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not vanislı when their true interpretation is thoroughly college tutor; in 1712 ho paid a short visit to England, grasped. Of all thesc difficulties that concerned with the and in April of the following year he was presented by nature of matter is of greatest importance to Berkeley. Swist at court. His splendid abilities and finu courteous From misconceptions of the true nature of material sub manners, comubined with the purity and uprightness of his stance have flowed, according to him, the materialisın, character, made him a universal favourite. While in scepticism, and infidelity which disfigured the age ; and all London he published his Dialogues (1713), a more popular these are completely banished by the new principle. The exposition of his new theory; for exquisite facility of applications of his principlo and his own inclinations led style these are perhaps the fiucst philosophical writings in Berkeley into other departments of science which he was the English language. In November of the same year be not so well qualified to handle. The first result of the became chaplain to Lord Peterborough, whom he accomprinciple, as he conceived it, is undoubtedly empiricism in panied on the Continent, returning in August 1714. Ho the theory of cognition. The ultimate elements of know travelled again in 1715 as tutor to the sun of Dr Ashe, and ledge are the minima of consciousness, presentative or was absent from England for five years. On his way representative ; pure thought and abstract ideas are not home he wrote and sent to the French Academy the essay capable of being realized by the mind, and are therefore De Votu, in which is given a full account of his new culis impossible. The only mathematical processes to which these ception of causality, the fundamcutal and all-comprehensive ininima can be subjected are addition and subtraction; and thought in his philosophy. In 1721, during the disturbed consequently great part of the Common Place Book is state of social relations consequent on the bursting of the occupied with a vigorous and in many points exceedingly the great South Sea bubble, he published an Essay tooards ignorant polemic against the fundoinental conceptions of preventing the Ruin of Great Britain, which shows the the fuxional and infinitesimal calculus, a polemic which | intense interest he took in all practical affairs. In the same Berkeley carried on to the end of his days.
year he returned to Ireland as chaplain to the duke of Grai. He soon began to appear as an author. In 1707 he ton, and was made divinity lecturer and university preacher, published two short tracts on mathematics, and in 1709 In 1722 he was appointed to the deanery of Dromore, a pasi the Nero Theory of Pision, in which he applied his new which seems to have entailed no duties, as we find him principle, though without stating it explicitly. The new holding the offices of Hebrew lecturer and senior proctor theory is a critical exnmination of the true meaning of the at the university. The following year brought him an externality which is apparently given in visual conscious unexpected addition of fortune, Miss Vanhomrigh, Swift's ness, and which, to the unphilosophical mind, is the Vanessa, having left him half her property. It would strongest evidence of the independent existence of outer appear that he had only met her once at dinner. In 1721 objects. Such visual consciousnoss is shown to be ulti. he was nominated to the rich den nery of Derry, but ba-1 mately a system of arbitrary signs, symbolizing for us hardly been appointed before he was using every effort to cortain actual or possible tactual experience-in fact, a resign it in order to devote himself to his enthusiastically language which we learn through custom. The difference conceived scheme of founding a college in the Bermudas, between the contents of the visual and the tactual con and extending its benefits to the Americans. With insciousness is absolute; they have no element in common. finite exertion he succeeded in obtaining from Gurernment 'Chie visible and visual signs are definitely connected with a promise of £20,000, and, after four years spent in 140 tactual experiences, and the association between them, paration, sailed in September 1728, accompaniel by sume which has grown up in our minds through custom of habit, friends and by his wife, daughter of Jurige Forster, wbom rests upon, or is guaranteed by, tho constant conjunction he had married in the preceding month. Their destinaof the two by tho will of the Universal Mind. But this tion was Rhode Island, where they resolved to wait for the synthesis, whether on the objectivo side as the universal promised grant from Government. Threo years of quiet thought or course of naturo, or on the subjectivo side as retirement and study were spent in the island Derkeley mental association, is not brought forward prominently by bought a farm, made many friends, and endeared himself Berkeley. It was at the same time perfectly evident that to the inhabitants. But it gradually became apparent a quite similar analysis might have been applied to tactual that Government would novor hand over the promised consciousness, which does not give externality in its deepest grant, if indeed they had ever serionsly contemplated doing significance any more than visual; but it was with deli-so. Berkeley was therefore compelled reluctantly to give borate purposo that Berkeley at first drew out only one up his cherished plan. Soon after his return he published side of his argumento In 1710 the new doctrine received ! the fruits of his quiet studies in Alciphron, or the liste its full statement in the Principles of Human Knowledge, Philosopher (1733), a finely written work in the fora of where externality in its ultimate sense as independence of dialogue, critically examining the various forms of free all mind is considered ; where matter, as an abstract, un thinking in the age, and bringing forward in antithesis to perceived substance or causo, is shown to be an impossible them his own theory, which shows all nature to be the and unreal conception; where true substance is affirmed to l language of God. The work was extremely populaz. In be conscious spirit, true causality the free activity of such a | 1734 he was raised to the bishopric of Cloyne, and at once spirit, while physical substantiality and causality in their went into residence. The same year, in his Analys, be now meaning are held to be merely arbitrary but constant attacked the higher mathematics as leading to freethinkrelations among phenomena connected subjectively by ing; this involved him in a hot controversy. The Quais, suggestion or association, conjoined objectively in the a practical work in the form of questions on what would Universal Mind. In ultimato analysis, then, nature is now be called social or economical philosophy, appeared conscious experience, and forins the sign or symbol of al in three parts, 1735, 1736, 1737 In 1744 was pobdi-rine, universal intelligence and will.
