skull, and the skin is then dried in a smoky hut. The Birkenhead began to develop itself as a market-town in' Great Emerald Bird, so far as yet known, is only found in the the year 1833, when an Act was obtained for paving, light Aru Íslands. The Lesser Bird of Paradise (Puradisea minor), ing, watching, cleansing, and improving the town, and for though smaller in size and somewhat less brilliant in regulating the police and establishing a market. By this plumage, in other respects closely resembles the preceding Act the Improvement Commissioners were originally conspecies. It is also more common, and much more widely stituted, and at that time included the mayor, bailiffs, distributed, being found throughout New Guinea and the and four aldermen of Liverpool Immediately after the neighbouring islands. Its plumes are those most generally passing of this Act the town made rapid progress. The used as ornaments for ladies' head-dresses. It has been principal streets were laid out on a regular plan, intersectbrought alive to Europe, and has been known to live for ing each other at right angles. A line of tramway, the two years in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London. first laid in England, affords every facility of street comBoth species are omnivorous, feeding voraciously on fruits munication. Hamilton Square, which occupies the summit and insects. They are strong, active birds, and are believed of the rising ground near the river, forms the basis or to be polygamous. The King Bird of Paradise (Cicinnurus starting point for all the parallel and rectangular lines of regius) is one of the smallest and most brilliant of the streets. The houses of the square are four stories in group, and is specially distinguished by its two middle height, with stone fronts, the centres and ends of each tail feathers, the ends of which alone are webbed, and coiled terrace being relieved or ornamented with columns and into a beautiful spiral disc of a lovely emerald green. In the porticos in the Tuscan order of architecture. Red Bird of Paradise (Paradisea rubra) the same feathers | Birkenhead has (exclusive of the out townships) nine are greatly elongated and destitute of webs, but differ from churches belonging to the Established Church. St Mary's, those in the other species, in being flattened out like ribbons. built in 1821 by Mr. F. R. Price, late lord of the manor, is They are only found in the small island of Waigiou off the in the Decorated Gothic style of architecture, with a wellcoast of New Guinea. Of the Long-billed Paradise Birds proportioned tower and spire. The churchyard includes (Epimachidæ) the most remarkable is that known as the the burial 'ground and ruins of the ancient priory and "Twelve-wired” (Seleucides alba), its delicate yellow plumes, chapel of St Mary. In addition to the Established twelve of which are transformed into wire-like bristles churches there are twenty-four places of worship belonging nearly a foot long, affording a striking contrast to the dark to various Nonconforming denominations, viz., five Presbymetallic tints of the rest of its plumage. Like the Para terian, three Independeut or Congregational, 2 Baptist, diseido they feed on insects and fruits.

four Wesleyan, one Primitive Methodist, one Society of BIRKBÉCK, GEORGE, an English physician and Friends, two Plymouth Brethren, three Roman Catholic, philanthropist, born at Settle in Yorkshire in 1776. He one Catholic and Apostolic, two Unitarian. Many of early evinced a strong predilection for scientific pursuits ; these buildings are fair examples of Gothic and classic and in 1799, after graduating as doctor of medicine, he architecture. St Aidan's Theological College, in connecwas appointed to the chair of natural philosophy at the tion with the Established Church, occupies a fine and Andersonian Institution of Glasgow. In the following elevated site adjoining the western boundary of Claughton. year he delivered, for the benefit of the working-classes, a It is a handsome building in the Tudor style of architecgratuitous course of scientific lectures, which were continued ture. There are seven public elementary schools in conduring the two following years and proved eminently nection with the Established churches, and seven in conBuccessful. He removed to London in 1804, and there ho nection with other religious bodies. There is also a firstendeavoured to prosecute his philanthropic schemes, at class proprietary school, conducted on the model of the first without much encouragement, but ultimately with great public schools, besides several private academies. marked success. In 1827 he contributed to found the There are several public buildings in Birkenhead worthy Mechanics' Institute, his coadjutors being Bentham, Wilkie, of notice. The market-hall is a large and commodious Cobbett, and others. He was appointed director of the building, 430 feet long and 130 feet wide, with substantial institute, which he had originally endowed with the sum of and lofty vaults extending under its entire area. It was £3700, and held the office till his death in December 1841. opened in 1845, and built at a cost of £35,000. The

