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than 1814, the close of the great conflict with Napoleon I. | Bois-Reymond, tell of the French refugees who found a The Exchange, finished in 1863, at a cost of £180,000 home here in the cold north when expelled from their own sterling; the Synagogue, a proud building in Oriental style, land. Daniel, in his Geography, vol. iv. p. 155, says that finished in 1866, at a cost of £107,000; and the Rath-there was a time when every tenth man in the city was a haus, finished in 1869, at a cost of £500,000 sterling, in- Frenchman. Flemish and Bohemian elements, to say nocluding the land on which it stands, are the most recent thing of the banished Salzburgers, were introduced in a of its great buildings. The New National Gallery is nearly similar manner. Add to these the 36,013 Jews now resi. completed, and the Imperial Bank is being rebuilt. . It is dent in the city, and the picture of the commingled races probable that no city in the world can show 80 large a which mako up its population is pretty complete. number of fine structures so closely clustered together. The 826,341 inhabitants of the city were found at the
Up to a very recent date Berlin was a walled city. census of 1871 to be living in 14,478 dwelling-houses, and Those of its nineteen gates which still remain have only to consist of 178,169 households. These numbers show an historical or architectural interest. The principal of that the luxury of a single house for a single family is rare, these is the Brandenburg Gate, an imitation of the Propy- and this holds good also of the wealthier classes of tho læa at Athens. It is 201 feet broad and nearly 65 feet people. These numbers fall far short of the present (1876) high. It is supported by twelve Doric columns, each 44 number of houses and of households, as will be seen from feet in height, and surmounted by a car of victory, which, the fact that the value of the household property of the taken by Napoleon to Paris in 1807, was brought back by city in 1874 exceeded that of 1871 by £18,000,000 the Prussians in 1814. It has recently been enlarged by sterling, of which the greatest part falls to newly-built two lateral colonnades, each supported by 16 columns houses or houses enlarged. In 1871 the average number
The streets, about 520 in number, are, with the excep- of persons comprised in a household was found to be 4.6, tion of the districts in the most ancient part of the city, the number of households dwelling in a house 12.3, and long, strait, and wide, lined with high houses, for the old the number of persons dwelling in a house 67.1. These typical Berlin house, with its ground floor and first floor, numbers throw light on the moral and social life of the is rapidly disappearing. The Unter den Linden is 3287 city, and compared with the past, show the change in the feet long by 160 broad. The new boulevard, the Königgrätz domestic habits of the people. In 1640 the average erstrasse, is longer still, though not so wide. The Fried number of inmates in a house was 6, in 1740 it was 17, richstrasse and the Oranienstrasse exceed 2 English miles in 1867 it had risen to 32, and in 1871 to 67. Between in length. The city has about 60 squares. It has 25 the years 1864 and 1871 the one-storied houses of the city theatres and 14 large halls for regular entertainments. It decreased 8 per cent., the two and three-storied houses 41 has an aquarium, zoological garden, and a floral institution, per cent, while the number of four-storied houses increased with park, flower, and palm houses. It has several hospi | 11 per cent., and the five-storied and higher' houses 50 per tals, of which the largest is the Charité, with accommocent. With the increase of high houses, the underground dation for 1500 patients. The Bethany, Elizabeth, and cellar dwellings, which form so striking a feature in the Lazarus hospitals are attached to establishments of Pro- house architecture of the city, increase in a like proportion, testant deaconesses. The St Hedwig's hospital is under and these and the attics are the dwellings of the poor. In the care of Roman Catholic sisters. The Augusta hospital, 1867 there were 14,292 such cellar dwellings, in 1871 they under the immediate patronage and control of the empress, had increased to 19,208. Taking the average of 1867 is in the hands of lady nurses, who nurse the sick without 4 inmates to a cellar dwelling—we get 76,832 persons assuming the garb and character of a religious sisterhood. living under ground. In 1871 there were 4565 dwellings The people's parks are the Humboldt's Hain, the Friedrich's which contained no room which could be heated. This Hain, the Hasenheide, and, above all, the Thiergarten, a class of dwelling Lad doubled between the two census wood covering 820 Prussian acres of ground, and reaching years of 1867 and 1891. Taking 3 inmates (the ascerup to the Brandenburg Gate.
