of the prepared fibre, valued at £27,783, were exported, I probably yielded him an income sufficient for carrying on besides a considerable quantity of mamifactured rope. his political career. In 1783 he took a leading part in Those great necessities of commerce, roads and railways, negotiating the remarkable coalition between North and are being constructed in various directions. A line is in Fox, and was rewarded by being made vice-treasurer of conrse of formation from Auckland up the valley of the Ireland. In 1784 he opposed Pitt's proposal for commercial Waikato, as far as Newcastle, at the confluence of the reciprocity with Ireland, but in so doing contrived to Waipa, and a survey has been made for about 20 miles separate himself to some extent from his own party, and further. A road runs from Bowen, on the Bay of Plenty, shortly after accepted from Pitt the office of plenipotentiary across the country, through the wonderful lake district, at Paris. Here be successfully negotiated the important with its boiling fountains, steam geysers, and mnd-baths, commercial treaty with France; and after his appointment round by the east coast of Taupo Lake, and over the as ambassador to Spain, he rendered valuable service in highlands to Napier, in Hawke's Bay province. The history settling the dispute between the British and French of Auckland was for long the history of New Zealand, Governments with regard to the affairs of Holland. In and will be fully treated under that heading. (See NEW 1789 he was made an Irish peer, with the title of Baron ZEALAND.)

Auckland, and in 1793 he was raised to the British peerage For a descriptive account of a large part of the province, as. Baron Auckland, of West Auckland, Durham. For the reader is referred to Dr Hochstetter's valuable works, three years, 1798-1801, he held office as postmaster-general. especially to his New Zealand, 1863. A very graphic He died suddenly in 1814. In 1776 he married the sketch of some of the natural curiosities is furnished by sister of the first earl of Minto, by whom he had a large Anthony Trollope in his Australia and Nero Zealand, vol. ii. fanuily. Besides numerous pamphlets on political mat

AUCKLAND, the capital of the above province, is finely ters of the day, Lord Auckland wrote a treatise on the situated on an isthmus in the N.W. peninsula, on the S. Principles of the Penal Law, 1771. His political conshore of the Waitemata harbour, which is formed by an inlet | duct has been frequently censured; he was a skilful of the Hauraki Gulf. Lat. 36° 51' S., long. 174° 50'. diplomatist, and as a statesman was specially remarkable On the other side of the isthmus lies the harbour and for his clear grasp of economic principles. His Journal town of Manukau, which serves as a supplementary port and Correspondence, 4 vols. 1860-1862, published by his to the city. Auckland was founded in 1840 by Governor son, the bishop of Bath and Wells, throws considerable Hobson, and became a burgh in 1851. It was till 1865 the light on the political history of his time seat of the Government, which is now situated at Welling. AUCKLAND, GEORGE EDEN, EARL OF, Governorton. The city has a fine appearance, especially from the General of India, born 20th August 1784, was the second harbour, and is surrounded by a number of Aourishing son of the subject of the preceding notice. He completed suburban villages, with several of which it is connected by his education at Oxford, and was admitted to the bar in railway. Among the public buildings in the city and neigh 1809. His elder brother was drowned in the Thames in bourhood may be mentioned the governor's house, the the following year; and in 1814, on the death of his cathedral, St John's Episcopal college, about 4 miles distant, father, he took his seat in the House of Lords as Baron the Auckland college and grammar school, the Episcopal | Auckland. He supported the Reform party steadily by his grammar school, in the suburb of Parnell, the provincial | vote, and in 1830 was made president of the Board of Trade hospital, the provincial lunatic asylum, and the orphanage and master of the Mint. In 1834 he held office for a few at Parnell. À wharf, 1690 feet in length, has been built inonths as first lord of the Admiralty, and in 1835 he was opposite the centre of the city, and affords excellent appointed Governor-General of India. He proved himself accommodation for the gradually increasing traffic of the to be a painstaking and laborious legislator, and devoted harbour. In 1872, 170 non-colonial vessels, with a himself specially to the improvement of native schools, and tonnage of 54,257 tons, entered the port, besides a large the expansion of the commercial industry of the nation number of coasting ships. There are registered at Auck committed to his care. These useful labours were interland 167 sailing vessels and 20 steamships, most of them rupted in 1838 by the hostile movements of the Persians, of provincial build. The population, which was 7989 in which excited the fears not only of the Anglo-Indian 1862, had increased by 1871 to 12,937 (with the suburbs Government but of the honie authorities. Lord Auckland to 18,000), and is now estimated at about 21,000.

