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fag of tlio 14th January 1753, he expired suddenly and painlessly in the midst of his family. And thus quietly closed one of the purest and most beautiful lives on record. 11 is remains were deposited in Christ Church, Oxford.
Although Berkeley's new principle is susceptible of brief state* merit, it is by no means equally possible to give in short compass .m adequate account of its systematic application to the several pro* blems of philosophy. It may be sufficient here to indicate generally the relation of the new conception to preceding systems, and to inquire how far the principle is metaphysically justifiable'. ]n the philosophies of Descartes and Locke a large snare of attention had been directed to the idea of matter, which was held to be the abstract, on perceived background of real experience, and was supposed to give rise to our ideas of external things through its action on the sentient mind. Knowledge being limited to the ideas produced could never extend to the nnpcrceived matter, or substance, or cause which produced them, and it became a problem for speculative science to determine the grounds for the very belief in its existence. Philosophy seemed about to end in scepticism or in materialism. Now Berkeley pot this rhole problem in a new light by pointing out that a preliminary question must be raised and answered. Before wo deduce results from such abstract ideas as cause, substance, matter, we must ask what in reality do these mean,—what is the actual content of consciousness which corresponds to these words f Do not all these ideas, when held to represent something which exists absolutely apart from^.11 knowledge of it, involve a contradiction? Are they not truly, whan so regarded, Inconceivable, and mere arbitrary figments which cannot
IxMsibly be realized in consciousness f In putting this question, not osa than in answering it, consists Berkeley's distinct originality as a philosopher. The essence of the answer, as has been already seen, is that the universe is inconceivable apart from mind,—that existence, as such, denotes conscious spirits and the objects of consciousness. Matter and external things, in so for as they are thought to hare an existence beyond the circle of consciousness, are impassible, inconceivable, absurd. External things are things known to us in immediate perception. To this conclusion Berkeley seems, in the first place, to have been led by the train of reflection that naturally conducts to subjective or egoistic idealism. It is impossible to overstep the limits of self-consciousness ; whatever words 1 uae>, whatever notions 1 have, must refer to and find their meaning in facta of consciousness. And there can be no doubt that in certain earlier aspects of his theory, where, for example, it appears as a mora analysis of what is meant by reality, it does not rise shore this subjective stand-point. But this is by no means the whole or even the principal part of Berkeley's philosophy; it is essentially a theory of causality, and this is brought out gradually under the pressure of difficulties in the first solution of the early problem. To merely subjective idealism, Bense percepts differ from idess of imagination in degree, not in kind; both belong to the individual mind. To Berkeley, however, the difference is fundamental; sense ideas are not due to our own activity, they do not result from our will; they must therefore be produced by some other will,—by the divine intelligence. Sense experience is thus the constant action npon our minds of supreme active intellect, and is not the consoquence of dead inert matter. It might appear, therefore, that sensible things had an objective existence in the mind of God ; that an idea so soon aa it passes out of our consciousness passes into that of God. This ia an interpretation, frequently and not without some justice, put upon Berkeley's own expression. But it is not s satisfactoiy account of his theory. Berkeley is compelled to see that an immediate perception is not a thing, and that what we consider permanent or substantial is not a sensation but a group of qualities, which in ultimate analysis means sensations either immediately felt or such as our experience has taught us would be felt in conjunction with these. Our belief in the reality of a thing may therefore be said to mean assurance that this association in our minds between actual and possible sensations is somehow guaranteed. Further, Berkeley's own theory would never permit him to speak of possible sensations, meaning by that the ideas of sensations called up to our minds by present experience. He could never have held that these afforded any explanation of the permanent existence of real objects. His theory is quits distinct from this, which really amounts to nothing more than p abjective idealism. External things are produced by the will of the divine intelligence; they an caused, and caused in a regular order; there exist in tho divine mind archetypes, of which sense experience may be said to be the realization in our finite minds. Our belief in the permanence of something which corresponds to the association in our minds of actual and possible sensations means belief in the orderliness of nature; and thai is merely assurance that the universe is pervaded and regulated by mind. Human science is occupied in endeavouring to decipher the divine idess which find realization in oar limited experience, in trying to interpret the divine language of which natural things are the words and letters, and in striving to bring human conceptions into harmony with tho divine thoughts.