tained average of 1867) to such a dwelling, we have 13,698 As has been seen, the population has trebled itself within persons who pass the winter in unheated dwellings, in a the last 34 years, naturally not so much by the excess of climate where the cold not unfrequently sinks below the births over deaths, as by an unbroken current of immigra-zero of Fahrenheit. Of the remaining dwellings of the tion. In 1873 the births were 35,954, the deaths 26,427, city, 95,423 had only one room which could be heated. leaving an excess of 8527 births. But the increase in the This number, at 4 persons to a dwelling, give us an insight population of the city in the same year was 50,184, leaving into the domestic life of 381,692 of the inhabitants of the 41,657 as the increase through the influx from without city; that is, with the 13,696 persons mentioned above, It will thus be seen at a glance that only a minority of the of nearly half the population. Such dwellings engender population are native Berliners. In the census of 1867 it no feeling of home, and the habits of the people are in a Fas found that, taking the population above 20 years of certain sense nomadic. In 1872, 74,568 changes of dwellage, only one-third were natives of the city. The immi- ing took place, involving an expense at a very moderato gration is almost exclusively from the Prussian provinces, calculation of £158,900. In the poorer townships thore and among these principally from Brandenburg and from were 70 removals to every 100 dwellings! the eastern and north-eastern provinces. In 1871 it was The rate of mortality is high. In 1873, a favourable found that out of every 10,000 inhabitants, 9725 were Prus- year, it was 28 to every 1000 of the population. Taking sian subjects, 165 were from other German states, 55 from the deaths as a whole, 58 per cent. were of children under foreign lands, and 47 were of a nationality not ascertained. 10 years of age. The rate of mortality is on the increase. The foreign element almost vanishes, and the German Professor Virchow, in a report to the municipal authorities, element is represented principally by the north, so that in stated that, dividing the last 15 years into periods of 3 blood and manners Berlin remains essentially a north years each, the general mortality in each of the thiee periods eastern German city, i.e., a city in which German, Wend, was as 5, 7, 9. The mortality of children under 1 year in and Polish blood flows commingled 'in the veins of the the same three periods was as 5, 7, 11; that is, it had more citizens. In past times Berlin received a strong infusion than doubled. In the year 1872, out of 27,800 deaths, of foreign blood, the influence of which is perceptible to 11,136 were of children under 1 year. the present day in its intellectual and social life. Such The city is well supplied with water by works connames as Savigny, Lancizollo, De la Croix, De le Coq, Du structed by an English company, which have now become
the property of the city. English and German companies which is, of course, not a municipal, but a national institosupply the city with gas. A system of undergroundtion. It is, with the exception of Bonn, the youngest of drainage is at present in process of construction. Internal the Prussian universities, but the first of them all in incommunication is kept up by means of tramways, omni fluence and reputation. It was founded in 1810. Prussia buses, and cabs. In 1873 there were 54 tram-carriages, 185 | had lost her celebrated university of Halle, when that city omnibuses, and 4424 cabs licensed, served by 10,060 horses. was included by Napoleon in his newly created "kingdom
Berlin is governed by the president of police, by the of Westphalia." It was as a weapon of war, as well as a municipal authorities, and in military matters by the nursery of learning, that Frederick William III., and the governor and commandant of the city. The police presi great men whose names are identified with its origin, dent stands under the minister of the interior, and has called it into existence, for it was felt that knowledge and the control of all that stands related to the maintenance of religion are the true strength and defence of nations. public order. The municipal body consists of a burgomaster | William v. Humboldt was at that time at the head in-chief, a burgomaster, a body of town councillors (Stadt- of the educational department of the kingdom, and men räthe), and a body of town deputies (Stadtverordnete). like Fichte and Schleiermacher worked the popular mind. For municipal purposes the city is divided into 16 town It was opened on the 16th of October 1810. Its first ships and 210 districts. For police purposes the work is rector vas Schmalz; its first deans of faculty, Schleierdivided into six departments, and an extra department for macher, Biener, Hufeland, and Fichte. Within the first the fire brigade and street cleaning, and the town into six ten years of its existence it counted among its professors larger and fifty smaller districts. At the head of each such names as De Wette, Neander, Marheineke; Savigny, larger district is a police captain, at the head of each Eichhorn ; Böckh, Bekker, Hegel, Raumer, Wolff, Niebuhr, smaller district a police lieutenant.