resolved to enter upon a war in Afghanistan, and on the AUCKLAND ISLANDS, a group discovered in 1806 1st October 1838, published at Simla his famous manifesto, by Captain Briscoe, of the English whaler “ Ocean," about The early operations were crowned with success, and the 180 miles S. of New Zealand, in lat. 50° 24', long. 166o Governor-General received the title of Earl of Auckland. 7' E. The islands, of volcanic origin, are very fertile, and But reverses followed quickly, and in the ensuing cam. are covered with forest. They were granted to the Messrs paigns the British troops suffered the most severe disasters. Enderby by the British Government as a whaling station, Lord Auckland had the double mortification of seeing his but the establishment was abandoned in 1852. (See Ray-policy a complete failure, and of being superseded before nal's Auckland Islands, 1874.)

his errors could be rectified. In the autumn of 1841 be · AUCKLAND, WILLIAM EDEN, BARON, an eminent was succeeded in office by Lord Ellenborough, and returned diplomatist and politician, third son of Sir Robert Eden, to England in the following year. In 1846 he was made Bart., of West Auckland, was born in 1744. He was edu- first lord of the Admiralty, which office he held until his cated at Eton and Oxford, and adopted the profession of the death, 1st January 1849. He died unmarried, and the law. At the age of twenty-seven he resigned his practice at | earldom became extinct. the bar, and engaged in political life as under-secretary to AUCTION, a mode of selling property by offering it Lord Suffolk. By the favour of the duke of Marlborough, to the highest bidder in a public competition. By 8 Vict. he obtained a seat for Woodstock, and soon gave proof of his c. 15, the uniform duty of £10 per annum is imposed on ability in the House. He attached himself to Lord North's | every licence to carry on the business of auctioneer, but party, and after serving under Lord Carlisle on the unsuc duties on sales by auction are abolished. It is the duty cessful commission to the colonists' in America, acted as of an auctioneer to sell for the best price he can obtain, secretary to that nobleman, when he held the post of and his authority cannot be delegated to another unless by viceroy in Ireland. During this time he had obtained the special permission of his employer. The auctioneer's name pffices of director and audisor of Greenwich Hospital, which must be exhibited on some conspicuous place during the sals oder a penalty of £20. Sales by auction usually produce, consisting mainly of wheat, oats, rye, and Indian take place under certain conditions, which it is the duty of corn, considerably exceeds the cousumption, and tho vincthe auctioneer to read to tho bidders before the saloyards yield an abundant supply of both whito and red begins. To complete a sale by auction thero must be a wines. Olives and almonds are also extensively cultivated, bidding by, or on behalf of, a person capable of making i and the honoy of Aude is much cutcomcd. Besides impor. a contract, and an acceptance thereof by the auctioneer, and tant manufactures of woollen and cotton cloths, combs, jot until the bidding is accepted both vendor and bidder are ornaments, and casks, there are paper-mills, distillerics, free, and may retract if they choose. If duc votice is tanneries, and oxtensivo iron and salt works. The chict given, an agent may be employed to bid on behalf of the town is Carcassonne, and the department is divided into seller, but the employment of several bidders is improper, the four arrondissements of Carcassonne, Limoux, Narand if the sale is declared to be without reserve, any bidding bonno, and Castelnaudary. Population in 1872, 285,927. on the behalf of the seller will vitiate the sale. Puting, AUDEBERT, JEAN BAPTISTE, a distinguished French it has been said, is illegal, even if there be only ono puffer. naturalist and artist, was born at Rochefort in 1759. HC On the other hand, any hindrance to a free sale, either by studied painting and drawing at Paris, and gained con a bidder deterring competitors from offering against him, siderable reputation as a miniature painter. In 1787 le or by an engagement ainong the competitors to refrain was employed to make drawings of some objects in a from bidding, in order to keep down the price of the goods natural history collection, and was also a contributor in and then share the profit, is a fraud upon the vendor. Two tho preparation of the plates for Olivier's Histoire des persons, however, may agree not to bid against each other. Insectes. He thus acquired a taste for the study of natural Auctioneers are entitled by their licence to act as appraisers history, and devoted himself with great eagerness to the also.