lished the Siris, partly occasioned by the controversy with In the preceding year Berkeley had been ordained as regard to tar-water, but rising far above the petty circumdoucon, and in 1711 he delivered his Discourse on Passive stance from which it took its rise, and in its chsis of Obedience, in which he deduces moral rules from the reflections revealing the matured thoughts and wide reading intention of God to promote the general happiness, thus of its author, while opening up hidden depths in the working out a theological utilitarianism, which inay with | Berkeleian metaphysics. In 1751 his eldest son died, and advantage be compared with the later expositions of Austin / in 1752 he removed with his family to Oxford for the sake and Will. From the year 1707 he had been engaged as of his son George who was studying there. On the evering of the 14th January 1753, he expired suddenly and Instead, thercfore, of fato or nocessity, or matter, or tbe unknown, painlessly in the midst of his family. And thus quietly | a living, active mind is looked upon as the ceutre and spring of the closed one of the purest and most beautiful lives on record.
| universe, and this is the essence of the Berkeleian metaphysica
It may be safely said that the deeper aspects of Berkeley's new His romains were deposited in Christ Church, Oxford.
thought have been almost universally neglected or misunderstood.
Of his spiritual empiricism only one side lias been accepted by water Although Berkeley's new principle is susceptible of brief state
thinkers, and has been looked upon as the whole. The subjoctivo ment, it is by no means equally possible to give in short compass
mechanism of association which with Berkeley 18 but part of tho un adequate account of its systematic application to the several pro
true expilanation, and is dependent on the objective realization in blems of philosophy. It may be sufficient here to indicate gene
the divine mind, has been received as in itself a satisfactory theory. the relation of the new conception to preceding
Sunt Cogitationes has been regarded by thinkers who profits theme to inquire how far the principle is metaphysically justifiable. In
selves Berkeleians as the one proposition warranted by conscious the philosophies of Descartes and Locke a large share of attention
ness; the empiricism of his philosophy has been eagerly welcomed, had been directed to the idea of matter, which was held to be the
| while the spiritual intuition, without which the whole is to Berkeley abstract, un perceived background of real experience, and was sup meaningless, has been cast aside. For this he is himself in no sinall posed to give rise to our ideas of external things through its action on
measure to blame. The decper spiritual intuition, prosent from the the sentient mind. Knowledge being limited to the ideas produced
first, was only brought into clear relief in order to meet difficulticom could never extend to the unperceived matter, or substance, or in the earlier statements; and the extension of the intuition itself cause which produced them, and it became a problem for specula
beyond the limits of our own consciousness, which completely tive science to determine the grounds for the very belief in its
removes his position from mere subjectivism, rests on foundations existence. Philosophy Bermed about to end in scepticism or in
uncritically assumed, and at first sight irreconcilable with certain materialism. Now Berkeley put this rhole problem in a new light positions of his system. The necessity and universality of tbo by pointing out that a preliminary question niust be raised and I judgments of causality and substantiality are taken for answered. Before wo deduce results from such abstract ideas as
there is no investigation of the place held by these notions in tho rause, substance, patter, we must ask what in reality do these
mental constitution. The relation between the divine mind and mean, --what is the actual content of consciousness which cor
finite intelligence, at first thought as that of agent and recipient, is responds to these words ! Do not all these ideas, when held to
complicated and obscure when the necessity for explaining the represent something which exists absolutely apart from all know. |
permanence of real things comes forward. The divine archetypes, ledge of it, involve a contradiction! Are they not truly, when so according to which sensible experience is regulated and in which it regarded, inconceivable, and mere arbitrary figments which cannot finds its real objectivity, are different in kind from mere sense ideas, possibly be realized in consciousness In putting this question, not ) and the question then arises whether in these we have not again tho Icss than in answering it, consists Berkeley's distinct originality as “things as they are,” which Berkeley at first 80 contemptuously a philosopber. The essence of the answer, as has been already been, dismissed. He leaves it undetermined whether or not our knowis that the universe is inconceivablo apart from mind, -that exist. ledge of sense things, which is never entirely