and Buttmann. Later followed such names as HengstenWith the exception of a few of the higher schools, which berg and Nitzsch ; Homeyer, Bethman-Hollweg, Puchta, are under the direct supervision of tho provincial authori- Stahl, and Heffter; Schelling, Trendelenburg, Bopp, the ties, the Berlin schools are either under the direct supervi- brothers Grimm, Zumpt, Carl Ritter; and at the present sion of the municipal body or of its committee for school time it can boast of such names as Twesten and Dorner; purposes. The schools, public and private, are divided Gneist and Hinschius; Langenbeck, Bardeleben, Virchow, into higher, middle, and elementary. In 1872 there were and Du Bois-Reymond ; von Ranke, Mommsen, Curtius, 24 higher public schools. Of these, 10 were gymnasia or Lepsius, Hoffman the chemist, and Kiepert the geographer, schools for the highest branches of a learned education, Taking ordinary, honorary, and extraordinary professors, In these schools there were 138 classes and 5073 pupils, licensed lecturers (privatdocenten), and readers together, of whom 2142 were over, and 2931 under, 14 years of age. its present professorial strength consists of 15 teachers in The second class of high schools, the so-called Realschulen, the faculty of theology, 14 in the faculty of law, 63 in the give instruction in Latin, but otherwise devote almost faculty of medicine, and 96 ir the faculty of philosophy, exclusive attention to the departments of mathematics, together, 188. The number of matriculated and unscience, history, modern languages, and the requirements matriculated attendants on the various lectures averages of the higher stages of general or commercial life. Of this 3000 in the summer term, and 3500 in the winter. Durclass of school there were also 10, with 143 classes, 5770 ing the last two or three years, however, the number has pupils, of whom 1931 were over, and 3839 under, 14 been steadily decreasing. Berlin, in point of numbers, still years of age. The remaining 4 high schools were for stands at the head of the Prussian universities, but no longer girls, with 54 classes, 2522 pupils, of whom 529 were of the German universities, being now outstripped by Leipsic. over, and 1993 under, 14 years of age. In addition to In addition to its schools and its university, Berlin is these public schools there were 7 higher schools for boys, | rich in institutions for the promotion of learning, science, with 55 classes and 2098 pupils, and 36 higher schools for and the arts. It has a Royal Academy of Sciences, with 46 girls, with 243 classes and 6629 pupils.
members, 23 in the class of physics and mathematics, and Within the last five years (1875) no new school of this 23 in the class of philosophy and history. It was founded class has been established, but several are in process of on the 11th of June 1700, and the name of Leibnitz is erection. Between 1869 and 1873 the city voted about associated with its foundation. It was raised to the rank £328,747 sterling for the purchase of sites, and for enlarging of a Royal Academy by Frederick the Great in 1743. Berlin and rebuilding schools of this class; and the sum still required has also a Royal Academy of Arts, consisting of 39 ordinfor schools of this class, up to 1877, is £352,500 sterling. ary members (1875), under the immediate protection of
The total number of schools of all sorts, higher, middle, the king, and governed by a director and a senate, comand elementary, public and private, in 1872, was 232, with | posed of 15 members in the departments of painting, 1072 boys' classes, 1009 girls' classes, and 4 mixed classes sculpture, Architecture, and engraving, and 4 members in together, 2085; attended by 50,316 boys, 44,959 girls the section for music. Berlin has also its academy for togather, 95,275 children, of whom 7309, or 7.35 per vocal music, and its royal high school for music in all cent., were over 14 years of age. The extent to which branches, theoretical and applied, and learned bodies and tho schools are used under the law of compulsory educa- associations of the most various kinds. It has 9 public tion is very difficult to determine. In 1867 there were | libraries, at the head of which stands the royal library, 103,383 children of the school age, but only 71,814, or with 710,000 volumes and 16,000 manuscripts. In addi69.5 per cent., were in the schools. Dr Schwabe, by a tion to these, there are 10 people's libraries cstablished in criticism of these numbers, reduces the percentage of non- various parts of the city attendance to 13 per cent., and maintains that even these Berlin possesses eight public museums, in addition to the are not all to be regarded as absolutely without instruc- Royal Museums and the National Gallery. The Royal Mution. In 1871 it was found that out of every 10,000 per-seums are the Old and the New Museums. The former, sons of 70 years of age and upwards, there were 1529 who which stands on the north-east side of the Lustgarten, could neither read nor write ; and that out of a like num- / facing the castle, is the most imposing building in Berlin. ber from 60 to 70, there were 860; 50 to 60, 446; 40 to It was built in the reign of Frederick William III., from 50, 234; 30 to 40, 158; 25 to 30, 155; 20 to 25, 71; 15 designs by Schinkel. Its portico, supported by 18 colossal to 20, 58; and from 10 to 15, 48.