new pursuit. In 1800 appeared his first original work, AUDÆUS, or AUDIUS, a reformer of the 4th century, L'Histoire Naturelle des Singes, des Asakis, et des Galéopi. by birth a Jesopotamian. He suffered much persecution thèques, illustrated by 62 folio plates, drawn and engraved from the Syrian clergy for his fearless censure of their by himself. The colouring in these plates was unusually irregular lives, and was expelled from the church, He| beautiful, and was laid on by a method devised by the was afterwards banished into Scythia, where he gained author himself. Audebert died in 1800, but be, had left many followers and established the monastic system. He complete materials for another great work, Histoire des died there at an advanced age, about 370 A.D. The Colibris, des Oiseaux-douches, des Jacamares, et des ProAudæans celebrated the feast of Easter on the same day merops, which was published in 1802. 200 copies were as the Jewish Passover, and they were also charged with printed in folio, 100 in large quarto, and 15 were printed attributing to the Deity a human shape. They appear to with the whole text in letters of gold. Another work, left have founded this opinion on Genesis i. 26.

unfinished, was also published after the author's death, AUDE, a southern department of France, forming part L'Histoire des Grimpereaux, et des Oiseaux de Paradis. of the old province of Languedoc, bounded on the E. by The last two works also appeared together in two volumes the Mediterranean, N. by the departments of Hérault and ! with the title Oiseaux dorés ou à reflets metalliques, Tarn, N.W. by Upper Garonne, W. by Ariége, and S. by | 1802. that of Eastern Pyrenees. It lies between lat. 42° 40' and AUDITOR, a person appointed to examine the accounts 34° 30' N., and is 80 miles in length from E. to W., and 60 kept by the financial officers of the Crown, public corporamiles in breadth from N. to S. Area, 2341 square miles. tions, or private persons, and to certify as to their accuracy. The department of Aude is traversed on its western The multifarious statutes regulating the audit of public boundary from S. to N. by a mountain range of medium accounts have been superseded by the 29 and 30 Vict. c. height, which unites the Pyrenees with the Southern 39, which gives power to the Queen to appoint a “comp. Cevennes ; and its northern frontier is occupied by the troller and auditor-general," with the requisite staff to Black Mountains, the most western part of the Cevennes examine and verify the accounts prepared by the different chain. The Corbières, a branch of the Pyrenees, runs in departments of the public service. In examining accounts 2 S.W. and N.E. direction along the southern district. of the appropriation of the several supply grants, the compThe Aude, its principal river, has almost its entire course troller and auditor-general “shall ascertain first whether in the department. Its principal affluents on the left are the payments which the account department has charged the Fresquel, Orbiel, Argent-Double, and Cesse; on the to the grant are supported by vouchers or proofs of pay. right, the Guette, Salse, and Orbieu. The canal of Lan-ments; and second, whether the money expended has been guedoc, which unites the Atlantic with the Mediterranean, applied to the purpose or purposes for which such grant traverses the department from E. to W. The lowness of was intended to provide.” The Treasury may also subinit the coast causes a series of large lagunes, the chief of which certain other accounts to the audit of the comptrollerare those of Bages, Sigean, Narbonne, Palme, and Leucate. general. All public moneys payable to the Exchequer aro The climate is variable, and often sudden in its alterations. | to be paid to the “ account of Her Majesty's Exchequer" The wind from the N.W., known as the Cers, blows with | at the Bank of England, and daily returns of such payments great violence, and the sea breeze is often laden with pesti- must be forwarded to the comptroller. Quarterly accounts lential effluvia from the lagunes. Various kinds of wild of the income and charge of the consolidated fund are to animals, as the chamois, bear, wild boar, wolf, fox, and be prepared and transmitted to the comptroller, who, in badger, inhabit the mountains and forests ; game of all case of any deficiency in the consolidated fund, may certify kinds is plentiful; and the coast and lagunes abound in to the bank to make advances. The accounts of local fish. Mines of iron, copper, lead, manganese, cobalt, and boards, poor-law unions, &c., must be passed in a similar antimony exist in the department; and, besides the beauti- manner by an official auditor. It is the duty of the auditor ful marbles of Cascastel and Caunes, there are quarries of to disallow all illegal payments, and surcharge them upon lithographic stone, gypsum, limestone, and sinto. The the person making or authorising them ; but such disallowcoal mines are for the most part abandoned. The moun ances may be removed by certiorari into the Court of tains contain many mineral springs, both cold and thermal. Queen's Bench, or an appeal may be made to the local The agriculture of the department is in a very flourishing Government Board. In municipal corporations two condition. The meadows are extensive and well watered, burgesses must be chosen annually as ovditors of the and are pastured by numerous flocks and herds. The grain | accounts.