presentative, in. ence, as such, denotes conscious spirits and the objects of conscious- volves some reference to this objective course of nature or thought ness. Matter and external things, in so far as they are thought of the divine mind. And if so, what is the nature of the notions to have an existence beyond the circle of consciousness, are im necessarily implied in the simplest knowledge of a thing, as distinct possible, inconceivable, alsurd. External things are things known from meré sense feeling! That in knowing objects certain thoughts io us in inımcdiate perception. To this conclusion Berkeley Beems, are implied which are not presentations or their copies, is at times in the first place, to have been led by the train of reflection that dimly seen by Berkeley himself ; but he was content to propound a naturally conducts to subjective or egoistic idealism. It is impos question with regard to those notions, and to look upon them as sible to overstep the limits of self-consciousness ; whatever words I merely Locke's ideas of relation. Such ideas of relation are in truth use, whatever notions I have, nust refer to and find their meaning the stumbling-block in Locke's philosophy, and Berkeley's empiri. in facts of consciousness. And there can be no doubt that in certain cism is equally far from accounting for them. earlier aspects of his thicory, where, for example, it appears as a With all these defects, however, Berkeley's new conception inarks mere analysis of what is meant by rcality, it does not rise above la distino stage of progress in human thought. His true place in this subjective stand-point. But this is by no means the whole or the history of speculation may be seen from the simple observation even the principal part of Berkeley's philosophy; it is essentially a that the difficulties or obscurities in his scheme are really the points theory of causality, and this is brought out gradually under the
on which later philosophy has turned. He once for all lifted thc pressure of difficulties in the first solution of the early problem. To problem of metaphysics to a higher level, and, in conjunction with inerely subjective idealism, sense percepts differ from ideas of im- his great successor, Hume, determined the form into which later agination in degree, not in kind; both belong to the individual mind. metaphysical questions have been thrown. To Berkeley, however, the difference is fundamental; senso ideas are The classical edition of Berkeley's works is that by Profefecit not due to our own activity, they do not result from our will; they Fraser (4 vols.- vols. i.-iii., Works; vol. iv., Life, Letters, and must therefore be produced by some other will,-by the divine Disscrtation on his Philosophy, Clarendon Press, 1871), who has been intelligence. Sense experience is thus the constant action upon our the first, there and in various essays, to exhibit the true form of minds of supremo active intellect, and is not the consequence of Berkeley's philosoply. See also Ueberweg's notes to his translation dead inert matter. It might appear, therefore, that sensible things of the Principles (1869); Krauth's American edition of the Principles, had an objective existence in the mind of God; that an idea 80 soon with Prof. Fraser's introduction and notes, and a translation of is it passes out of our consciousness passes into that of God. This those of Veberweg; Collyns. Simon, Universal Immaterialism is an interpretation, frequently and not without some justice, put (1847); Nature and Elements of the External World (1862); upon Berkeley's own expression. But it is not a satisfactory Friedrich, Veler Berkeley's Idcalismus (1870). Discussions on variou. account of his theory. Berkeley is compelled to see that an imme points of Berkeloy's doctrine will be found in Fichte's Zeitschri
perception is not a thing, and that what we consider per- vol. lvi. 899.; Mill's Dissertations, vols. ii. and iv. ; Huxloy, manent or mubstantial is not a sensation but a group of qualities, Critiques and Addresses, p. 320, 899.; Ferrier, Romains, vol. ii. Two which in ultimate analysis means sensations either immediately felt adverse reviews of the Theory of Vision may also be noted - Bailey, or such as our experience has taught us would be felt in conjunction Review of Berkeley's Theory of Vision (1842); and Abbott, Sight with these. Our belief in the reality of a thing may therefore be said
and Touch (1864); with the last may be compared Monck. Space to mean assurance that this association in our minds between actual and Vision
(R. AD.) and possiblo sensations is somehow guaranteed. Further. B own theory would never permit him to speak of possible sensations,
BERKHAMPSTEAD, GREAT, a market-tunn of Engmeaning by that the ideas of sensations called up to our minds by pre- land, in the county of Herts, 26 miles N.W. of London, sent experience. He could never have held that these afforded any on the Junction Canal and the North-Western Railway. raplanation of the permanent existence of real objects. His theory is quite distinct from this, which really amounts to nothing more thar.
