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The revolution which expelled the PUistratids (510 8.C.), and gave Athens a free government, left ita mark upon the topography of the «ity. The old Pelasgic fortress (to T^waTvAov), in which "tho tyrants" had for a time held rat, was now broken down, and the site occupied by its ruins was devoted by the Delphic oracle to eternal desolation. Only in the Peloponnesian war, when the country population was crowded within the city walls, do we read of this spot being occupied by dwellings (Thucyd., ii 17). Another work which may probably be assigned to the age of Clisthenes is the first arrangement of the Pnyx, or place of public assembly. The hill that is commonly known as the Pnyx Hill contains one of the most remarkable ruins in Athens; the silence, however, of Pauaanius respecting what was probably in his day already a mere ruin has occasioned some doubt concerning its proper identification. The spot in question consists of two terraces sloping down the hill towards the Areopagus, from S.W. to N.E The upper terrace, indeed, does not slope, but is levelled out of the solid rock near the summit of the hill, being about 65 yards in length (E. to W.), and about 43 in breadth at its broadest part (N. to S.) It is bounded at the back (S.) by a rock-wall, and at the W. end there stands a cubical block, allowed to rise out of the solid rock when this upper terrace was levelled. There is good reason for considering this as the altar for the sacrifices (to. mplcma) with which every assembly of the ecdesia was opened (Bursian, Philologru, 1854, p. 369, folk; Dyer, Athen*, p. 462). The lower and considerably larger terrace is separated from the upper terrace by another wall cut out of the solid rock. This wall, which is nearly 126 yards long, is not quite straight, but encroaches slightly upon the upper terrace, and forms at the centre a very obtuse angle. At this point there rises, projecting from the wall, a large cubical mass, cut out of the solid rock, resembling somewhat, though on a larger scale, the altar described above. It is itself 11 feet square and 5 feet high, and stands on a platform consisting of three very massive steps. This remarkable monument has been recognised by tradition as the O-koxo. Tov AiinocrSo-f«, and almost every traveller since Chandler's time has regarded it as no other than the famous bema of the ancient Athenian assembly. The rock-wall from which it projects forms tho chord of a vast semicircular space, the enclosure of its arc being a wall of "Cyclopean * masonry. The radius of the semicircle measures between 76 and 77 yards from this outer wall to the bema. Here, then, was the auditorium of the Pnyx. But several difficulties beset the identification. Towards the bottom of the lower bema Prat E. Curtius (Attuche Studien, pt. i.) has discovered another similar though smaller bema. Again, Plutarch asserts that the bema which had originally faced towards the sea was by the Thirty Tyrants turned round the other way, in their hatred of the maritime democracy. Moreover, if the block of marble above mentioned be rightly identified as the bema, then it would have the auditorium doping downwards from it, an arrangement ill suited for addressing a tumultuous popular assembly. Dr Curtius accordingly pronounces the entire identification to be a mistake, and would regard this spot as a primitive precinct aad rock-altar of the Most High Zeus. It would not be difficult, if space allowed, to disprove Dr Curtius's theory. Far more reasonable is the view of Dr Dyer (Athens, App. iii.) He thinks that the lower and smaller bema discovered by Dr Curtius was the bema of Clisthenes, which did (however much Plutarch's statement is discredited by his own absurd explanation) face in the direction of the sea. The orator would thus speak from the arc of the t-jmkircie, having the audience above him. The Thirty may well have defaced the Pnyx, and it would have been Man] for Thrasybulns after the anarchy to restore it on
a largo scale, hewing out what is still known as the benio, giving the semicircular wall a wider sweep, and raising the tiers of seats at leafet to a level with the new bema, if not above it. For there is no reason to suppose that the surface of the lower terrace has undergone no change in the lapse of centuries, or that the "Cyclopean" wall surrounding it never exceeded its present height
A building' of greater architectural importance and of equal interest belongs to this same period. Dramatic performances at Athens originally took place in wooden theatres extemporised for the occasion; but the fall of one of these led, in the year 500 B.O., to the erection of tho marble theatre on a site already consecrated to Dionysus as the Lemeum, upon the S.E. slope of the Acropolis. (Suidas, * v. npariWe.) We may be sure that the first stone theatre was comparatively simple in construction, consisting of a Kmxov or auditorium, with tiers of rock-hewn seats, and an ipy^crrfA, or space for the chorus, while the stage itself and its furniture were of wood. The excavation of the Dionysiac theatre in 1862 has made every one familiar with the row of marble thrones for the various priests and officers of state, tho elaborate masonry of the stage, the orchestra floor, and other features. But these and other interesting decorations of the theatre belong to a later age. It was under the administration of Lycurgus the orator (337 B.C.) that the building was first really completed; and many of the sculptures which have been lately brought to light belong to a restoration of the theatre in tho 2d, or perhaps even in the 3d, century A.D.1
Enough has now been said of the condition of Athens before the Persian War. It was surrounded by a ring-wall of narrow circuit, some doubtful traces of which are supposed to remain. At its centre stood the Acropolis, already crowded with temples and sanctuaries, some upon the summit, some built at its foot, and others—like tho famous grotto of Pan, on the N.W. slope—mere caves in its rocky sides.