BIRKENHEAD, a seaport, market-town, extra-parochial public slaughter-houses in Jackson Street, belonging to the district, township, and parliamentary borough, in the hun. Birkenhead Commissioners, form an extensive pile of build. dred of Wirral and west division of Cheshire, England. It ings; they were erected in 1846 at a cost, exclusive of is situated on the western bank of the Mersey, directly the site, of about £11,000, and were the first public opposite Liverpool. It is of considerable antiquity, its slaughter-houses of any extent erected in England." The history dating from 1150, when & priory was founded in town water-works also belong to the Birkenhead Commishonour of St Mary and St James by the third baron of sioners, and consist of two pumping stations, the wells of Danham Massey, and had considerable endowments. The which yield an aggregato supply of about 24 million gallons priors sat in the parliaments of the earls of Chester, and in twenty-four hours. The town-hall in Hamilton Street enjoyed all the dignities and privileges of palatinate barons. | is a one-story building, and formed when first erected the A fine crypt and some interesting ruins of the priory still front of the old market-hall; it contains a police court, exist. From a comparatively obscure fishing village Birken fire-engine station, and chief bridewell; there are, besides, head has become a large and important town, with a rapidity two branch bridewells. Among other buildings are the truly marvellous. The inhabitants numbered only 200 in post-office in Conway Street, the borough hospital, and the 1821 ; in 1831 they were 2569; the following table shows | School of Art, also in Conway Street, both erected by the the increase since 1841 :

late Mr John Laird, M.P., and a free library in Hamilton

Street. The large and commodious industrial schools in Year. Population.

Corporation Road were built at the cost of Sir Wm.

Jackson, Bart., as a memorial to the late Prince Consort, 1841 8227 1466 £44,000

Tho Music Hall and the Queen's Hall are situated in 1851 25,000 4148


Claughton Road. There is also & neat and commodious 1861 37,796 5239


theatre and opera-house in Argyle Street
45, 418 7511

1875 (estim.) 52,000 8000 228,909

Birkenhead Park, opened in 1847, occupies 1904 acres of ground, and was laid out at a cost (including the land) of


Rateable Valuo.


£140,000 Birkenhead Cemetery, on Flaybrick Hill, The block of warehouses known by the name of the com occupies 20 acres of ground, and cost about £40,000. warehouses are immense piles of buildings, with a canal

Woodside Ferry may be regarded as the principal between to give access to the separate blocks of buildings, entrance to Birkenhead and Wirral from Liverpool ; and and with machinery for carrying the grain, &c., from floor its exclusive right of ferryage dates back to 1332. In 1842 to floor, and for despatching it by railway. the Birkenhead Commissioners purchased this ferry, under In 1847 the Birkenhead Dock Warehousing Company an Act of Parliament, from Mr F. R. Price, the lord of the opened their first warehouses, capable of storing 80,000 manor. At the present time the annual receipts for tons of goods. Each block is detached, and the whole passengers alone amount to £36,000, and the number of | premises are surrounded by a wall 12 feet high. A railpersons conveyed in the twelve months is upwards of nine way branch, called the Dock Extension Railway, is carried million3, the single fare being one penny. A large landing- round the property. The company also built blocks of stage, 800 feet in length and 80 feet in width, is moored houses for their workmen, known as the Dock Cottages, at this ferry, the passenger traffic being conducted to and This property is now in the hands of the Mersey Docks from the stage by means of a double gangway bridge, and Harbour Board. covered by two circular glass and iron roofs. The goods The commerce of Birkenhead is in all respects a branch traffic is conveyed to and from the stage by a well-con- of that of Liverpool, and chiefly devoted to coal, guano, and structed floating bridge, 670 feet in length and 30 feet in grain,-the quantity of coal alone exported being over one width, which enables the traffic to be carried op at any million tons per annum. Many manufactories have sprung state of the tide. Handsome and commodious saloon up within the last few years on the margin of the Great steamers, built and designed upon an improved principle, Float and other parts of the town, such as iron foundries, and capable of carrying above 1700 passengers each, are boiler-works, oilcake and seed mills, &c., some of the now used upon this ferry. The late Mr William Laird, engineering works, shipbuilding yards, and forges being whose name is so well known in connection with iron on a large scale. The Birkenhead Iron-works of Messrs shipbuilding, first conceived the idea of turning to Laird Brothers employ from 3000 to 4000 men; these works, advantage the capabilities of Wallasey Pool for the forma in connection with their shipbuilding yards, have turned tion of a dock. After a lapse of many years, the Com out some of the largest iron-clad ships; the engine-works, missioners of Birkenhead, alive to the advantages which also belonging to the same firm, are on a very extensive this project would confer upon the town, employed the scale. The Canada Works, belonging to Messrs Thomas late Mr Rendel as their engineer, and applied to Parlia Brassey and Co., carry on an extensive business in marine ment for powers to construct the necessary works. The engines, iron-bridge building, pontoon and general railway foundation-stone of the new docks was laid in October work. There are also the Britannia Works (Messrs James 1844, and the first dock was opened by the late Lord Taylor and Co.) for portable engines, marine engines, Morpeth on 5th April 1847. Subsequently, the dock traction engines, steam cranes, &c.; Messrs Clay and powers of the Commissioners were entrusted to a corporate Inman's Forge, for heavy shafting, &c.; the Wirral Foundry, body of trustees who afterwards transferred the property to for large engine castings, &c.; and the Starbuck Car and the corporation of Liverpool; and ultimately it was vested Waggon Co.'s Works, for building tramway cars, &c.; in the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, & corporation and Messrs Clover and Clayton's shipbuilding premises created by the Act of 1857 for the management of the docks as well as other manufactories of less extent. on both sides of the Mersey. At that time the area of the The affairs of the township of Birkenhead and Claughtondock space open and in use in Birkenhead was about 7 acres.cum-Grange are managed by twenty-one Commissioners,