It has a spacious cruciform church, with a tower of the sabjective idealism. External things are produced by the will of the
16th century, a market-house, erected in 1860, which indivine intelligence : they are caused and caused in a regular order cludes a corn exchange and a library, a grammar school, a there exist in the divine mind archetypes, of which sense experience free school, several almshouses, a jail, &c. Straw-plaiting may be said to be the realization in our finite minds. Our belief in
and the manufacture of small wooden wares are the printhe permanence of something which corresponds to the association in our minds of actual and possible sensations means belief in the
cipal industries. The town is of considerable antiquity, orderliness of nature ; and that is merely assurance that the universe and was one of the royal residences under the Diercian is pervaded and regulated by mind. Human science is occupied in kings, a distinction which it again enjoyed under llenry II, endea Tourins to decipher the divine ideas which find real
The castle, at that time a fortress of some importance, was our limited experience, in trying to interpret the divine language of which natural things are the words and letters, and in striving
bestowed on the Black Prince, and since then the monos to bring hunan con options into harmony with the divino thoughts. I has remained an apanage of the successive princes of
Wales. Tho poot Cowper was born in the rectory in 1731. | both of which enter the county at Maidenhead, and soon Population in 1872, 4083.
afterwards separate, the former running 8.W. to ReadBERKSHIRE, one of the south-eastern counties of ing, the latter nearly N.W. to Henley. Eight branches of England, bounded on the N.E. by Buckinghamshire, from railway intersect the county, viz, the Great Western, from which it is separated by the Thames; N. by Oxfordshire Maidenhead to Reading, and from Reading to Shrivenham; and a small portion of Gloucester; W. by Wilts ; S. by the branch from Didcot to Hincksey and Oxford; the Hants; and S.E. by Surrey. It is of a very irregular Berks and Hants railway branches from Reading to Mortifigure, extending from east to west fully 60 miles; while mer and Basingstoke, and from Reading to Newbury and from north to south, in its widest part, it is about 35 miles, Hungerford; the Reading, Guildford, and Reigate line; and in its narrowest part, at Reading, not more than 7. and the Reading, Wokingham, and Staines branch of the Area, 450,132 acres.
South-Western Railway. In respect to the character of its surface and soil, the Berkshire is not a manufacturing county, although the county may be conveniently regarded as consisting of two woollen manufacture was introduced here as long ago as divisions—the eastern, containing the six districts east and the time of the Tudors. There are some paper-mills, parinclusive of Bradfield, and the western, embracing the re- ticularly in the neighbourhood of Newbury, and an extenmaining six districts. The surface of the eastern division is sive biscuit manufactory at Reading. The chief trado partly level and partly undulating, and in many places, as consists in agricultural produca. at Windsor, it is beautifully wooded. The highest ground from its vicinity to the metropolis, the salubrity of the is at Bagsbot Heath, a sandy plateau 460 feet high, at the climate, and the general beauty of the country, few counties Bouth-east corner of the county. The character of the soil have more numerous seats of the nobility and gentry than in the eastern division is considered poorer than in the are to be found in Berkshire. Among these stands prewest, and consists mostly of blue clay and gravel, resting eminent the royal castle of Windsor, the favourite fise dence on a chalk formation. In this division, tillage, dairy of our monarchs during many centuries. There may also farming, and manufacturing are more extensively pursued be mentioned Wytham Abbey (earl of Abingdon); Ash than in the other, and it is consequently more thickly down Park and Hamstead Marshall (earl of Craven); populated. The western or upland division contains a Coleshill (earl of Radnor); Shrivenham House (Viscount large