The Persian invasion, which forced the Athenians to take refuge in their " wooden walls," and to leave their city at the mercy of the barbarian, marked an important epoch in the annals of Athenian building. Upon the retreat of Mardonius, the Athenians returned to Attica to find their city virtually in ruins. Its fortifications and public buildings had been destroyed or burnt, and the private dwellings had been wantonly defaced or ruined by neglect Amid the enthusiasm of hope which followed upon the great deliverance of Greece, a natural impulse led the Athenians to rear their city more glorious from its ruins. Themistocles fanned their patriotism with the foresight of a statesman, and Athens rose again with marvellous rapidity. This haste, however, though creditable to their patriotism, and, indeed, necessary in order to forestall the jealous opposition of Sparta, was not without its evils. The houses were rebuilt on their old sites, and the lines of tho old streets, narrow and irregular as they had been, were too readily followed. A similar haste marked the rebuilding of the city walls, a work in which men and women, old and young, took zealous part, not scrupling to dismantle any building or monument, private or public, which could supply materials for the building. But in rebuilding the walls Themistncles gave them a wider circuit, especially towards the N. and N.E. (Thucyd., i. 90, 93). At the same time he determined to construct new harbours, and to fortify the Piraeus, regarding the navy of Athens is her principal source of strength. It is doubtful whether the "Long Walls" formed a distinct portion of his designs; but he may certainly be regarded as the founder of the greatness
1 The best account yet gives of the Dlonysiao theatre is to be found In Dr Dyer's recent work on Athens.
of Athens, the works'and embellishments carried cut by Pericles being only a fulfilment of the far-sighted aims of Themistocles. Thncydides (ii. 13) makes the circuit of the city wall to be 43 etades (about oi miles), exclusive of the unguarded space between walls; this is found to correspond accurately enough with the existing remains. In tracing the circuit of the ancient walls, we may take our start from Ihe N.W. side of the city, at tho one gate whose sit) is absolutely certain, the Thriasian gate (called also the Sacred gate, as Opening upon the sacred way to Eleusis, and also To AiVvXov, as consisting of two gates, perhaps one within the other), which is marked by the modern church of the Holy Trinity, e little N. of the bottom of Hermes Street— a spot attractive to the modern tourist through the beautiful "street of tombs" here laid bare by recent excavations. From the Thriasian gate the wall of Themistocles ran due E. for. some distance; thence, skirting the modern theatre, it ran N.E., parallel to the modern Piraeus Street as far as the Bank, when it returned in a S.E. direction across the site of the present Mint, as far as the Chamber of Deputies. Thence towards the S.E. it included nearly all the modern Royal Gardens, and then ran S.W.,.following the zig-zag of the hills above the north bank of the Hissus, until westwards by a straight course parallel with the Acropolis it reached the Museium Hill. Thence it may be traced in a direction N.W. and N., following more or less the contour of the hills, until we return to our starting-point at the Dipylum gate. Eight other gates (exclusive of wickets, irvAtScc, which must have existed) are mentioned by ancient authors—the Piraan, Hippades, Melitides, Itonian, Diomeian, Diocharis, Panopis, and Acharnian. Their exact sites cannot be certainly fixed, but some of them may be determined within narrow limits, such as the Piraan gate, which led out of the Agora, and opened upon the long walls. Having completed the defences of the city proper, among which must be included the building of the north wall of the Acropolis (Dyer, p. 121), Themistocles proceeded to fortify the Piraeus.