The docks bound the town on the north and north-east chosen by the ratepayers. The town contains a head postand partly on the east, extending from the landing-stage at office, county court, police court, petty sessional court Woodside Ferry to the Wallasey Bridgo, a distance of for the hundred of Wirral, and two banks. Two newsover two miles. The Great Float has been constructed on papers are published weekly. The principal market-day is the site of the Wallasey Pool, forming an immense dock of Saturday, but a large hay, straw, and vegetable market is 150 acres, with a quay space of about five miles. The held on Tuesdays in the hay market, a large open space of Great Float separates Birkenhead from Poulton-cum-Sea- ground, having an area of about 1 acres. The total area oombe, in the parish of Wallasey, and communicates on of the Commissioners' district is 1684 acres, including 365 the east with a low water basin of about 14 acres (now acres of water space, viz., Birkenhead, 1248 acres, and being converted into a dock) and the Alfred Dock (about Claughton-cum-Grange, 436. The parliamentary borough 8 acres, and quay space 460 lineal yards), and on the of Birkenhead was constituted in 1861, and returns one south-east with the Egerton, Morpeth, and Morpeth Branch member to parliament. Its parliamentary limits include Docks. The Morpeth Dock (about 11 acres, quay space the extra-parochial chapelry of Birkenhead, the several 1299 lineal yards) is connected with the Morpeth Branch “townships of Claughton, Tranmere, and Oxton, and so Dock (about 3.acres, quay space 600 lincal yards), both much of the township of Higher Bebington es lies to the set apart for steamers. The total water area of these docks eastward of the road leading from Higher Tranmere is about 170 acres, and the lineal quay space about 10 miles. to Lower Bebington.” The population of this district

The entrances to the Birkenhead Docks are capable of in 1861 was 51,649, and in 1871 it had increased to docking the largest class of steamers afloat. The massive | 64,671. iron bridges across the dock entrances are opened and BIRMINGHAM, the fourth town in size and population closed by hydraulic power, which is likewise applied in England, and the fifth in the United Kingdom, is situated to the cranes, coal hoists, warehouse lifts, and other at the extreme north-west of the county of Warwick, in 52 appliances about the docks. At the extreme western end 59' N. lat. and 1° 18' W. long. It is 102 miles in a of the West Float are three large graving docks, two straight line N.W. of London, from which it is distant about 750 feet in length, and 130 feet and 80 feet in width | 112 miles by the North-Western Railway. 'The Roman respectively, and the largest, now in course of construction, Road, known as the Ikenield Street, runs through the measuring about 900 feet in length and 130 feet in width. town. On the north Birmingham touches Staffordshire,

Substantial and commodious sheds and warehouses have and on the south and west Worcestershire, the suburbs of been erected at various places along the dock quays for the the town extending largely into both these counties-Har full development of the traffia