Instead, therefore, of fato or necessity, or matter, or the unknown, a living, active mind is looked upon as tho centre and spring of the universe, and this Ib the essence of the Bcrkeleian metaphysics.
It may be safely said that the deeper aspects of Berkeley's now thought have been almost universally neglected or misunderstood. Of his spiritual empiricism only one side has been accepted by later thinkers, and has been looked upon aa the whole. The subjective mechanism of association which with Berkeley is bat part of .the trus explanation, and is dependent on the objective realization, in the divine mind, has been received as in itself a satisfactory theory. Sunt Cogitationt* has been regarded by thinkers who profcM themselves Bcrkeleians as the one proposition warranted uy consciousness ; the empiricism of his philosophy has been eagerly welcomed, while the spiritual intuition, without which the whole is to Berkeley meaningless, has been cast aside. For this he is himself in no small measure to blame. The deeper spiritual intuition, present from th<* first, was only brought into clear relief in order to meet difficulttct* in the earlier statements; and the extension of the intuition itself beyond the limits of our own consciousness, which completely removes his position front mere subjectivism, rests on foundations uncritically assumed, and at first Bight irreconcilable with certain positions of hiB system. The necessity and universality of the judgments of causality and substantiality ore token for granted; and there is no investigation of the place neld by these notions in the mental constitution. The relation between the divine mind and finite intelligence, at first thought as that of agent and recipient, is complicated end obscure when the necessity for explaining the permanence of real things comes forward. The divine archetypes, according to which sensible experience is regulated and in which, it finds its real objectivity, are different in kind from mere sense ideas, snd the question then arises whether in these we have not again tlio "things as they are," which Berkeley at first so contemptuously dismissed. He leaves it undetermined whether or not our knowledge of sense things, which is never entirely prosentative, involves some reference to this objective course of nature or thought of the divine mind. And if so, whst is tho nature of the notions necessarily implied in the simplest knowledge of a thing, as distinct from mere sense feeling f That in knowing objects certain thoughts are implied which are not presentations or their copies, is zt times dimly Been by Berkeley himself; but he was content to propound n question with regard to those notions, and to look upon them ss merely Lockea ideas of relation. Such ideas of relation are in truth the stumbling-block in Locke's philosophy, and Berkeley's empiricism is equally far from accounting for them.
'With sll these defects, however, Berkeley's new conception marks a distincr stage of progress in human thought His true place in the history of speculation may be seen from the simple observation that the difficulties or obscurities in his scheme are really the points on which later philosophy has turned. He once for til lifted tic
Eroblem of metaphysics to a higher level, and, in conjunction witli is great successor, Hume, determined the form into which later metaphysical questions havo been thrown.
The classical edition of Berkeley's works ia that by Frofcwor Fraser (4 Tola—Tola. L-iii., Work); Tol. IT., Life, Letters, and Dissertation on his Philosophy, Clarendon Press, 1671), who has been the first, there and in various essays, to exhibit the true form of Berkeley's philosophy. See alao Uebcrweg's notes to his translation of the Principles (1869); Krauth's American edition of ittsj Principles, with Prof. FraseVa introduction and notes, and a translation of those of Ueberweg; Collyna Simon, Universal Jmmaterialism (1647); Nature and Elements of the External World (1862); Friedrich, VeherBerkeley s Idealismvs (1870). Discussions on variou, points of Berkeloy'a doctrine will bo found in Fichte's Zcitsehr.t voL lvi. sqq.; "Mill's Dissertations, Tola, ii and iv.; Huxioy, Critiques and Addresses, p. 820, sqq.; Ferrier, Remains, Tol. ii. Two adverse reriewa of the Theory of Vision may also be noted—Bailey, JUviev of Berkeley's Theory of Vision (1842) ; and Abbott, Si}ht and Touch (1884); with the last may be compared Honck, Space and Vision, (K AD.)