proportion of elevated ground, and its soil is a reddish Barrington); Easthampstead Park (marquis of Downshire); gravelly loam. Here a line of chalk hills, reaching from Englefield House (R. Benyon, Esq., M.P.); Aldermaston Aldworth to Ashbury (which includes the Isley Downs), House (Higford Burr, Esq.); South Hill Park (Rt. Hon runs east and west, separating the two fertile valleys of the Sir W. G. Hayter, Bart.); Pusey House (Sydney Bouterie Kennet and the Thanies. Another range of chalk downs, Pusey, Esq.); Bearwood (John Walter, Esq., M.P.); and known as the Cuckamsley Hills, extends from the neighbour- Lockinge House (COL Loyd Lindsay, V.C., M.P.) hood of Wantage to the border of Wiltshire, the highest The county comprises 20 hundreds, 6 municipal boronghs, point being White-Horse Hill, 893 feet high. In this and 142 parishes, besides 14 others chiefly or partially inpart of the county the rearing of sheep is largely carried cluded in Berks. The county is in the diocese of Oxford on, while in the district of Hungerford, which is situated and the ecclesiastical province of Canterbury. It forms in the basin of the Kennet, the soil allows a large breadth an archdeaconry by itself, and is divided into the four rural of tillage, and a greater number of persons are engaged deaneries of Abingdon, Newbury, Reading, and Wallingin agricultural pursuits there than any other district in the ford. It is in the Oxford circuit, and the assizes are held county.
at Reading. County courts are held at Abingdon, far Wheat and beans are extensively cultivated ; and a species ingdon, Hungerford, Maidenhead, Newbury, Reading, of peat found on the banks of the Kennet yields ashes that Wallingford, Wantage, Windsor, and Wokingham. are of great value to the soils near that river. In the vales Berkshire returns 3 members to parliament for the of Kennet and White-Hörse dairy farming predominates. county, 2 for the borough of Reading, and I for each of Near Faringdon pigs are extensively reared, and the breed the boroughs of Abingdon, Wallingford, and Windsor. is celebrated. The estate of Pusey, in the district of Far At the three decennial enumerations the population of ingdon, presents one of the best examples of high class the county was as follows: farming, while in the eastern division the model farms in
Increus the district of Wokingham, the property of John Walter, Esq., M.P. for the county, may be referred to as the best
170, 256 specimens of the recent improvements in agriculture, Mr Walter's mansion at Bearwood, too, is an instance of a bar
1871............, 41,821 onial residence seldom equalled in extent and admirable The chief tacrease has taken place in the eastern division disposition.
of the county, where the density of the population amounted Fow parts of England are better supplied with the faci. in 1871 to about 1 person to 1.5 acre ; while in the lities of water communication than the county of Berks. western it was 1 person to 3.5 acres. The principal towns It is connected by means of the Thames with London on in the county are Reading (pop. 32,324), Windsor (11,769), tho one hand, and on the other with the Sovern at two Newbury (6602), Maidenhead (6173), Abingdon (6799), beparate points on that river ;-one through the Thames Wantage (3295), and Wallingford (2972). The populo and Severn canal, some miles below Gloucester, the other tion of the parliamentary districts differs from the above, ss through the River Kennet and the Kennet and Avon canal these districts include persons located beyond the bound by Bath and Bristol. Besides the navigable rivers, it aries of the boroughs. enjoys the benefit of the Wilts and' Berks canal, which Antiquities, both 'Roman and Saxon, are acmerous in connects the Thames at Abingdon with the Avon at Trow- various parts of this county. Watling Street enters Berkbridge in Wiltshire, and communicates with the Kennet shire from Bedfordshire at the village of Streatiey, and and Avon canal. The other rivers, which all finally fall leaves it at Newbury. Another Roman road passes from into the Thames, are the Ock, the Loddon, the Enborne, Reading to Newbury, where it divides into two branches, and the Lambourn.