1 borne and Handsworth being in the former and Balsall,

Moseley, and Yardley in the latter. The borough itself, raised to three. A grant of incorporation was made to the however—both parliamentary and municipal, the bound town in 1838, when the first municipal council was elected. aries being identical— is wholly in the county of Warwick. In 1870 a School Board of fifteen members was elected, It covers an area of 8420 acres (of which 5900 are built / under the Elementary Education Act passed in that year. upon), and includes the whole of the parishes of Birming The town is built upon the New Red Sandstone, on a ham and Edgbaston, and about one-third of the parish of boldly undulated site, varying from 200 to 600 feet above Aston. It is nearly 6 miles long, has an average breadth the sea-level, steadily rising towards the north and west, of 3 miles, is 21 miles in circumference, and has 190 miles so that when looked at from the heights on the south-east of streets and roads. The population, at the census of side it presents the appearance of a vast semicircle, pic1871, was 343,000; and in June 1875 it was estimated turesquely disposed, the masses of houses being broken by by the registrar-general at 360,000. Birmingham was spires and lofty chimneys, and the south and west sides enfranchised by the Reform Act of 1832, when two repre being thickly wooded on the slopes. The plan of the sentatives were assigned to it and Mr Thomas Attwood town is irregular, and the streets are mostly winding, and and Mr Joshua Scholefield (leaders of the Political Union) many of them somewhat narrow. In the centre, however, were elected; by the Reform Act of 1867 this number was I is a large open space, known as the Bull Ring and High

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Street, at the foot of which stands the mother church of and the place has altogether put on a livelier and wealthier St Martin, and in which is situated the Market-Hall, one look. Excepting in some of the older and poorer districts, of the largest buildings of its kind in the kingdom. From the private houses have undergone a corresponding imthis centre access is obtained to the principal streets, New provement. The richer classes live chiefly in the parish Street and High Street; the former, about a quarter of a of Edgbaston, which belongs almost entirely to Lord mile in length, derives a most picturesque appearance from Calthorpe, and in which strict rules as to the description, its slightly curved form, and from the effective manner in position, and area of the houses are enforced. The streets which the sky-line is broken by lofty buildings alternating inhabited by the working-classes are, of course, more with others of lower altitude. This street contains the crowded, and many of the houses are built in enclosed Exchange, the Grammar School, the Theatre Royal, the rooms courts, access to which is gained from the street, either by of the Royal Society of Artists, which have a fine Corin. openings between the houses, or by narrow entries, too thian portico stretching across the pavement. At the commonly built over, and thus impeding the free passage apper end of the street is the Town-Hall, and close to this of air. Many of the courts, however, are wide enough to are the corporate buildings and the Post-Office. The last allow of small gardens in front of the houses, while in the quarter of a century has seen a great advancement in the suburbs almost every house is provided with a garden of style and accommodation of the public and commercial some kind; and in a considerable number of cases the edifices, streets have been widened and new roads opened, I houses, through means of building societies, have become the property of the workmen themselves. The habit exists | The administration of the poor-law is vested in a Board of among all classes of each family (with rare exceptions) Guardians, of sixty members, for the parish Birmingham. occupying a separate house, a practice which greatly | The parish of Edgbaston (wholly within affects the area of the town. Thus, to a population of the borough) is in the poor-law union 360.000 there are about 76,000 inhabited houses, giving of King's Norton, and that part of the ne an average of five persons to a house. Birmingham is a parish of Aston included in the borough T I town of rapid growth In 1700 the population was about | is in the Aston Union. There are three 15.000. À century later, at the census of 1801, it had i workhouses—that for Birmingham paincreased to 73,000 In the next thirty years the popu- rish, situated at Birmingham Heath, is RD lation doubled, being 147,000 in 1831. The same pro- capable of receiving over 2000 inmates. ceng was repeated in the following term of thirty years, In the week ending June 19, 1875, there the population in 1861 being 296,000. Between 1861 were chargeable to the parish (including

Arms of Bimingoam and 1871 the increase was 47,000, and the returns of the lunatics and persons receiving outdoor relief) 6949 paupers, registrar-general show that the same rate of progress is a very small number in proportion to population. still going on. It is, however, likely to be checked by the Birmingham has a grant of quarter sessions, with a increasing value of land within the borough, by the absorp- recorder, and petty sessions are held daily at the Sessions tion of available sites for building, and by the consequent Court, in Moor Street, before a stipendiary magistrate, and overflow of population into the suburbs. If these, inhabited a bench of borough justices. The justices for the solely by borough people, are taken into account, the real popu- borough and Aston division of Warwickshire also sit here lation at present is probably not far short of half a million. occasionally. The borough justices have charge of the