AUDOUIN, JEAN VICTOR, & distinguished French | style. The Rape of the Sabines, after Poussin, is code entomologist, was born at Paris, April 27, 1797. He began sidered his masterpiece. the study of law, but was diverted from it by his strong | AUDUBON, JOHN JAMES, a well-known naturalist, was predilection for natural history, which subsequently led born in 1781 in Louisiana, where his parents, who were him to enter the medical profession. In 1824 he was French Protestants, had taken up their residence while it appointed assistant to Latreille in the entomological chair was still & Spanish colony. They afterwards settled in at the Paris museum of natural history, and succeeded him Pennsylvania. From his early years he had a passion for in 1833. He established in 1824, in conjunction with observing the habits and appearances of birds, and attemptDumas and Adolphe Brongniart, the Annales des Sciences ing delineations of them from nature. At the age of fifteen Naturelles, to which he made numerous valuable contribu- he was sent to Paris, and remained there about two years, tions, generally in co-operation with M. Milne-Edwards. | when among other studies he took some lessons in the The greater part of his other papers are contained in drawing-school of David. On returning to America his the Transactions of the Entomological Society, of which father established him in a plantation in Pennsylvania, and he was one of the founders, and for many years president. | he soon after married. But nothing could damp his ardour In 1838 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences. for natural history. For fifteen years he annually explored He died in 1841, more from the effects of mental than of the depths of the primeval forests of America in long and bodily exhaustion. His principal work, Histoire des hazardous expeditions, far from his family and his home. Insectes nuisibles à la Vigne, was continued after his death in these excursions he acquired the facility of making those by Milne-Edwards and Blanchard, and published in 1842. spirited drawings of birds that gives such value to his

AUDRAN, the name of a family of French artists and magnificent work, The Birds of America. At that period engravers, who for several generations were distinguished he had not dreamed of any publication of his labours; as in the same line. The first who devoted himself to the he informs us, “it was not the desire of fame that art of engraving was Claude Audran, born 1592, and the prompted to those long exiles; it was simply the enjoyment last was Benoit, Claude's great-grandson, who died in of nature.” He afterwards removed with his family to the 1712. The two most distinguished members of the family village of Henderson on the banks of the Ohio, where he ere the following:

continued his researches in natural history for several years, AUDRAN, GÉRARD, or GIRARD, the most celebrated and at length set out for Philadelphia with a portfolio French engraver, was the third son of Claudo Audran, and containing 200 sheets filled with coloured delineations was born at Lyons in 1640. He was taught the first of about 1000 birds. Business obliged him to quit Philaprinciples of design and engraving by his father; and, delphia unexpectedly for some weeks, and he deposited his following the example of his brother, went to Paris to portfolio in the warehouse of a friend; but to his intense perfect himself in his art. He there, in 1666, engraved dismay and mortification he found, on his return, that these for Le Brun Constantine's Battle with Afaxentius, his precious fruits of his wanderings and his labours had been Triumph, and the Stoning of Stephen, which gave great totally destroyed by rats. The shock threw him into a satisfaction to the painter, and placed Audran in the very fever of several weeks' duration, that well-nigh proved årst rank of engravers at Paris. Next year he set out for fatal. But his native energy returned with returning Rome, where he resided three years, and engraved several health ; and he resumed his gun and his game-bag, his line plates. That great patron of the arts, M. Colbert, was pencils and his drawing-book, and plunged again into the 80 struck with the beauty of Audrar's works, that he per recesses of the backwoods. In about three years he had suaded Louis XIV. to recall him to Paris. On his return again filled his portfolio, and then rejoined his family, who be applied himself assiduously to engraving, and was had in the meantime gone to Louisiana. After a short appointed engraver to the king, from whom he received sojourn there he set out for the Old World, to exhibit to great encouragement. In the year 1681 he was admitted the ornithologists of Europe the riches of America in that to the council of the Royal Academy. He died at Páris in department of natural history. 1703. His engravings of Le Brun's Battles of Alexander In 1826 Audubon arrived at Liverpool, where the merits of are regarded as the best of his numerous works. “He his spirited delineations of American birds were immediately was," says the Abbé Fontenai, “the most celebrated recognised. An exhibition of them to the public in the gal. engraver that ever existed in the historical line. We have leries of the Royal Institution of that town was so successful several subjects, which he engraved from his own designs, that it was repeated at Manchester and at Edinburgh, where that manifested as much taste as character and facility, they were no less admircd. When he proposed to publish a But in the Battles of Alexander he surpassed even the work on the birds of America, several naturalists advised expectations of Le Brun himself.” Gérard published in him to issue the work in large quarto, as the most useful 1683 a work entitled Les proportions du corps humain size for the lovers of natural history, and the most likely mesurées sur les plus belles figures de l'antiquité, which has to afford him a sufficient number of subscribers to remubeen translated into English.

nerate his labours. At first he yielded to this advice, and AUDRAN, JEAN, nephew of Gérard, was born at Lyons in acknowledged its soundness; but finally he decided that 1667. After having received instructions from his father, his work should eclipse every other ornithological publicahe went to Paris to perfect himself in the art of engraving tion. Every bird was to be delineated of the size of life, under bis uncle, next to whom he was the most distin- and to each species a whole page was to be devoted ; conguished member of his family. At the age of twenty his sequently, the largest elephant folio paper was to receive genius began to display itself in a surprising manner; and the impressions. This necessarily increased the expense his subsequent success was such, that in 1707 he obtained of the work so much as to put it beyond the reach of the title of engraver to the king, Louis XIV., who allowed most scientific naturalists—which accounts for the small him a pension, with apartments in the Gobelins; and number of persons who, for a considerable time, could be the following year he was made a member of the Royal reckoned among his supporters in the gigantic underAcademy. He was eighty years of age before he quitted taking. The exceptionally high character of the work, the graver, and nearly ninety when he died. The best however, gradually became known ; and a sufficient prints of this artist are those which appear not so pleasing number of subscribers was at length obtained in Great to the eye at first sight. In these the etching constitutes Britain and America, during the ten or twelve years that a great part; and he has finished them in a bold, rough the work was going through the press, to indemnify him