Ionic columns, is reached by a wide Alight of steps. The The scholastic life of Berlin culminades in its university, I museum covers 47,000 square feet of ground, and is 276 feet long, by 170 feet wide and 61 feet high. The back | Literature, scienco, and art are represented in different and side walls of tho portico are covered with frescoes, from parts of the city by statues and busts of Rauch, Schinkel, designs by Schinkel, executed under the direction of Cor. Thaer, Beuth, Schadow, Winckelmann, Schiller, Hegel, nelius, and representing, in mythical and symbolical figures, Jahn; while the monuments in the cemeteries and churches the world's progress from shapeless and chaotic to organic bear the names of distinguished men in all departments of and developed life. The sides of the flight of steps support political, military, and scientific lifc. the well-known equestrian bronze groups of the Amazon Next to Leipsic, Berlin is the largest publishing centre by Kiss, and the Lion-slayer by Albert Wolff. Under in Germany. In the year 1872 there were 1540 works the portico are monuments of the sculptors Rauch and published in Berlin, of which 20 per cent, hnd to do with Schadow, the architect Schinkel, and the art critic Wincké literature, 15 per cent. with philology and pedagogy, 14 per mann. The interior consists of a souterrain, containing the cent. with law and politics, 7 per cent. with history, 6 per collection of antiquities, and of a first floor, entered from cent. were military works, 5 per cent. theological, 5 por the portico through bronze doors of artistic merit, made cent. had to do with agriculture, and 4 per cent, with mediafter designs by Stüler, weighing 71 tons, and executed at cine, Turning to journals and periodical literature, 265 a cost of £3600. This floor consists of a rotunda, and of newspapers and magazines, daily, weekly, or monthly, aphalls and cabinets of sculpture. The second floor, in a peared in the same year. The political journals in Berlin series of cabinets running round the entire building, con do not, however, sustain the same relation to the political tains the national collection of paintings. These are divided life of Germany as do the political journals of London and into three classes,—the Italian, French, and Spanish; the Paris to that of England and France. Dutch, Flemish, and German; and the Byzantine, Italian, | Berlin is not only a centre of intelligence, but is also Dutch, and German pictures down to the end of the 15th an important centre of manufacture and trade. Its trade century-each of the classes being chronologically arranged. and manufactures appear to be at present in a transition The gallery, then containing 1300 paintings, was enriched state-old branches are dying out, and new branches in 1874 by the valuable pictures of the Suermondt gallery, are springing into existence. Direct railway communico purchased by the nation at a cost of £51,000. The tion between the corn lands of north-eastern Germany, Suermondt gallery was rich in pictures of the old Nether- Poland, and Russia on the ono hand, and the states of land and German schools, and of the Dutch and Flemish Central and Western Germany on the other, have deprived schools. It also contained a few Spanish, Italian, and Berlin of much of its importance as a centre of trade in French pictures.
corn and flour. In like manner the spirit trade and mandThe New Museum is connected with the Old Museum facture have suffered. The 20,892,493 litres exported in by a coverod corridor. In its interior arrangements and 1870 had sunk to 9,737,597 litres in 1872. On the other decoration it is undoubtedly the most splendid structure hand, for petroleum, Berlin has become an emporium for in the city. Like the Old Museum, it has three floors. the supply of the Dark of Brandenburg, part of Posen, The lowest of these contains the Ethnographical and Egyn Silesia, Saxony, and Bohemia Silk and cotton manufactiau Museums and the Museum of Northern Antiquities. ture, which in former times constituted a principal branch In the first floor, plaster casts of ancient, mediæval, and of Berlin manufacture, has died out. As late as 1849 Berlin modern sculpture are found in thirteen halls and in three had 2147 silk looms; now it has few or none. Woollen departments. On the walls of the grand marble staircase, manufacture maintained its ground for a time, occupying which rises to the full' height of the building, Kaulbach's about 8000 looms and 11,404 workmen as lato as 1861. renowned cyclus of stereochromic pictures is painted, re In 1874 the number of hands employed in spinning and presenting the six great epochs of human progress, from weaving in all branches had sunk to 2918. The chicf the confusion of tongues at the Tower of Babel and the articles of manufacture and commerce are locomotives and dispersion of the nations to the Reformation of the 16th machinery; carriages; copper, brass, and bronze wares ; century. The uppermost story contains the collection of porcelain; and the requisites for building of every descrip engravings and the gallery of curiosities.