Government. The government of the town resided administration of the gaol. The town is the head of a originally in the high and low bailiffs, both officers chosen at county court district, and is the seat of the probate registhe court of the lord of the manor, and acting as his try for Warwickshire. deputies. The system was a loose one, but by degrees it! Religious Denominations. Buildings, &c.-Until the year 1821 became somewhat organized and Crown writs wero Birmingham was in the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry; it is not addressed to the bailiffs In 1832, when the town was

in the diocese of Worcester and archdeaconry of Coventry, and is a enfranchised, they were made the returning officers.

rural deanery. There was formerly a religious house, the priory of

St Thomas the Apostle, and a Guild of the Holy Cross, an associs. About the beginning of the century, however, a more tion partly religious and partly charitable, having a chantry in the regular system was instituted, by an Act creating a body parish church. The possessions of the priory went to the Crown at of street Commissioners, who acted for the parish of

the dissolution, and the building was destroyed before the close of Birmingham, -the hamlets outside its boundaries having

the 16th century. The lands of the Guild of the Holy Cross were

granted by Edward VI. to trustees for the support of a free gram. similar boards of their own. The annoyance and difficulty

mar school; they are now of the value of nearly £15,000 a year. caused by these bodies—thirteen in number-led to a Until 1715 there was but one parish church, St Martin's, a rectory, demand for the incorporation of Birmingham as a borough; having the tithes of the entire parish of Birmingham. St Martin's and a charter was accordingly granted by the Crown in

was erected about the middle of the 13th century; but in the

course of ages was 80 disfigured, internally and externally, as to 1838, vesting the general government in a mayor, sixteen

present no traces excepit in the tower and spire of its former character. aldermen, and forty-seven councillors. The powers of In 1863 the tower was found to be in a dangerous condition, and this body were, however, unusually restricted, the other local

together with the spire was rebuilt. IR 1873 the remaining part of

the old church was removed without disturbing the monuments, and governing bodies remaining in existence It was not until

& now and larger edifice was erected in its place, at a cost of Dearly

£30,000. The new church constitutes the chief ecclesiastical all governing authorities excepting the Town Council, and edifice in Birmingham, and indeed the handsomest structure in the transferring all powers to this body Under this Act, and

town. St Philip's, a stately Italian structure, designed by Archer, another local Act obtained in 1862, the affairs of the town

& pupil of Wren, was the next church erected.

It was consecrated

in 1715. Then followed St Bartholomew's in 1749, St Mary's in are now administered, the whole municipal government 1774, St Paul's in 1779, St James's, Ashted, in 1791, and others, being in the hands of the Town Council. The importance which need not be mentioned, followed in due course. At present of the duties discharged by the Council may be inferred

the mother parish is divided into five rectories, and there are within from the fact that it has under its control nearly 200 miles

the borough, including those mentioned, 12 churches (each having

an ecclesiastical district assigned to it) of the Church of England, of street and road, that it has a police force of nearly 500

most of these having schools and missions attached to them. men, and that its revenue, derived from tolls and rates, Under the Commonwealth Birmingham wng a stronghold of Puri. amounts to about £300,000 a year. These responsibilities tanism. Clarendon speaks of it and the neighbourhood as "the have been increased by the purchase in 1875 of the gas and

most ominently corrupted of any in England.” Baxter, on the other

hand, commending the garrison of Coventry, says it contained “the water-works (the latter with a daily supply of 17,000,000

most religious men of the parts round about, especially from gallons), the two purchases making a cost of more than Birmingham." The traditional reputation for Nonconformity is main£3,000,000. The growth of the revenue and expenditure tained by the town, all varieties of dissenters being numerous and

influential. of the town, its rateablo value, and its ordinary debt, ex

The Unitarians, the oldest body established here, have six cluding the gas and water-works, will be seen from the

chapels. One of these, the Old Meeting, is historically interesting, following tabular statement :

the congregation having been formed on the Presbyterian model by

a number of ministers ejected under the Act of Uniformity. Amount of tot Total Amount

Another chapel, the Now Meeting, in Moor Street (now ocon pied by Assossment to

Balance of

Expenditure. the Borough


Public Debt, the Roman Catholics), is memorable as having been the place of Dr Rata