BERK.HAMPSTEAD, Geeat, a mnrkeUuwn of England, in the county of Berts, 26 miles N.W. of London, on the Junction Canal and the North-Western Railway. It has a spacious cruciform church, with a tower of tho 16th century, a market-house, erected in I860, which includes a corn exchange and a library, a grammar school, a free school, several almshouses, a jail, &c. Straw-plaiting and the manufacture of small wooden wares are the principal industries. Tho town is of considerable antiquity, and was one of the royal residences under the Mercian kings, a distinction which it again enjoyed under Henry II. The castle, at that time a fortress of Bome importance, was bestowed on the Black Prince,, and since then the mnnnr has remained on npanago of tho successive princes of Wales. The poot Cowper was born in the rectory in 1731. Population in 1872, 4083.
BERKSHIRE, one of the south-eastern counties of England, bounded on the N.E. by Buckinghamshire, from which it is separated by the Thames; N. by Oxfordshire and a small portion of Gloucester; W. by Wilts; S. by Hants; and S.E by Surrey. It is of a very irregular figure, extending from east to west fully 60 miles; while from north to south, in its widest part, it is about 35 miles, and in its narrowest part, at Reading, not more than 7. Area, 450,132 acres.
In respect to the character of its surface and soil, the county may be conveniently regarded as consisting of two divisions—the eastern, containing the six districts east and inclusive of Bradfield, and the western, embracing the remaining six districts. The surface of the eastern division is partly level and partly undulating, and in many places, as at Windsor, it is beautifully wooded. The highest ground is at Bagshot Heath, a sandy plateau 460 feet high, at the south-east corner of the county. The character of the soil in the eastern division is considered poorer than in the west, and consists mostly of blue clay and gravel, resting on a chalk formation. In this division, tillage, dairy farming, and manufacturing are more extensively pursued than in the other, and it is consequently more thickly populated. The western or upland division contains a large proportion of elevated ground, and its Boil is a reddish gravelly loam. Here a line of chalk hills, reaching from Aldworth to Ashbury (which includes the Hsley Downs), runs east and west, separating the two fertile valleys of the Kennet and the Thames. Another range of chalk downs, known as the Cuckamsley Hills, extends from the neighbourhood of Wantage to the border of Wiltshire, the highest point being White-Horse Hill, 893 feet high. In this part of the county the rearing of sheep is largely carried on, while in the district of Hungerford, which is situated in the basin of the Kennet, the Boil allows a large breadth of tillage, and a greater number of persons are engaged in agricultural pursuits there than any other district in the county.
Wheat and beans are extensively cultivated; and a species of peat found on the banks of the Kennet yields ashes that are of great value to the soils near that river. In the vales of Kennet and White-Horse dairy fanning predominates. Near Faringdon pigs are extensively reared, and the breed is celebrated. The estate of Pusey, in the district of Faringdon, presents one of the best examples of high class farming, while in the eastern division the model farms in the district of Wokingham, the property of John Walter, Esq., M.P. for the county, may be referred to as the best specimens of the recent improvements in agriculture. Mr Walter's mansion at Bearwood, too, is an instance-of a baronial residence seldom equalled in extent and admirable
Few parts of England are better supplied with the facilities of water communication than the county of Berks. It is connected by means of the Thames with London on the one hand, and on the other with the Severn at two separate points on that river;—one through the Thames and Severn canal, some miles below Gloucester, the other through the River Kennet and the Kennet and Avon canal by Batn and Bristol Besides the navigable rivers, it enjoys the benefit of the Wilts and' Berks canal, which connects the Thames at Abingdon with the Avon at Trowbridge in Wiltshire, and communicates with the Kennet and Avon canal. The other rivers, which all finally fall into the Thames, ore the Ock, the Loddon, the Euborne, and the Lamboum.