Athens, like most of tho old Greek towns, was built, for greater security, at a distance from tho coast, and only when more settled times brought her greater prosperity was a harbour formed at the nearest bay of Phalerum, near the modern church of St George. It is said that Themistocles would gladly have transported the Athenian population bodily from the upper city to the coast, there to form a great maritime state. Though this was impossible, yet he could strengthen Athens on the seaward side. The isthmus of Piraeus, though somewhat more distant than Phalerum, presented obvious advantages as a seaport. It formed on its north side the spacious and secure basin of Piraeus (now Port Drako), the north and south shores of which towards the entrance fall back into two smaller bays—harbours within the harbour—known respectively as the xaxftoi Xiix-qv and navC'apot. The neck of the isthmus on the south is formed by Port Zea (now Phanari), the entrance of which was secured by Phreattys, the headland of Munychia. Bound to the east of the district of Munychia, -again, and facing Phalerum, was the harbour known anciently as Munychia, and now as Port Stratiotiki. Themistocles thus, in giving up Port Phalerum, gave Athens three harbours instead of one. The fortifications of Piraeus were conceived on a grand scale, and carried out with no sign of hurry. The whole circuit of Piraeus and of the town of Munychia was enclosed alike on the sea and land sides by walls of immense thickness and strength, which were carried up to a height of more than 60 feet—this being only half the height intended by Themistocles! (see Grote, Hut. Greece, c xliv.) The laying out of the new seaport belonged rather to the regime of Pericles (Grote, c. xlvii) It was then that
Hippodamus, the" eccentric architect, planned tie Agora which bore his name; and the various public buildings which adorned Piraeus doubtless arose with growth of Athenian commerce. The harbour-basin was lined with porticoes, which served as warehouses and bazaars. Two theatres existed in the town, and numerous temples. The local deity was Artemis Munychia; but the large number of foreigners (jutmkm) who became naturalised at this port led to the introduction,of many foreign forms of worship. Artemis herself came to be identified with the Thracian Bendis, and her festival (ra Bn&Saa) is referred to in the immortal opening of Plato's Republic.
If not a part of the original designs of Themistocles, it was at least a natural development of them, to carry " Long Walls" from the newly-fortified Piraeus to the upper city, and thus combine them both into one grand system of fortification. The experiment of connecting a town by long walls with its port had been already tried between Megara and Nistea (Grote, Hut. Greece, c. xlv.), and it was now repeated on a grander scale under Cimon. From the portion of the city wall between the Museium and the Nymphs' Hill a sort of bastion was thrown out to S.W. so as to form an irregular triangle, from the apex of which a "long wall," about i miles long, was carried down to the N. portion of the Piraean fortifications; this was termed To f&ptiov Tttxos. Another "long wall" of somewhat shorter length ran down to the wall of Phalerum, which had hitherto served as the port of Athens; this was To taX-qpixov r«xof. A third wall, between the two, parallel to the first, and but a few yards from it (to Votiov T«xos, To Sta fiiaov Tftxos), was afterwards added by Pericles, and the maritime fortifications of Athens became complete. But the city owed still more to the munificence of Cimon. Out of the spoils of his Persian campaign he fortified tho S. side of the Acropolis with a remarkably solid wall, which terminated in a sort of bastion at the W. end. Here he reared a little temple of Athena Nike (otherwise called the Wingless Vicl ory), although the existing sculptures of the frieze are pronounced on account of their style to belong to a" somewhat later date (Pausan., i. 28, 3; Com. Nep., Cimon, ii; Plutarch, Cimon, xiii) It was Cimon who first set the example of providing the citizens with agreeable places for promenade (Plutarch, ibid.), by planting the Agora with plane trees, and laying oat the Academy with trees and walks. It is probable that some of the porticoes in the Agora were built by Cimon; at all events, the most beautiful one amongst them was reared by Pisianax, his brother-in-law, and the paintings with which Polygnotus, his sister's lover, adorned it (representing scenes from the military history of Athens, legendary and historical) made it ever famous as the Sroa Ttoucixij. One more building, the most perfect existing relic of ancient Athens, was also built by Cimon. The Theseium (as we still may venture to call it, in spite of the doubts lately 'cast upon its identification)1 is a hexastyle Doric temple standing on an eminence due N. of the Areopagus, and is the first object which meets the eye of the tourist who approaches the city from the Piraeus. Having served in Byzantine times for a Christian church, it is now a museum of antiquities, and contains some of the choicest treasure* discovered by recent excavations.