Priestley's ministerial labours. In 1862 the Unitarians removed

from this place to a new Gothic edifice, called the Church of the 1854 645,349 3 5

131,723 120,237

Messiah, in Broad Street, whero they still preserve a monument of

366,095 1859 824,869

Priestley, with a medallion portrait in profile, and an inscription 3

157,121 4

136,987 467,002 1864 920,191 187,620

written by Priestley's friend, Dr Parr. 38

The Society of Friends, 185.537 638,303

whose first meeting house dates from about 1690, have now three 1869 1,052,796 3 2 195,155 199, 950 588,449

places of meeting. The Independents have now eleven chapele, 1874 1,254,911 3 101 289,655 271,807 664,959

several of them large and flourishing. The Baptists first erected a

chapel in Cannon Street in 1738. They have now 16; one of them. · N.B.-The amount of property possessed by the Corporation on Wycliffe Chapel, Bristol Road, is a singularly bandsome structure of 81st December 1874, taken at its original cost, was £1,269,047. 14th century Gothic. The Wesleyan Methodists were established

in Birmingham by John Wesley himself in 1746, when he was roughly ? Including rate for School Board, 3d. in the £

bandled while preaching on Gosta. Green. For some years they

of Rato in

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Warshipped in temporary premises. They have now 17 places of I the other departments. The Queen's College, originally a worship, and the other divisions of the Methodist body bave 24 school of medicine, founded in 1828, obtained a royal in the aggregate. The Presbyterians possess 5 places of Worship, and the Jews have a handsome synagogue.

pas charter in 1843 as a kind of university, with departments

The Roman Catholics have paid special attention to Birmingham. From the Revolution of literature, theology, law, science, and engineering. All of 1688 antil 1789 they had no place of worship here. They now these branches have now fallen into disuse, excepting have a bishop (who assumes & title from the town), a cathedral, medicine and theology ; in the latter the college educates and 9 other churches or chapels, a cemetery, and other establish: ments in the su'surbs, including several religious houses, including

candidates for the ministry of the Church of England. An the Oratory, fjunded by Dr Newman. The principal edifice is the

important foundation is Sir Josiah Mason's Scientific cathedral of St Chad, built from the designs of Mr Pugin, at a College, for the endowment of which Sir Josiah has con. cost of more than £30,000.

veyed to trustees property valued at nearly £100,000, and The religious institutions and societies in Birmingham are very

a capacious building, estimated to cost probably £40,000, numerous, and with these aro associated many establishments of a benevoler.t character, such as almshouses, asylums, refuges, societies

Hall. for the aid of discharged prisoners, and for the promotion of religious Among the other educational foundations may be meneducation in Board schools, training institutions for nurses and servants, and others of various kinds, in the management of which persons of different religious opinions are commonly found working

Congregational ministers; four industrial schools; a large together in friendly association.

reformatory for boys at Saltley, and one for girls at SmethCharities. These are numerous. The principal is the General wick. For general education there are many private Hospital, Summer Lane, opened in 1779; it was founded by Dr schools, of a good class, for boys and girls. Elementary esh, an eminent local physician. The yearly average of in-patients is about 2300, of out-patients, 25,000. The Queen's Hospital,

education is provided in the Church of England day schools, Bath Row, the other large hospital of the town, was founded in | Roman Catholic schools, and Board schools. A total pro 1840 by Mr W. Sands Cox, F.R.S., an eminent local surgeon, who vision, in all the public elementary schools, is made for also founded the Queen's College as a medical school. This hospital | 41,791 children; there are (July 1875) 51,334 on the receives annually about 1300 in-patients and 17,000 out-patients. ! hoole The General Dispensary, the officers of which visit patients at their

books, with an average attendance for the previous quarter own homes, relieves about 8000 yearly. The Children's Hospital of 37,894. The School Board, though it was elected only (free), established in 1864 by Dr Heslop, relieves about 15,000 out in 1870, has, by the provision of new schools, and the sad 1000 in-patients. It has two establishments—for out-patients exercise of compulsory powers, more than doubled the (a very handsome Gothic building) in Steelhouse Lane, and an in

school attendance. It has already built and opened 9 patient department in Broad Street. There is also & Women's Hospital (free) for the special diseases of women; a lying-in charity;