tion. The manufacture of sewing-machines has assuincd Tho National Gallery is an elegant building, after do- large proportions, from 70,000 to 75,000 being manufacsigns by Stüler, situated between the New Museum and tured annually. According to the report of the Governithe Spree, and is intended to receive the collection of mo- i ment inspector of factories for the city of Bcrlin, presented dern paintings now exhibited provisionally in the apart to the minister of trade and commerce, the number of ments of the Academy.
persons employed in all the Berlin factories in tho year The public monuments are the equestrian statues of the 1874 was 74,466. By a "factory" was understood avy Great Elector on the Lange Brücke, erected in 1703; Rauch's wholesale manufacturing establishment employing inord celebrated statue of Frederick the Great, “probably the than 10 persons. In 1874 there were 1906 such factories grandest monument in Europe," opposite the emperor's at work, employing 51,464 males and 11,004 females abovo palace, Unter den Linden; and the statue of Frederick 16 years of age ; 1137 males and 760 females under 16 William III. in the Lustgarten. In the Thiergarten is and above 14 years of age ; and 66 male and 14 femalo Drake's marble monument of Frederick William M.; and children under 14 years of age. The manufacture of steamin the neighbouring Charlottenburg, Rauch's figures of the engines and machinery occupied 14,737 persons ; brasssame king and the Queen Louise in the mausoleum in the founding, metallic belt and lamp manufacture, 9074; carPark. A second group of monuments on the Wilhelm's pentry, joinery, and wood-carving, 4548; printing, 3620; Platz commemorates the generals of the Seven Years' War; spinning and weaving, 2918; sewing-machines and teleand & third, in the neighbourhood of the Opera, the graphic apparatus, 2788; the finer qualities of paper, 2585; generals who fought against Napoleon I On the Kreuz- porcelain and ware, 1741; dyeing, 1712; gas-works, 1618; borg, the highest spot in the neighbourhood of Berlin, a tobacco and cigars, 1477 ; manufacture of linen garments, Gothic monument in bronze was erected by Frederick 1355 ; pianos and harmoniums, 1198; dressmaking and William III, to commemorate the victories of 1813-15; and artificial flowers, 1127 ; brewing, 1061. None of the other in the Königsplatz the present emperor has erected a column branches found occupation for 1000 persons. The value of of victory in honour of the triumphs of 1864, 1866, and the annual exports to the United States of articles of 1870. This monument rises to the height of 197 feet, Berlin manufacture has risen to about £1,000,000 sterling. the gilded figure of Victory on the top being 40 feet high. The exports to the 'Brazils, the Argentine Republic, and time
Japan are also increasing. Berlin is growing in importance works of Beethoven, Gluck, Weber, and other German as & money market and centre of industrial undertakings. masters. About this period Berlioz saw for the first time The Berlin Cassenverein, through which the banking houses on the stage the talented Irish actress Miss Smithson, who transact their business, passed £1,351,988,967 sterling was then charming Paris by her impersonations of through its books in 1872, as compared with £644,431,255 Ophelia, Juliet, and other Shakespearean characters. The sterling in 1871. In 1872, 23 new banking establish- young enthusiastic composer became deeply enamoured ments were enrolled in the trade register, with a capital of her at first sight, and tried, for a long time in rain, to of £7,565,000 sterling; and in the same year 144 new gain the responsive love or even the attention of his idol joint-stock companies wore enrolled, representing a capital To an incident of this wild and persevering courtship of £18,000,000 sterling. Since that time the tide of Berlioz's first symphonic work, Episode de la Vie d'un enterprise has ebbed, but the majority of these under- Artiste, owes its origin. It describes the dreams of takings continue to exist.