for the great cost of the publication-leaving him, however, beside the stream Menios (Mýv=moon); and his daughter a very inadequate compensation for his extraordinary infogamede was, like Medeia and Circe, skilled in witchcraft, dustry and skill. The first volume was published at New and connected with the moon goddess. The task of York in the end of the year 1830, the second in 1834, the Hercules wes to clear out all his stalls in one day, and third in 1837, and the fourth and last in 1839. The whole without help. This he did by making an opening in tho consists of 435 coloured plates, containing 1055 figures of wall and turning the stream through them. Augeias had birds the size of life. It is certainly the most magnificent promised him à tenth of the herd, but refused . this, work of the kind ever given to the world, and is well char alleging that Hercules had acted only in the service of acterised by Cuvier, “ C'est le plus magnifique monument Eurystheus. que l'Art ait encore élevé à la Nature."

AUGEREAU, PIERRE FRANÇOIS CHARLES, Duke of During the preparation and publication of his great svork Castiglione, was the son of obscure parents, and born in Audubon made several excursions from Great Britain. 1757. After serving for a short period in the armies In the summer of 1828 he visited Paris, where he made of France, he entered the Neapolitan service, and for the acquaintance of Cuvier, Humboldt, and other celebrated some time supported himself by teaching fencing at Naples. naturalists, and received from them every mark of honour In 1792 he joined the Republican army that watched the and esteem. The following winter he passed in London. movements of Spain. He rose rapidly to the rank of In April of 1830 he revisited the United States of America, brigadier-general, and commanded a division in the army and again explored the forests of the central and southern of Italy. Here he distinguished himself in numerous iederal territories. In the following year he returned to engagements by his energy, skill, and vigorous rapidity of London and Edinburgh, bus the August of 1831 found him action. To him were due in great measure the brilliant again in New York. The succeeding winter and spring victories of Millesimo, Dego, and Castiglione, and he led he spent in Florida and South Carolina ; and in the summer the decisive charges at the bloody combats of Lodi and of 1832 he set out for the Northern States, with an inten. Arcola. In 1797 he took part with Barras and the tion of studying the annual migrations of birds, particularly Directory, and was an active agent in the rovolution of the of the passenger pigeon, of which he has given a striking 18th of Fructidor; but his jealousy of his former comdescription; but his career was arrested at Boston by a rade, Bonaparte, prevented their intimacy; and he was severe attack of cholera, which detained him there till the one of the general officers not privy to the noted revolution middle of August. After that ho explored the coasts, of the 18th of Brumaire (Nov. 9) 1799. He received, lakes, rivers, and mountains of North America, from however, the command of the army of Holland and the Labrador and Canada to Florida, during a series of Lower Rhine, but was superseded in 1801. From that laborious journeys, that occupied him for three years. time he lived in retirement, till 1804, when he was made a From Charieston, accompanied by his wife and family, he marshal of the French empire, and in the following year he took his third departure for Britain. During his earlier was appointed to.the command of the expedition against the residence in Edinburgh he had begun to publish his Ameri- Vorarlberg, which he quickly subdued. He also distinguished san Ornithological Biography, which at length filled five himself greatly in the battles of Jena and Eylau. In 1809-10 large octavo volumes. The first was issued there by Adam he commanded the French in Catalonia, and tarnished Black in 1831; the last appeared in 1839. This book is his laurels by his great cruelty to the Spaniards ; but he admirable for the vivid pictures it presents of the habits of was again more honourably conspicuous in the campaign the birds, and the adventures of the naturalist. The of 1813, especially in the terrible battle of Leipsic. In descriptions are characteristically accurate and interesting. 1814 he had the command of a reserve army at Lyons, and

