora in Cerameicus. The principal street is Hermes Street, running from west to east, a little north of the terminus, until it reaches the royal palace. Two other good streets, Athena Street and Jiolus Street, traverse this at right angles. The other streets, with the exception of Stadium Street on the N.E, between the chamber of deputies and the University, are generally narrow and winding. Altogether, Athens, like the rest of Greece, is in a condition of increasing prosperity, and reaps the blessings of freedom. It is true that in our own country the ardent philhellenism of forty years ago has cooled down, and Greece is no longer an object of popular and sentimental admiration. Yet never did the scholars of Europe turn with keener zest to the study of her ancient monuments; and if Attica were cleared for ever of brigands, and furnished with satisfactory roads, then in numbers tenfold greater than now would reverent travellers from the west of Europe delight to make their pilgrimage to the birthplace of philosophy, literature, and art
Tho following are 'some of the most important works on the subject:—Leake's Topography of Athens; "Wordsworth's Athens and Attica; Buraian ■ Geographic von Qriechenland, and article "Athena?" in Paaly's £eai-EneycIopUdiey 2d ed.; £. Curtius'e Attische Siudien; Dyer's Ancient Athens; Wachsmoth'i Die Stadt Athm in Alterthum. (E. L. H.)
ATHENS, the name of several towns in the United States of America, the chief of which are the following:— (I.) The capital of a county of the same name in the S.E of the state of Ohio, finely situated on the Hocking River.It is the seat of the Ohio university, which was founded in 1804. Population of county, 23,768. (2.) The capital of Clarke county, Georgia, on the W. bank of the Oconee River. It is the seat of the Georgia university, which was founded in 1801, and the central town of a large cottongrowing district Population in 1870, 4251. of whom 1967 were coloured.
ATHERTON, or Chowbent, a township in the parish of Leigh and hundred of West Derby, in Lancashire, 200 miles from London. It is one of those places which have grown to health and populousness through the extension of the cotton trade. Besides its factories, it has collieries and ironworks. Population in 1871, 7531.
ATHIAS, Joseph, a celebrated rabbi and printer at Amsterdam, whose editions of the Hebrew Bible are noted for the general correctness of the text Although he was a learned Hebraist, there are occasional errors in the points, especially in the edition of 1661, but many of these were corrected in that of 1667. He also printed several editions of the Bible in the OTrrupted Hebrew spoken by the Jews of Spain, Germany, Poland, and England, He died in 1700.
Athletje (<WXiriW), among the Greeks and Romans, was the designation of persons who contended for prizes (i6Xa) is the public games, exclusive of musical and other contests, where bodily strength was not called into pfcy, though here also the word was sometimes applied, end it wis even extended to horses which had won a race, and agai i metaphorically, e.g., to persons who had exerted themselves in good deeds (iS\rjrat Tw Koxuv Ipyw). On the other hand, the term was restricted so as to ezcludo those who, for mere exercise, without the incentive of a prize, practised in the daily gymnastic competitions. For such the name was iyutvurrat, aud this distinction was the more necessary in the later period of Greek history, when trained athletes became a professional class (100-300 B.c.) Yet it was not the value of the prizes themselves which led men to devote their lives to athletic exercises. That was at most very insignificant. - But from the heroic legends of competitions for prizes, such as those at the obsequies of Patroclus (Iliad, xxiii. 257, foil), from the great antiquity of the four national games of Greece (the Olympian, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian, with the local Panathensea at Athens), and from the high social position of the competitors in early times, there gradually became attached to victory in one of these games so much glory, that the townsmen of a victor were ready to, and frequently did, erect a statue to him, receive him in triumph, and care for him for the rest of his life. Against specially trained athletes the better class of citizens refused to compete, aud the lists of the public games being thus left practically open only to professionals, training became more a matter of system and study, particularly in regard to diet, which was rigorously prescribed for the athletes by a public functionary, styled the Aleiptes, who also had to salve their bodies when practising. At one time their principal food consisted of fresh cheese, dried figs, and wheaten bread. Afterwards meat was introduced, generally beef or pork; but the bread and meat were taken separately, the former at breakfast (Spurrov), the latter at dinner (scittvov). Except in wine, the quantity was unlimited, and the capacity of some of the heavy weights (BapA dOXijrat) must have been, if such stories as those about Milo are true, enormous. Cases of death from apoplexy ore not unknown among them. The Tarentine Iccus was an example of the strictest abstinence. Their instruction consisted, besides the ordinary gymnastic exercises of the pahestra, in carrying heavy loads, lifting weights, bending iron rods, striking at a suspended leather sack (ictipvKof) filled with sand or flour, taming bulls, 4c. Boxers had to practise delving the ground, to strengthen their upper limbs. The competitions open to athletes