an artist who, under the influence of opium, imagines that In the progress of its growth Berlin has lost much of he has killed his mistress, and in his vision witnesses his its original character. The numerical relations of class own execution. It is replete with the spirit of contento class have been greatly modified. New political insti- porary French romanticism and of self-destructive Byronie tutions have sprung into existence, of which the Berlin of despair. A written programme is added to each of the the early years of Frederick William IV. had not a trace. five movements to expound the imaginative material on It has become the seat of a parliament of the realm, and which the music is founded. By the advice of his friends of a parliament of the empire. Manufacture and trade Berlioz once more entered the Conservatoire, where, after have come to absorb 70 per cent. of the entire population. several unsuccessful attempts, his cantata Sardanapalu But these have also changed their character; old branches (1830) gained him the first prize for foreign travel, in spite which constituted a marked feature of its commercial and of the strong personal antagonism of one of the umpire. manufacturing activity have almost suddenly died out, During a stay in Italy Berlioz composed an overture to while new branches have with equal rapidity more than King Lear, and Le Retour à la Vie,-a sort of symphony, supplied their place. While the commercial and manufac- with intervening poetical declamation between the single turing element has thus increased, other elements have movements, called by the composer a melologue, and undergone a relative decline. The learned professions and written in continuation of the Episode de la vie d're the civil service numbered in 1867 7.9 per cent of the Artiste, along with which work it was performed at the population. In 1871 the proportion had sunk to 6:11, Paris Conservatoire in 1832. Paganini on that occasion and since then the percentage has gone on decreasing. In spoke to Berlioz the memorable words: “Vous commencer this altered state of affairs Berlin will have to cherish and par où les autres ont fini." Miss Smithson, who also nurture the scientific, educational, ethical, and religious was present on the occasion, soon afterwards consented to elements in her life with double care, not only to keep up become the wife of her ardent lover. The artistic success her old reputation abroad, but also for the purpose of pre- achieved on that occasion did not prove to be of a lasting venting the degeneration of her people at home.
kind. Berlioz's music was too far remote from the carSources of information :-Von Klöden, Handbuch der rent of popular taste to be much admired beyond a small Länder- und Staatenkunde von Europa ; Daniel, Handbuch circle of esoteric worshippers. It is true that his same der Geographie, vol. iv.; Fidicin, Historisch-Diplomatische became known as that of a gifted though eccentric conBeiträge zur Geschichte der Stadt Berlin, 5 vols.; Köpke, poser; he also received in the course of time his dae share Die Gründung der Fred, Wilhelm Universitat zu Berlin; of the distinctions generally awarded to artistic merit, ench Wiese, Das Höhere Schulwesen in Preussen, 3 vole. Das as the ribbon of the Legion of Honour and the member. Statistische Jahrbuch von Berlin, 1867 to 1874. Dr H. ship of the Institute. But these distinctions he owed, Schwabe, Resultate der Volkszählung und Volksbeschreibung | perhaps, less to a genuine admiration of his compositious vom I ten December 1871, Berlin, Simion. (G. P. D.) than to his influential position as the musical critic of the
BERLIOZ, HECTOR, by far the most original composer Journal des Débats (a position which he never used or of modern France, was born in 1803 at Côte-Saint-André, a abused to push his own works), and to his successes abroad. small town near Grenoble, in the department of Isère. His In 1842 Berlioz went for the first time to Germany, where father was a physician of repute, and by his desire our he was hailed with welcome by the leading musicians d composer for some time devoted himself to the study of the the younger generation, Robert Schumann foremost amongst same profession. At the same time he had music lessons, them. The latter paved the way for the French composer's and, in secret, perused numerous theoretical works on coun- success, by a comprehensive analysis of the Episode in terpoint and harmony, with little profit it seems, till the his musical journal, the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. Bertior hearing and subsequent careful analysis of one of Haydn's gave successful concerts at Leipsic and other German quartets opened a new vista to his unguided aspirations. cities, and repeated his visit on various later occasions—in À similar work written by Berlioz in imitation of Haydn's 1852, by invitation of Liszt, to conduct his opera, Be masterpiece was favourably received by his friends. From venuto Cellini (hissed off the stage in Paris), at Weimar; Paris, where he had been sent to complete his medical and in 1855 to produce his oratorio-trilogy, L'Enfance de studies, he at last made known to