In 1839 Audubon bade a final adieu to Europe; and might have made a diversion in favour of Napoleon, but returning to his native country, he published, in a more he preferred to submit, and retained a command under the popular form, his Birds of America, in seven octavo Bourbons. In the following year he at first refused to join volumes, the last of which appeared in 1844. His ardent Napoleon on his, escape from Elba, and when he would love of nature still prompted him to new enterprises, and afterwards have accepted a command his services wero he set out on fresh excursions ; but in these he was always declined. He also failed to obtain military office under accompanied by his two sons, and one or two other natural the new dynasty, and after having had the painful task ists. The result of these excursions was the projection of being one of the commission on the trial of Ney, ho of a new work, The Quadrupeds of America, in atlas folio, returned to his estates, where he died of dropsy in 1816. and also a Biography of American Quadrupeds, both of AUGSBURG, a celobrated city of Germany, capital of which were commenced at Philadelphia in 1840. The the circle of Swabia and Neuburg in Bavaria, the principal latter was completed'in 1850, and is, perhaps, even superior seat of the commerce of South Germany, and of commerto his Ornithological Biography.

cial transactions with the south of Europe. It derives To great intolligence in observing, and accuracy in its name from the Roman Emperor Augustus, who, on the delineating nature, to a vigorous, handsome frame, and conquest of Rhætia by Drusus, established a Roman colony pleasing expressive features, Audubon united very named Augusta Vindelicorum (abo'it 14 B.C.) In the 5th estimable mental qualities, and a deep sense of religion century it was sacked by the Huns, and afterwards came without a trace of bigotry. His conversation was animated under the power of the Frankish kings. It was almost and instructive, his manner unassuming, and he always entirely destroyed in the war of Charlemagne against spoke with gratitude to Heaven for the very happy life he Thassilon, duke of Bavaria ; and after the dissolution and had been permitted to enjoy. He died, after a short illness, division of that empire, it fell into the hands of the dukes in his own residence on the banks of the Hudson, at New of Swabia. After this it rose rapidly into importance as a York, on the 27th of January 1851. See Life and Adven manufacturing and commercial town, and its merchant tures of J. J. Audubon the Naturalist, edited, from materials princes, the Fuggers and Welsers, rivalled the Medici of supplied by his widow, by Robert Buchanan, London, 1868. Florence; but the alterations produced in the currents of

AUGEIAS (Aủyelas, Aúyéas, cf. ndiou aiyn), in Greek trade by the discoveries of the 15th and 16th centuries Legend, & son of Helios, the sun. He was a prince of occasioned a great decline. In 1276 it was raised to the Elis, and, consistently with his being a descendant of the rank of a free inperial city, which it retained, with many sun-god, had an immense wealth of herds, including twelve changes in its internal constitution, till 1806, when it was bulls sacred to Helios, and white as swan.. He lived I annexed to the kingdom of Bavaria. Meau while. it was

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the scene of numerous events of historical importance. rent The manufactures of Augsburg are various and It was besieged and taken by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, important, consisting of woollen, linen, cotton, and silk and in 1635 it surrendered to the imperial forces; in 1703 goods, watches, jewellery, and goldsmith-work, mathemait was bombarded by the electoral prince of Bavaria, and tical instruments, machinery, leather, paper, chemical forced to pay a contribution of 400,000 dollars; and in stuffs, types, &c. Copper-engraving, for which it was

formerly noted, is no longer carried on ; but printing, lithography, and publishing have acquired a considerable development, one of the best-known Continental newspapers being the Allgemeine Zeitung or Augsburg Gazette. Augsburg is an important railway junction. On the opposite side of the river, which is here crossed by a bridge, lies the little village of Lechhausen. Population in 1871, 51,270.


AUGURS, in Roman Antiquities, a college or board appointed to interpret, according to the books (libri augurales) in which the science of divination was laid down, the auspicia or signs of approval or disapproval sent by Jupiter on the occasion of any public transaction. At first, it is said, there were only two augurs, one from

each of the tribes Ramnes -and Tities. Two more were CARDENS

added. by Numa, and again other two for the third tribe of Luceres, that is sit altogether. But in the year 300 B.C. it is certain that there were only four, to which number five plebeian places were added by the lex Ogulnia. Sulla increased the number to fifteen, at which it continued, with the exception that Cæsar appointed a sixteenth, and the emperors frequently added as supra numerum persons of distinction, or of their own family. An augur retained his office and sacred character for life. The college had the right of election of new members. The insignia of their office were the lituus, or crook, and the dress called trabea. The natural region to look to for

signs of the will of Jupiter was the sky, where lightning Sketch Plan of Augsburg.