were in running, leaping, throwing the discus, wrestling, boxing, and the Pancratium, or combination of boxing and wrestling. Victory in this last was the highest achievement of an athlete, and was reserved only for men of extraordinary strength. The competitors were naked, having their bodies salved with ou. Boxers wore the ccutru, £«., straps of leather, round the wrists and forearms, with a piece of metal in the fist, which was sometimes employed with great barbarity. An athlete could begin his career as a boy in the contests set apart for boys. He could appear again as a youth against his equals, and though always unsuccessful, could go on competing till the age of 35, when he was debarred, it being assumed that after this period of life he could not improve. It sometimes happened that an athlete would agree to allow his rival to win; but for that and other coses of dishonesty a fine .vas imposed, and the money expended in erecting statues, called Zavcs, with warning inscriptions. The most celebrated of the Greek athletes whose names have been handed down are Milo, Hipposthenes, Polydamas, Promachus, and Glaucus. Cyrene, famous in the time of Pindar for its athletes, appears to have still maintained its reputation to at least the time of Alexander the Great; for in the British Mu»euni are to be seen six prize vases carried off from the games at Athens by natives of that district. These vases, fouii in the tombs, probably, of the winners, are made of clay, and painted on one aide with a representation of the contest in which they were won, and on
the other Bide with a figure of Pallas Athena;" with an inscription telling where they were gained, and in soma cases adding the name of the eponymous magistrate of Athens, from which the exact year can be determined. Among the Romans, fond as they were of exhibitions of physical skill and strength, the profession of athletes r/aj entirely an exotic, and was even under the empire with difficulty transplanted from Greece. The system and the athletes themselves were always purely Greek, (a. S. M.)
ATHLETIC SPORTS. Although this term is undoubtedly derived from the ancient AflXijrcu, the derivation does not exactly indicate its present meaning, inasmuch as our modern athletes are distinctly defined to be amateurs, in coutiadistinction to professionals. In fact, the former pursue the agonistic art, and should be styled "agonistics," if we may be allowed to invent such a word, rather than athletes. How the pastime came to be thus named in Britain some fifteen years ago it is hard to say. Till about 1860, all exercises •« herein the feet played the principal part weie lightly styled "pedestrianism." Up to that period all prizes, whether contended for by amateurs or professionals, were invariably in uoney. As the practice of the pastime, however, rapidly spread amongst the former, it was naturally found they were loth to compete on the same terms with, and for similar trophies as, the latter. Hence arose the modern definition of aa amateur athlete, viz., "Any person who has never competed ili an open competition, or for public money, or for admission money, or with professionals for a prize, public money, or admission money; nor has ever at any period of his life, taught, or assisted in the pursuit of athletic exercises as a means of livelihood; nor is a mechanic, artisan, or labourer." The moment this definition was brought into force a wide barrier arose between the two classes, and amateurs ceased to compete for money prizes amongst themselves, or against professionals, on any terms, unless they were willing to forfeit their status. A generic term was required for the new pastime, and in lieu of a better it was entitled "athletic sports,'' and its votaries "athletes." Hence the haphazard origin of the name. The birthplace of the modern pastimo was undoubtedly the great universities and the military and public schools. Cricket has always been justly considered the national game of Great Britain during the summer months, and football fills the same position in the winter. For a month or six weeks in spring and autumn the weather and condition of the ground are in a transition state, and fit for neither of these pastimes, and athletic sports step in and appropriately fill the vacuum. About the year 1812 the Royal Military College at Sandhurst inaugurated modern athletic sports; but the example was not followed till about 1810, when Rugby School, Eton College, Harrow School, Shrewsbury Royal School, and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, came to the front. Fifteen years later college meetings had become pretty general both at Oxford and Cambridge. Kensington Grammar School hod founded the first annual series of gatherings held in London, whilst Cheltenham College led the van amongst English public schools. After a few months' negotiations the first Oxford v. Cambridge annual meeting was held in 1864, and is justly considered the premier reunion of the whole year, the interest shown and the attendance of spectators being little, if anything, less than at the annual boat race between the same two scats of learning. Two years later the annual amateur championship meeting was founded in London, when the Oxford and Cambridge victors meet representatives from all parts of the United Kingdom, and contend for the "blue ribands" of the various events. The principal athletic society at present in existence is undoubtedly the "London Athletic Club," which takes the lead in all matters pertaining to athletics throughout the United Kingdom. In