We have now brought this sketch of Athenian topography down to the most distinguished period of Athenian history and Athenian architecture—the era of Pericles. As the champion of Hellenic freedom against the Persians, as the head of the Ionic confederation, Athens had suddenly grown to be the foremost city in Greece. But when one by one the confederate states sank into the position of subject
1 See Dyer, Athau, p. 230, /oil., who thiaki it U reaUyJht tempi* of the AmvoBfl. ~" - ~
•Hies; when the r/ytftoWorof Athens passed insensibly into a Tvpam's (Thucyd., ii 63); when the contribution of ships and men was commuted in most cases for a money payment, and the funds of the confederation were transferred from the ApoUonmm at Delos to the Athenian Acropolis,—an enormous revenue became at the disposal of the Athenian Government It is to their credit that so little of it found its way into private pockets. It was natural for the thoughts of a Greek, especially of an Athenian, to turn to the decoration of his city; it was politic that the central city of the Ionian confederacy should be adorned with a beauty equal to her prestige. The buildings connected with the name of Cimon had been chiefly for utility or defence; those of Pericles were mainly ornamental. The first edifice completed hy him seems to have been the Odeinm, on the E. of the Dionysiac theatre, to serve as a place for recitations by rhapsodists, and for musical performances. It was burnt by Aristion during Sulla's siege of Athens, but afterwards rebuilt Mention has already been made of the building of the Long Walls and the laying out of the Piraeus by Pericles; but it was the Acropolis itself which witnessed the .greatest splendours of his administration. Within its limited area arose buildings and statues, on which the genius of Phidias the sculptor, of Ictinus and Mnesicles the architects, were employed for years; while multitudes of artists and craftsmen of all kinds were busied in carrying out their grand designs.1 The spoils of the Persian War had already been consecrated under Cimon to the honour of the national goddess, in the erection of a colossal statue of Athena by Phidias between the entrance of the Acropolis and the Erechtheium; her warlike attitude gained her the title of Upofia^cK, and the gleam of her helmet's plume and uplifted spear was hailed by the homeward seaman as he doubled Cape Sunium (Pansan., L 28). But the national deity was to receive yet greater honours at the hand of Pericles. That an old temple stood on the site afterwards occupied by the Parthenon is proved, less by the doubtful expressions of Herodotus (viii 51, 55), and the testimony of later compilers like Hesychius, than by recent excavations, which reveal that a large temple must have been at least begun upon this spot when the Persian invaders destroyed the old buildings of the Acropolis by fire. Here, then, Pericles proceeded to rear what has ever since been known as the Parthenon. The designer of this masterpiece of architecture was Ictinus; the foundations of the old temple were at his suggestion extended in length and breadth, and thus arose npon the S. side of the Acropolis a magnificent temple of the virgin goddess. It was completed in the year 438 Ec It stood upon the highest platform of the Acropolis, to that the pavement of the peristyle of the Parthenon was on a level with tho capitals of the columns of the east portico of the Propykea, The temple was built entirely of white marble from the cfuarries of Mount Pentelicus. Ascending a flight of three steps, you passed through the great east entrance into the Pronaos, wherein was stored a large collection of sacred objects, chiefly of silver. From the Pronaos a massive door led into the cello, called Hecatompedoa (veuK & *ExaToy<r<Soc), because it measured in length 100 Attic feet The treasure here bestowed ccrunsted chiefly of chaplets and other objects of gold. The west portion of the cella was railed off (by KtyxX/hts), and formed the Parthenon proper, i e., the adytum occupied by the chryselephantine statue by Phidias of Athena Parthenos,—a, work which yielded the pre-eminence only to one other statue by the same artist, viz., the Zeus at Olympia. In this adytum were stored a number of silver bowls and other articles employed at the Panathenaic festi
> Sec the animated description in Plutarch, Pcricla, 12, /oil.