his father the unalter Christ, in the same city. This latter work had been preable decision of devoting himself entirely to art, the answer viously performed at Paris, where Berlioz mystified the to which confession was the withdrawal of all further critics by pretending to have found one part of it, the pecuniary assistance In order to support life Berlioz bad “Flight into Egypt,' amongst the manuscript scores of a to accept the humble engagement of a singer in the chorus composer of the 17th century, Pierre Ducré by name of the Gymnase theatre. Soon, however, he became recon. Berlioz also made journeys to Vienna (1866) and Bi ciled to his father and entered the Conservatoire, where he | Petersburg (1867), where his works were received with studied composition under Reicha and Lesueur. His first great enthusiasm." He died in Paris, March 9, 1869. important composition was an opera called. Les Francs Berlioz has justly been described as the French representatin e Juges, of which, however, only the overture remains musical Roinanticism, and his works are in this respect closely come extant. In 1825 he left the Conservatoire, disgusted, it is
nected with the contemporary movement in literature known by
that name. The affinity between him and Victor Hugo, for in said, at the dry pedantry of the professors, and began a
stance, is undeniable, and must be looked for deeper than in the course of autodidactic education, foundod chiefly on the fantastic eccentricities and breaches of the established form commen
to both. His ready acknowledgment of congenial aspirations in 22 per 1000. Yellow fever and typhus, however, have on faraign countries, so adverse to French natural prejudice, may be
some occasions raged with extreme violence, and the former cited as another essentially “romantic" feature in Borlioz's character. In his caso, however, the predilection for English literature, as
has appeared four times within the space of thirty years. shown in the choice of several of his most important subjects from The maximum reading of the thermometer is about 85-8, Shakespeare, Byron, and Walter Scott, may be to some extent and its minimum 49,-the mean annual temperature being explained from his connection with Miss Smithson, a striking in. 70° Fahr., and that of March 65o. Vegetation is very stance of the relation between life and art in a man of high crcativo faculty.
rapid, and the soil is clad in a mantle of almost perpetual The second powertul element in Berlioz's compositions is the in. green. The principal kind of tree is the so-called "Bermudas Noonco of Beethoveu's gigantic works. The grand forms of the cedar," really a species of juniper, which furnishes timber German master's symphonies impressed him with competitive zcal, for small vessels. The shores are fringed with the manand what has been described as the “poetical idea" in Beethoven's
grove; the prickly pear grows luxuriantly in tho most creations soon began to run riot in the enthusiastic mind of the young medical student. But, in accordance with the aversion of
barren districts; and wherever the ground is left to itself the his national character to indistinct ideal notions, he tried to con sage-bush springs up profusely. The citron, sour orange, danss the poetical essence of his inspiration in the tangible shape | lemon, and limo grow wild : but the apple and of a story, and in this manner became the father of what is generally called "programme-music.' Whether the author of such works as
not como to perfection The loquat, an introduction from Harold en Italie, or the Episode de la Vie d'un Artists, may lay
China, thrives admirably. The gooseberry, currant, and claim to the prophet's cloak is difficult to decide ; he must at any raspberry, all run to wood. Tho oleander bush, with all rato be accepted as a man strong in his own convictions, “a swallower its beauty, is almost a nuisance. The soil is very fertile of formalas," and faithful ally in the great cause of nature versus in the growth of esculent plants and roota : and a congider. traditional artificiality, of Shakespeare against pseudo-classicism. Under such circumstances we can hardly be surprised at seeing
able trade has grown up within recent years between Barlioz appreciated sooner and more lastingly in Gormany than in Bermudas and New York, principally in arrowroot, of his own country. Schumann and Liszt were, as we have mere excellent quality, onions, Irish potatoes, and tomatoes. tronod, at various periods amongst the foremost promoters of his
Regular steam cominunication between the island and that music. Wo subjoin a list of the more important works by Barlios not mentioned above, viz., the symphonies Roméo et
city is maintained, the Government subsidizing the vessels. Juliette (1834), and Damnation de Faust (1846); the oporas Béatrice The total value of the export of these articles in 1872 was * Benedict (1862), and Les Troyons (1806); a Requiem, and Tristia, £64,030. Medicinal plants, as the castor-oil plant, aloe, and o work for choras and orchestra, written on the death of his wife. lialan come to great perfectic