schools, with accommodation for '8800 children, at a cost, special hospitals for diseases of the eye, the ear, bodily deformi. for land and buildings, of about £86,000 ; and 8 other ties, and the teeth ; and a homeopathic hospital. The parish of schools are now in progress, providing accommodation for Birmingham maintains a large infirmary at the workhouse (Birming| 7400 children, at an estimated cost of about £103,000_ bam Heath), and a dispensary for out-patients in Paradise Street. Nearly all these medical charities depend upon subscriptions,

making a total expenditure of nearly £200,000, and prodonations, legacies, and income from invested property; and the vision for a total of about 16,000 children. sam raised in this way is probably nearly £30,000 a year. There Libraries, do_The principal lib are two public organizations for aiding the charities, both of which Birmingham Lihme belonging to a body of proprietors) were begun in Birmingham. One is a simultaneous collection in October in churches and chapels, called the Hospital Sunday, estab

founded in 1798 by Di Priestley, and containing about lished in 1859, and now yielding over £5000 a year; the other is the 40,000 volumes, and the Corporation Free Libraries, in Saturday Hospital collection, made by the work-people in March, Ratcliff Place, commenced in 1861. These consist of a which was established in 1873, and yields about £4000.

central reference library and lending library (the former There is also a Sanatorium at Blackwell, near the Lickey Hill, about 10 miles distant, common to all the hospitals. Amongst the

containing :36,000 volumes of carefuley chosen books), to non-medical charities the principal are the Blind Institution and the which is attached a central reading-room. There are also Deaf and Dumb Asylum, both at Edgbaston; and Sir Josiah four lending libraries and news-rooms in other parts of the Mason's Orphanage at Erdington, which receives 800 orphan

town, and news-rooms are about to be opened by the children, and was built and endowed at the cost of about £250,000 solely by Sir Josiah Mason, a Birmingham penmaker. There are

Corporation in connection with the Board schools. The also in the town numerous almshouses for aged persons, the chief total issue of books from the libraries for 1874 was of which are Lonch's Trust, the James Charities, the Licensed 521,991. Included in the reference library are a special Victuallers' Asylum. Besides the general benefit societies, such as

Shakespeare library, containing almost all known editions the Oddfellows', Foresters', &c., which are strongly supported in Birmingham, the work people have numerous clubs of a charitable

of the plays and of works illustrating them; a library of bind, and there are several important local provident societies of a nearly 1000 volumes, illustrating the works of Cervantes general character, with many thousand members.

(presented by Mr W. Bragge of Sheffield); and a large Education.-The oldest and principal institution is the and unique collection of Warwickshire books and antiGrammar School of King Edward the Sixth, founded in quities, known as the Staunton collection. An Art Gallery 1552, out of the lands of the Guild of the Holy Cross, then and Industrial Museum is attached to the Free Libraries; of the annual value of £21, but now yielding about £13,000 and there is at Aston Hall another museum of natural & year, with a prospect of large increase. The principal or history, &c., belonging to the Corporation. Art. instruchigh school, in New Street, was erected in 1840, in the tion is provided by the Royal Society of Artists, which has Perpendicular period of the Gothic style, from designs by classes and lectures for students, and which holds two Sir Charles Barry, at & cost, including land, of £71,000. general exhibitions annually; and by the School of Art, This school is divided into two departments, classical and which has 900 students, together with affilicted classes in English, and educates about 600 boys; while connected schools, containing nearly 1700 students. with it there are four elementary schools for boys and girls, Miscellaneous Institutions, Parks, da—These include ased chiefly by the lower middle class, the number of 8 banks, 4 principal clubs—the Union, the Midland, the pupils being 1500. The classical school has ten exhibitions Arts, and the Conservative to which & Liberal Club is of £50 each, tonable at Oxford or Cambridge. The next about to be added. There are 3 morning and 2 evening most important foundation is that of the Midland Institute, daily papers-4 of them Liberal and 1 Conservative-ard 3 which includes a general literary depertment (lectures, weekly papers. There are 2 theatres, 2 large music-halls, museums, and reading-rooms), and an industrial depart I ånd several smaller ones. Musical festivals for the benefit ment, with classes in science, languages, mathematics, of the General Hospital are held triennially, and are arithmetic, history, literature, and the laws of health. usually marked by the production of new and important There are about 600 science students, and about 1600 in 1 works, and by the engagement of most of the leading

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