vals. The westernmost compartment at the rear of the cella was the Opisthodomus, which served as the national treasury; hither poured in the tribute of the Athenian allies. It is important to remember that the Parthenon was never intended as a temple of worship; for this purpose there already existed another temple, presently to be described as the Erechtheium,—standing upon the primeval site of that contest between Athena and Poseidon which established the claim of the goddess to the Attic citadel and soil The Parthenon was simply designed to be the central point of the Panathenaic festival, and the storehouse for the sacred treasure. The entire temple should be regarded as one vast iydthjfia to the national deity, not as a place for her worship. Thus directly in front of her statue in the cella there stood an erection, which has been mistaken for an altar, but which is more probably to be regarded as the platform which the victorious competitors in the Panathenaic contests ascended to receive, as it were from the hand a 1 the goddess, the golden chaplets and vases of olive oil that formed the prizes (see Michaelis's Parthenon, p. 31). This consideration lends significance-to the decorations of the building, which were the work of Phidias. Within the outer portico, along the outside of the top of the wall of the building, ran a frieze 3 feet 4 inches in height, and 520 feet in total length, on which were sculptured figures in low relief3, representing the Panathenaic procession. Nearly all of these sculptures are in the British Museum, and the entire series has been recently made complete by casts from the other fragments, and arranged in the order of the original design. The marvellous beauty of these reliefs, which was heightened originally by colour, has been long familiar to all the world from numerous illustrated descriptions. The procession of youths and maidens, of priests and magistrates, of oxen for sacrifice, of flute-players and singers, followed by the youthful chivalry of Athens on prancing steeds—is represented as wending its way from the west towards the eastern entrance.9 Outside of the building, on the K. and S. sides, ihe metopes between the Doric triglyphs were filled with sculptures representing scenes from the mythical history of Athens. But the glory of the Parthenon were the sculptures of the E and W. pediments. Unhappily but a few figures remain, and none are wholly perfect, of the statues which formed these groups; and Pausanias appears to have thought it superfluous to give a minute description of objects so familiar to every connoisseur and traveller. The sculptures on the eastern pediment related to the birth of Athena ; the central group was early destroyed by the Byzantine Christians in converting the Parthenon into a church, with the Pronaos for its apse. But nearly all the subordinate figures are preserved in a more or less injured condition in the British Museum. The noble head of the horse of the car of Night, the seated female figures Sf "Tho Fates," and the grand torso commonly known as the "Theseus," are familiar to us all. It would be out of place here even to enumerate the many attempts that have been made to reconstruct the groups of either pediment The sculptures on the W. represented the contest between Athena and Poseidon for the possession of Attica; and although scarcely any portions of these figures are now existing, yet they are better known to us than the E pediment by means of the faithful (if clumsy) sketches made by the Frenchman Carrey in 1674, when they were in a comparatively perfect state. Those who desire to know all that is to be known concerning the sculptures of the Parthenon should consult the beautiful work of Michaelis, Der Parthenon, while the
1 See the remarks of Mr Raskin, Antra Penttlica, p. 174.
* He who deeires to enjoy these sculpture*, should come from a perusal of Michaelis's eloquent work D*r Parthenon, and spend a day in the British Museum with the guide-book in his hand,
measurements and architectural details of the edifice have never been Bo splendidly given as by our countryman Penrose, in his Principle! of Athenian Architecture.