one passing to Marlborough in Wiltshire, and the other The turnpike roads are generally good. The principal to Cirencester in Gloucestershire. A branch of Icknield of these are the roads from London to Bath and Oxford, Street passes from Wallingford to Wantage. Near War
tage is a Roman camp, of a quadrangular form; and there eminent sculptors. The Kurfürstenbrücke is another and other remains of encampments at East Hampstead near bridge which merits notice, on account of the equestrian Wokingham, at Pusey, on White-Horse Hill, and at Sino- bronze statue of the Great Elector by which it is adorned. dun Hill, near Wallingford. At Lawrence Waltham thoro The etymology of the word “Berlin" is doubtful. Somo is a Roman fort, and near Dench worth a fortress said to have derive it from Celtic roots-ber, small, short, and lyn, a been built by Canuto the Dane, called Cherbury Castle. lake. Others regard it as a Wend word, meaning a free, Barrows are very numerous in the downs in the N.W. of open place. Others, again, regard it as coming from tho the county, particularly between Lambourn and Wantage. word werl, a river island. Professor Paul Cassel, in a Dragon Hill is supposed to have been the burying-place of recently published dissertation, derives it from the German a British prince called Uther Pendragon, and near to it is | word “Brühl," a marshy district, and the Slavonic terminaUfington Castle, supposed to be of Danish construction. tion "in;" thus Brühl, by the regular transmutation Bürhl On White-Horse Hill, in the same vicinity, is the rude (compare Germ. bren-nen and Eng. burn), Bürhlin. The figure of what is called a horse, although it bears a greater question is likely to remain in the stage of more or less resemblance to a greyhound. It has been formed by cut probable conjecture. ting away the turf and leaving the chalk bare. It oc- Similar obscurity rests on the origin of the city. The cupics nearly an acre of land, and is said to have been hypotheses which carried it back to the early years of the esecuted by Alfred to celebrate a victory over the Danes Christian era have been wholly abandoned. Even the in the reign of his brother Ethelred, in the year 872. This Dargrave Albert the Bear (d. 1170) is no longer unquestioninemorial, not having been "scoured” for many years, is ably regarded as its founder, and the tendency of opinion nearly obliterated by the growth of the turf over the chalk. now is to date its origin from the time of his great-grandIt is part of the property of the earl of Craven.
sons, Otho and John. When first alluded to, what is now Berkshire comprehended the principality inhabited by Berlin was spoken of as two towns, Cöln and Berlin. The the Atrebates, & tribe of people who originally migrated first authentic document concerning the former is from the from Gaul Under the Romans it formed part of Britannia year 1237, concerning the latter from the year 1244, and Prima, and during the Saxon heptarchy was included in the it is with these dates that the trustworthy history of the kingdom of the West Saxons. . When Alfred divided the city begins. Fidicin, in his Diplomatische Beiträge zur country into shires, hundreds, and parishes, it obtained the Geschichte der Stadt Berlin, vol iii., divides the history of name of Berocscire, which was subsequently changed to the town, from its origin to the times of the Reformation, that which it now bears. It was frequently the scene of into three periods. The first of these, down to the year military operations from the time of Offa down to the | 1307, is the period during which the two towns had a troubles in the reign of Charles I. During the civil war separate administration; the second, from 1307 to 1442, two battles were fought at Newbury. In 1643, after a dates from the initiation of the joint administration of the siege, Reading was taken by the Parliamentary forces, and two towns to its consummation. The third period extends the Royalist party were expelled from the whole of the from 1442 to 1539, when the two towns embraced the county except Wallingford.
reformed faith. BERLIN 18 the chief city of the province of Branden. In the year 1565 the town had already a population of hurg, the capital of the kingdom of Prussia, and since 12,000. About ninety years later, after the close of the 1871 the metropolis of the German empire. It is situated Thirty Years' War, it had sunk to 6000. At the death of in 52° 30' 16' N. lat. and 13° 23' 16" E long., and lies the Great Elector in 1688, it had risen to 20,000. The about 120 feet above the level of the Baltic. It's longest Elector Frederick III., afterwards King Frederick I., sought day is 16 hours 47 minutes ; its shortest day is 7 hours 36 to make it worthy of a royal “rezidence,” to which rank it minutes. Its average annual temperature is 48.2° Fahr., had been raised in 1701. From that time onwards Berlin the maximum recorded beat being 99.5° in 1819, and the grew steadilyin extent, splendour, and population. Frederick maximum cold - 16.1° Fabr. in 1823. The average rain the Great found it, at his accession in 1740, with 90,000 fall-is 21 74 Prussian inches, and Berlin has on the average inhabitants. At the accession of Frederick William IV. in 120 rainy, 29 snawy, and 17 foggy days in a year.