rite, jalap, come to great perfection without culture; and coffee, Of his spirited literary productions we mention his Voyage musical m Allemagne el en Italie (1845), Les Soirées d'Orchestre (1853), A
indigo, cotton, and tobacco are also of spontaneous growth. travers Chant (1862), and his incomparable Traité d'Instrumenta. Tobacco curing ceased about 1707. Few oxou or sheep tion (1844). The characteristics of Berlioz's literary style are French are reared in the colony, a supply being obtained from perve and esprit, occasionally combined with English humour and North America: but conta are kept by a large number of the Gorman depth of idea The time has hardly yet arrived for judging linhohitanta finally of Berlioz's position in the history of his art His original
ilging inhabitants. The ass is the usual beast of burden. Tho ideas, his poetical intentions, nobody can deny; the question is
indigenous Mammalia are very few, and the only Reptilin whether ho possesses genuino creative power to carry out these in. are a small lizard and the green turtle. Birds, howtentions, and, first of all, that broad touch of nature which leads ever, especially aquatic species, are very numerous,-one of from subjective feeling to objective rendering, and which alone can establish a lasting rapport between a great artist and posterity. To
the commonest being the cardinal-grosbeak. The list indecide this question the porformances of his works have as yet, un- cludes the cat-bird, blue-bird, kinghsher, ground-dove, buv fortunately, been too fow and far between. In England, particu. heron, sandpiper, moorhen, tropic bird, and Carolina crake. larly, only a very small fraction of his compositions has been Insects are comparatively few: but ante
Insects are comparatively few; but ants swarm destructively heard
(F. H.) | in the heat of the year, and a species of ant-lion, a cicada BERMUDAS, SOMERS'S ISLANDS, or SUMMER ISLANDS, (scissor-grinder), and the chigre or jigger, are cominon. & group in the Atlantic Ocean, the seat of a British colony, Fish are plentiful round the coasts, and the whale-fishery in lat. 32° 20' N. and long. 64° 50' W., about 600 miles E. by was once an important industry. Gold-fish, introduced & from Cape Hatteras on the American coast. They lie from Demerara, swarm in the ditches. to the south of a coral reef or atoll, which extends about There are two towns in the Bermudas, St George's, 24 miles in length from N.E. to S.W., by 12 in breadth. founded in 1794, and Hamilton, founded in 1790, and inThe largest of the series is Great Bermuda, or Long corporated in 1793. The former was the capital till tho Laland, enclosing on the east Harrington or Little Sound, senate and courts of justice were removed by Sir James and on the west the Great Sound, which is thickly studded Cockburn to Hamilton, which being centrally situated, is with islets, and protected on the north by the islands much more convenient. The streets of St George's aro of Somerset, Boaz, and Inland. The remaining members close and narrow, and the drainage bad. It is a military of the group, St George's, Paget's, Smith's, St David's, station, the barracks lying to the east of the town. Tho Cooper's, Nonsuch, &c., lie to the east, and form a semicircle population is about 2000. Hamilton, in the Great Bermuda, round Castle Harbour. The islands are wholly composed at the bottom of a bay which is entered by Trenblin's of a white granular limestone of various degrees of hard Narrows, consists of an irregular balf-street fronting a line ness, from the crystalline “base rock," as it is called, to of wharves. Its principal buildings include a court-house, friablo grit. It seems that they are in a state of subsid- a legislative assembly house, a council room, a library ence and not of elevation. The caves which usually appear (1839), a jail, and a large church. About a mile from the in limestone formations are well represented, many of them town is Langtun, the governor's residence. In Inland running tar into the land and displaying a rich variety of Island is situated the royal dockyard and naval establishstalagmites and stalactites. Among the loss ordinary geo ment. A hospital stands on the highest point, and a logical phenomena may be mentioned the " sand glacier" lunatic asylum has also been built. The bay is defended # Elbow Bay. The surface soil is a curious kind of red by a breakwater. On Boaz Island there is a convict station. carth, which is also found in ochre-like strata throughout A causeway, opened in 1871, runs from St George's through the limestone. It is generally mixed with vegetable matter Longbird Island westward, across Castle Harbour. The and coral sand. There is a total want of streams and harbour of St George's has space enough to accommodate wells of fresh water, and the inhabitants are dependent on the whole British navy; yet, till decpened by blasting, the the rain, which they collect and preserve in tanks. The entrance was so narrow as to render it almost useless. A climate of the Bermudas has a reputation for unhealthiness marine slip was constructed in 1865, with a capacity of which is hardly borno out, for the ordinary death-rate is only | 1200 tons. The chief military establishment is at Prospect