We will turn now to the other buildings of the Acropolis, ■one of which, however, are so full of significance as the Parthenon itself. For, indeed, standing as it does on the high tst point of Athenian soil, its erection marked the culminating point of Athenian history, literature, politics, and art The " Birth of Athena," over the eastern entrance, may symbolise to us the sudden growth of Athenian greatness, while in the contest between the armed goddess of peaceful wisdom and the violent god of sea, which adorned the western front, we may see an allegory of the long struggle between the agricultural and the maritime interests which forms the central thread of Athenian history.
Opposite to the Parthenon, on the northern edge of the Acropolis, stands another remarkable temple, far smaller in size, and built in the most graceful forms of the Ionic order. The Erechthcium appears to be designed expressly to contrast with the severe sublimity of the Parthenon; and on the side which confronts those mighty Doric shafts, the columns of the smaller building ore allowed to transform themselves into Canephori. The temple of .Athena Polias, which contained the ancient wooden image of the goddess, and formed the centre of her worship, suffered from fire in the Persian War (479 B.O.) A building so sacred would hardly have been allowed to remain for long in ruins; but it was reserved for Pericles to set about a complete restoration of it However, the Peloponnesian War seems to have interrupted his designs, and in the year 409 B.O. the edifice was still unfinished,1 and soon after this it was totally destroyed by fire. But soon afterwards it mast have been rebuilt, without doubt retaining all its original features. The temple in its present state consists of an oblong cella extending fom E to W. From each side of the W. end of the cella projects a portico, forming a sort of transept The eastern portico formed the temple of Athena Polias, upon the site of her ancient contest with Poseidon. The west portion was the Pandroseinm, dedicated to Athena Pandrosus. The building thus formed two temples in one, and is styled by Pausanias a cWAow oucrym. It seems at a later time to have been commonly called the Erechtheium, because of a tradition that Erechthcua was buried on this site.
Among the many glories of the Acropolis, the Propyhea are described by Pausanias as being exceptionally magnificent (i. 22). They rivalled even the Parthenon, and were the most splendid of all the buildings of Pericles. The western end of the Acropolis, which furnished, and still furnishes, the only access to the summit of the hill, was about 160 feet in breadth,—a frontage so narrow, that to the artists of Pericles it appeared practicable to fill up the space with a single building, which, in serving the main purpose of a gateway, should contribute to adorn as well as to guard the citadel This work, which rivalled the Parthenon in felicity of execution, and surpassed it in boldness and originality of design, was begun in the archonship of Euthymenes, in the year 437 B.C., and completed in five years, under the directions of the architect Mnesiclea. Of the space which formed the natural entrance to the Acropolis, 68 feet near the centre were left for the grand entrance, and the remainder on either side was occupied by wings projecting 32 feet in front of the central colonnade. The entire building received the name of Propyhea from its forming the vestibule to the five door
1 An important inscription in the British Museum gires a surrey of the works as they stood in that year, drawn up by a commission appointed for the purpose. Bee Qruk Inscription! in the British Muemon, vol. I. No. 36.
ways, still in existence, by which the citadel was entered. The wall in which these doors were pierced was thrown back about 50 feet from the front of the artificial opening of the hill, and the whole may therefore be said to have resembled a modern fortification, although, in fact, the Propylaa was designed, not for defence, but for decoration. The whole building was of Pentelic marble. The Megaron or great vestibule in the centre consisted of a front of six fluted Doric columns, mounted upon four steps, which supported a pediment, and measured 5 feet in diameter and nearly 29 in height, with an intercolumniation of 7 feet, except between the two central columns, which were 13 feet apart, in order to furnish space for a carriage-way. Behind this Doric colonnade was a vestibule 43 feet in depth, the roof of which was sustained by six inner columns in a double row, so as to divide the vestibule into three aisles or compartments; and these columns, although only three feet and a half in diameter at the base, were, including the capitals, nearly 34 feet in height, their architraves being on the same level with the frieze of the Doric colonnade. The ceiling was laid upon marble beams, resting upon the lateral walls and the architraves of the two rows of Ionic columns,—those covering the side aisles being 22 feet in length, and those covering the central aisles 17 feet, with a proportional breadth and thickness. Enormous masses like these, raised to the roof of a building, standing upon a steep hill, and covered with a ceiling which all the resources of art had been employed to beautify, might well overcome the reserve of a matter-offact topographer like Pausanias, and at once account for and justify the unusual warmth of his language when he is speaking of the roof of the Propyhea (i. 22). Of the five doors at the extremity of the vestibule, the width of the central and largest was equal to the space between the two central columns of the Doric portico in front, and the same also as that between the two rows of Ionic columns in the vestibule; but the doors on either side of the principal one were of diminished height and breadth, and the two beyond these again were still smaller in both dimensions. These five gates or doors led from the vestibule into a back portico 18 feet in depth, which was fronted with a Doric colonnade and pediment of the same dimensions as those of the western or outer portico, hut placed on a higher level, there being five steps of ascent from the western to the level of the eastern portico. From the latter or inner portico there was a descent of one step into the adjacent part of the platform of the Acropolis.