The turnpike roads are generally good. The principal of these are the roads from London to Bath and Oxford,
both of which enter the county at Maidonhead, and soon afterwards separate, the former running S.W. to Reading, the latter nearly N.W. to Henley. Eight branches of railway intersect the county, via., the Great Western, from Maidenhead to Reading, and from Reading to Shrivenham; the branch from Didcot to Hincksey and Oxford; the Berks and Hants railway branches from Reading to Mortimer and Basingstoke, and from Reading to Newbury sad Hungerford; the Reading, Guildford, and Reigate line; and the Reading, Wokingham, and Staines branch of the South-Western Railway.
Berkshire is not a manufacturing county, although the woollen manufacture was introduced here as long ago a> the time of the Tudors. There are some paper-mills, particularly in the neighbourhood of Newbury, and an extensive biscuit manufactory at Reading. The chief trade consists in agricultural product.
From its vicinity to the metropolis, the salubrity of Uu climate, and the general beauty of the country, few counties have more numerous seats of the nobility and gentry this are to be found in Berkshire. Among these stands preeminent the royal castle of Windsor, the favourite r *.4ence of our monarchs during many centuries. There may also be mentioned Wytham Abbey (earl of Abingdon); Ash
Wytham Abbey (earl of down Park and Hamstead Marshall (earl of Craves); Coleshill (earl of Radnor); Shrivenham House (Viscount Harrington); Easthampsteod Park (marquis of Downshire); Englefield House (R Benyon, Esq., M.P.); Aldermarton House (Higford Burr, Esq.); South Hill Park (Rt Hon. Sir W. G. Hayter, Bart.); Pusey House (Sydney Bouverie Pusey, Esq.); Bearwood (John Walter, Esq., M.P.); and Lockinge House (CoL Loyd Lindsay, V.C., MP.)
The county comprises 20 hundreds, 6 municipal boroughs, and 142 parishes, besides 14 others chiefly or partially included in Berks. The county is in the diocese of Oxford and the ecclesiastical province of Canterbury. It form an archdeaconry by itself, and is divided into the four rural deaneries of Abingdon, Newbury, Reading, and Wallingford. It is in the Oxford circuit, and the assises are held at Reading. County courts are held at Abingdon, Faringdon, Hungerford, Maidenhead, Newbury, Reading, Wallingford, Wantage, Windsor, and Wokingham.
Berkshire returns 3 members to parliament for the county, 2 for the borough of Reading, and 1 for each 'of the boroughs of Abingdon, Wallingford, and Windsor.
At the three decennial enumerations the population of the county was as follows »—
170,066 176,258 186,476
The chief increase has taken place in the eastern diriiioo of the county, where the density of the population amounted in 1871 to about 1 person to 1'5 acre; while in the western it was I person to 3'6 acres. The principal towns in the county are Reading (pop. 32,324), Windsor (11,70'.>;. Newbury (6602), Maidenhead (6173), Abingdon (5799), Wantage (3295), and Wallingford (2972). The population of the parliamentary districts differs from the above, as these districts include persons located beyond the boundaries of the boroughs.