1840 it had 331,894, and in the month of July 1874, The city is built on what was originally in part a sandy thirty-four years later, the population had nearly trebled, and in part & marsby district on both sides of the River the exact numbers in that year being 949,144. The two Spree, not far from its junction with the Havel, one of the original townships of Cöln and Berlin have grown into the principal tributaries of the Elbe. By its canals it has also sixteen townships into which the city is now divided, coverdirect water communication with the Oder. The Spree ing about 25 English square miles of land, aud Berlin now rises in the mountain region of Upper Lusatia, is navi- takes its place as the fourth, perhaps the third, greatest city gable for the last 97 English miles of its course, enters in Europe, surpassed only by London, Paris, and possibly Berlin on the S. E as a broad sluggish stream, retaining Vienna. Its importance is now such that a bill, at present an average width of 420 feet, and a depth of 6 or 7 feet, submitted by the Government to the consideration of the until it approaches the centre of the city, where it has a Legislature, proposes to raise it to the rank of a province sudden fall of 4 feet, and leaves the city on the N.W., after of the kingdom. receiving the waters of the Panke, again as a dull and Progress and prosperity have, however, been chequered sluggish stream, with an average width of only 160 feet, by reverses and humiliations. The 17th century saw the but with its depth increased to from 12 to 14 feet. Within Imperialists and Swedes, under Wallenstein and under the boundaries of the city it feeds canals, and divides into Gustavus Adolphus, as onemies, within its walls ; the 18th branches, which, however, reunite. The river, with its century, the Austrians and Russians, during the Seven canals and branches, is crossed by about 50 bridges, of Years' War; the 19th century, Napoleon I. and the French; which very few have any claim to architectural beauty and the year 1848 witnessed the bloody scenes of the Among these latter may be mentioned the Schlossbrücke, March Revolution. But the development of constitutional built after designs by Schinkel in the years 1822-24, with government, and the triumphs of 1866 and 1870, have its eight colossal figures of white marble, representing the wiped out the memory of these dark spots in the history of ideal stages of & Warrior's career. The statues are for the the Prussian capital most part of high artistic merit. They stand on granite The town has grown in splendour as it has increased in podestals, and are the work of Drake, Wolff, and other numbers. Daniel, in the fourth volume of his Handbook
III. – 75
Plan of Berlin.
18. Minzo (int) E Lango of Kurfursten Brucka
19. Royal Theatre Konument to Frederick the Great. & Ministry of the Interioz
20. Circus (Rens). Monument to Frodelek William 6. Aquarium
14. Zeughaus (Arsenal)
21. Palace of the Generel &at. IL 7. Russian Embassy. 18 Palace of the Crown Prince
22. Kammergericht (Chamber) L Britabimbassy 8. Royal Academy
16. Palace of the Commandant of 98. Count Bacsynski. Picture Gallery 2 Admiralty 9. University.
24 Catholic Hospita a Industria (Gowebe) Hmoum. 10. Palace of the Emperor.
17. Badakademie (Architecture). 38. Infirmary ment, the War Office, the residence of the Minister of, Gallery. At a short distance from this line are the Es. Commerce, the palaces of Prince Carl and the Princes change, the Rathhaus, the Mint, the Bank, and the Royal Pless and Radziwill, the Foreign Office, the Imperial Chan Theatre. Further away are the various barracks, the cory, the palaces of the Ministers of the Royal House and palace of the general staff, and the sight railway termini. of Justice, the palaces of the Princes Alexander and George, Berlin differs from other great capitals in this respect, that the Brandenburg Gate, the Royal School of Artillery and with the exception of the castle,-a large building enclosing Engineering, the residences and offices of the Ministers of two courts, and containing more than 600 rooms, and the Interior and of Worship, the Russian Embassy, the which dates back in its origin to the 16th century, all its Great Arcade, the Netherland Palace and the palace of the public buildings are comparatively modern, dating in their Emperor, the Royal Academy, the University, the Royal present form from the 18th and 19th centuries The Library, the Opera, the Arsenal, the palace of the Crown public buildings and monuments which render it famom, Prince, the palace of the Commandant of Berlin, the Castle such as the palaces, museums, theatre, exchange, bank, Bridge, the Academy of Architecture, the Castle, the rathhaus, the Jewish synagogue, the monuments and coCathedral, the Old and Now Museums, and the National | lumns of victory, date almost without exception from later