The wings of the Propyhea were nearly symmetrical in front, each presenting on this side a wall adorned only with a frieze of triglyphs, and with ante at the extremities. The inner or southernmost column of each wing stood in a line with the great Doric columns of the Megaron; and as both these columns and those of the wings were upon tho same level, the three porticoes were all connected together, and the four steps which ascended to the Megaron were continued also along the porticoes of the two wings. But here the symmetry of the building ended; for, in regard to interior size and distribution of parts, the wings were exceedingly dissimilar. In the northern or left wing, a porch of 12 feet in depth conducted "by three doors into a chamber of 34 feet by 26, the porch and chamber thus occupying the entire space behind the western wall of that wing; whereas the southern or right wing consisted only of a porch or gallery of 26 feet by 16, which, on the S. and E sides, was formed by a wall connected with and of the same thickness as the lateral wall of the Megaron, and, on the W. side, had its roof supported by a narrow pilaster, standing between the N.W. column of the wing and an ants, which terminated its southern wall. In front of the southern or right wing of the Propylsea there stood, so late as the year 1676, the small Ionic temple dedicated to Athena Kike, and commonly known by the ancients as the temple of the Wingless Victory (Nucn asrepos), which has already been mentioned sa probably one of the buildings of Cimon. Perhaps before the 18th century this building was pulled down by the Turks, and the only remains of it—parts of the frieze built into a wall—which were known in his day were carried off by Lord Elgin, and are now in the British Museum. Is 1835 careful excavations were made under the directions jf Professor Ross, when not only were the remains of the PropyUea opened up far more clearly than before, but also nearly all the fragments of this little temple of Victory were discovered; they had been used for building a Turkish battery, and so preserved. Thus the temple was at once res cored by a reconstruction of the original fragments. Few quarters of ancient Athens have received more advantage from judicious excavation in recent years than this western end of the Acropolis.
From the disastrous termination of the Peloponnesian war to the yet more fatal defeat at Ohseroneia, the architectural history of Athens is a blank, only interrupted by the restoration of the Long Walls and the rebuilding of the fortifications of Piraeus by Conon, both of which had been destroyed by Lysander. The financial genius of the orator Lycurgus, whose administration lasted from 338 to 329 B.O., replenished to some extent the exhausted resources of his country. He reorganised her finance, he catalogued and rearranged the sacred and national treasuries, and brought order and efficiency into every department of state. This new impulse made itself felt in building activity. The Dionysiac theatre was now first completed; and though, as we have already seen, many of the sculptures and other marbles recently uncovered on its site are the restorations of a very much later age, yet we may confidently assume that in all material points the theatre as we are now able to view it represents the condition of the building as it stood in the time of Lycurgus. Another remarkable work which signalised his administration was the Panathenaic Stadium: On the southern side of the Hissus, at right angles to the stream, a hollow space was scooped out of the soil, some 680 feet in length and 130 in breadth. It u possible that the site had been used for gymnastic contests before the orator's time; it was he, however, who first undertook to level it properly and lay it out. But it was reserved for the munificence of Herodes Atticus finally to complete it. He furnished the place with magnificent seats of Pentelie marble, tier upon tier, capable of accommodating, at the very least, 40,000 spectators. An attempt was recently made to excavate the Stadium, but it was found that every trace of antiquity had been destroyed, the marble having been used as a quarry for building purposes,.