and the flight of birds seemed directed by him as counsel A St Stephan's Platz. | K, Maximilian's Platy 9. Police.

to men. The latter, however, was the more difficult of B, Carolinen Platz, 1. Cathedral. 10. Firehouse

interpretation, and upon it, therefore, mainly hinged the C. Frant Market,

11. St Moritz Church. D, Metzger Plats.

13. St Katherine's Nun system of divination with which the augurs were occupied, E Perlachthurm. 4. Court Garden.

14. St Ulrich's Church.

and which is expressed in the terms augurium and auspiG, Fish Market. 6. Shambles,

cium (aves gerere, aves spicere). The presence of augurs H, Horse Market 7. Town-Hall.

16. Holy Ghost Hospital. J, St Anna Platz. 8. Exchange (Börse).

was required only in observing signs in the sky, where their

first duty was to mark out with the lituus a space or the war of 1803 it suffered severely. Of its conventions the templum in the sky within which the omen must occur. most memorable are those which gave birth to the Augs Such observations being properly made only in the city of burg confession (1530) and to the Augsburg alliance (1686). Rome, augurs are not found elsewhere. Signs of the will

The city is pleasantly situated in an extensive and of the gods were of two kinds, either in answer to a request fertile plain, between the rivers Wertach and Lech, 36 (auspicia impetrativa), or incidental (auspicia oblativa) miles W.N.W. of Munich, lat. 48° 21' 44" N., long. 10° 54' | Of such signs there were five classes :-(1.) Signs in the 42" E. Its fortifications were dismantled in 1703, and sky (cælestia auspicia), consisting chiefly of thunder and have since been converted into public promenades. Maxi: lightning, but not excluding falling stars and other phenomilian Street is remarkable for its breadth and architectural mena. Lightning from left to right was favourable, from magnificence. One of its most interesting edifices is the right to left unfavourable ; and this being a very direct and Fugger House, of which the entire front is painted in impressive token of the will of Jupiter, the observation of fresco. Among the public buildings of Augsburg nost it was held to apply to all public transactions fixed for the worthy of notice is the town-hall, said to be one of day on which it occurred. Whether favourable or the the finest in Germany, built by Elias Holl in 1616–20. reverse in its direction, the appearance of lightning was One of its rooms, called the “Golden Hall;" from the held as a voice of the god against business being done in profusion of its gilding, is 113 feet long, 59 broad, and 53 the public assemblies. But since the person charged to high. The 'palace of the bishops, where the memorable take the auspices (de cælo servasse) for a certain day was Confession of Faith was presented to Charles V., is now constitutionally subject to no other authority who could used for Government offices. The cathedral dates in its test the truth or falsehood of his statement that he had oldest portions from the 10th century. There are also vari. observed lightning, it happened that this became a favourite ous churches and chapels, a school of arts, a polytechnic means of putting off meetings of the public assembly. institution, a picture gallery in the former monastery of St Restrictions were, however, imposed on it in the later times Catherine, a museum, observatory, botanical gardens, an of the republic. When a new consul, prætor, or quæstor exchange, gymnasium, deaf-mute institution, orphan entered on his first day of office and prayed the gods for asylum, public library, several remarkable fountains dating good omens, it was a matter of custom to report to him from the 16th century, &c. The “Fuggerei,” built in that lightning from the left had been seen. (2.) Signs 1519 by the brothers Fugger, consists of 106 small houses, friom birds (signa ex avibus), with reference to the direction Jet to indigent Roman Catholic citizens at a merely nominal of their flight, and also to their singing, or uttering other


2. Frohnhof.
3. Palace.

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5. Barefoot Church.

15. Military Stables.

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