The administration of Lycurgus is an important era in Athenian architecture; for after his time we never seem to hear of any more buildings having been reared by the Athenian Government. The best-known extant edifices of the period immediately following were the work of wealthy private persons. Bound the eastern end of the Acropolis, starting from the eastern entrance of the Dionysiac theatre, then leaving the Odeium of Pericles to the left, and thence sweeping westward to the Agora, there ran a Btreet which formed a favourite promenade in ancient Athens, commonly known as the "Street of Tripods." It gained this name from the small votive shrines which adorned it, supporting upon their summit the bronze tripods which had been obtained as prizes in the choragic contests. The tripods tiros mounted often themselves served as a frame to some masterpiece of sculpture, such, for example, as the famous satyr of Praxiteles. It had early become the custom to
dedicate the prize tripods within the sacred precincts of the theatre; but when this space was filled, they gradually extended all along this street, and their erection was made more and more a matter of private display. One of these shrines still stands, and ia well known as the monument of Lysicrates. It bears the following inscription upon its architrave :—" Lysicrates, son of LysUheides, of the demo Cicynna, was choragus; the tribe Acamantis gained the prize with a chorus of boys: Theon accompanied them upon the flute; Lysiades of Athens taught them'; Eusanetus was archon." In other words, the date of this monument was 335 B.n Fifteen years after that a somewhat similar shrine was reared at the topmost summit of the back of the great theatre, where an ancient grotto was by Throsyllus converted into a choragic monument. The Byzantine Christians transformed the building into'a chapel of the Virgin, under the title of Panaghia Spiliotissa, or Our Lady ef the Grotto. Early travellers describe this little shrine as consisting of three pilasters engaged in a plain wall, surmounted by an inscribed architrave :• above was supported a figure of Dionysus, now preserved, but in a much injured state, in the British Museum. On the top of the statue originally rested the tripod that formed the prize of Thrasyllus.
The Macedonian period again marks a new epoch in the history of Athenian topography. Henceforward almost every embellishment Athens received was at the hands of the various foreign princes, whose tastes inclined them to patronise a city so rich in historical associations, and so ready to reward each new admirer with an equal tribute of servile adulation. But whatever decoration the city might owe to royal vanity or munificence, her connection with these foreign potentates brought her far more of injury than advantage. She became entangled in their wars, and usually found herself upon the losing side.
Upon the death of Alexander the Athenians claimed their liberty, but they at once had to submit to Antipater (322 B.C.), who placed a garrison in Munychia. It perhaps was he who defaced the ancient Pnyx; at all events, from this time forward the political oratory of Athens became silent for ever. In 318 B-C. Demetrius the Phalerean was made governor of Athens by Cassander; and received every kind of homage from his servile subjects. But as soon as the other Demetrius, surnamed Poliorcetee, appeared in the Piraeus, the Athenians welcomed him with , open arms. For restoring to them the forms of democracy he was extolled with abject adulation, and had assigned to him a residence in the Opisthodomus of the Parthenon itself, where he profaned the sanctuary of the virgin goddess with unbridled sensuality. Upon the defeat of Antigonus at Ipsns (301 B.O.), Demetrius fled from Athens, and under Lachares, the leading demagogue of the time, the city enjoyed the shadow of independence^ But the demagogue soon developed into a tyrant, and when Demetrius reappeared in 296 B.C. and besieged the city, Lachares had to fly from the indignation of the citizens, taking with him the golden shields that adorned the eastern front of the Acropolis, and having rifled the chryselephantine statue itself. ' Again, in 268 B.C., Athens endured a long siege from Antigonus donates, who hud waste the surrounding country. Still more disastrous was the ineffectual siege by Philip V. in 200 B.O., Vho, pitching his camp at Oynosarges, destroyed everything that lay around—the temple of Heracles, the gymnasium there, and the Lyceium as well At length, in 146 B.O., Greece'became a Roman province, and Athens succumbed peacefully to the Roman yoke.
During the inglorious period of Athenian -history which has just been sketched, several new buildings were reared by the munificence of foreign princes. Ptolemy Philadelphus