Antiquities, both 'Roman and Saxon, are numerous in various parts of this county. Watling Street enters Berkshire from Bedfordshire at the village of Streatley, sad leaves it at Newbury. Another Roman road passes from Reading to Newbury, where it divides into two branches, one passing to Marlborough in Wiltshire, and the other to Cirencester in Gloucestershire. A branch of Ioknield Street passes from Wallingford to Wantage. Near Wantage is a Roman camp, of a quadrangular form; and there are other remains of encampments at East Hampstead near Wokingham, at Pusey, on White-Horse Hill, and at Sinodnn Hill, near Wallingford. At Lawrence Waltham there is a Roman fort, and near Dec oh worth a fortress said to have been built by Canute the Dane, called Cherbury Castle. Barrows are very numerous in the downs in the N.W. of the county, particularly between Lam bourn and Wantage. Dragon Hill is supposed to have been the burying-place of a British prince called Uther Pendragon, and near to it is Uffington Castle, supposed to be of Danish construction. On White-Horse Hill, in the same vicinity, is the rude figure of what is called a horse, although it bears a greater resemblance to a greyhound It has been formed by cutting away the turf and leaving the chalk bare. It occupies nearly an acre of land, and is said to have been executed by Alfred to celebrate a victory over the Danes in the reign of his brother Ethelred, in the year 872. This memorial, not having been "scoured" for many years, is nearly obliterated by the growth of the turf over the chalk. It is part of the property of the earl of Craven.
Berkshire comprehended the principality inhabited by the Atrebata, a tribe of people who originally migrated from GauL Under the Romans it formed part of Britannia Prima, and daring the Saxon heptarchy was included in the kingdom of the West Saxons. When Alfred divided the country into shires, hundreds, and parishes, it obtained the name of Beroctcire, which was subsequently changed to that which it now bears. It was frequently the scene of military operations from the time of Offa down to the troubles in the reign of Charles L During the civil war two battles were fought at Newbury. In 1643, after a siege, Reading was taken by the Parliamentary forces, and the Royalist party were expelled from the whole of the county except Wallingford
BERLIN is the chief city of the province of Brandenburg, the capital of the kingdom of Prussia, and since 1871 the metropolis of the German empire. It is situated in 52° 30' 16' N. lot. and 13° 23' 16' E. long., and lies about 120 feet above the level of the Baltic Its" longest day ia 1G hours 47 minutes; its shortest day is 7 hours 36 minutes. Its average annual temperature is 48 2° Fair., the maximum recorded heat being 99 6° in 1819, and the maximum cold -16'1° Fahr. in 1823. The average rainfall is 21'7 4 Prussian inches, and Berlin has on the average 120 rainy, 29 snowy, and 17 foggy days in a year.
The city is built on what was originally in part a sandy and in port a marshy district on both sides of the River Spree, not far from its junction with the Havel, one of the principal tributaries of the Elbe. By its canals it has also direct water communication with the Oder. The Spree rises in the mountain region of Upper Lusatia, is navigable for the last 97 English miles of its course, enters Berlin on the S.E as a broad sluggish stream, retaining an average width of 420 feet, and a depth of 6 or 7 feet, until it approaches the centre of the city, where it has a sudden fall of 4 feet, and leaves the city on the N.W., after receiving the waters of the Pardee, again as a dull and sluggish stream, with an average width of only 160 feet, but with its depth increased to from 12 to 14 feet. Within the boundaries of the city it feeds canals, and divides into branches, which, however, reunite. The river, with its canals and branches, is crossed by about 50 bridges, of which very few have any claim to architectural beauty. Among these latter may be mentioned the Schlossbriicke, built after designs by Schinkel in the years 1822-24, with its eight colossal figures of white marble, representing the ideal stages of a warrior's career. The statues are for the most part of high artistic merit. They stand on granite pedestals, and are the work of Drake, Wolff, and Other
eminent sculptors. The Kurfurstenbrfieke is another bridge which merits notice, on account of the equestrian bronze statue of the Great Elector by which it is adorned.
The etymology of the word " Berlin" is doubtful Some derive it from Celtic roots—ber, small, short, and lyn, a lake. Others regard it as a Wend word, meaning a free, open place. Others, again, regard it as coming from tho word aerl, a river island. Professor Paul Cassel, in a recently published dissertation, derives it from the German word " Bruhl," a marshy district, and the Slavonic termination " in;" thus Bruhl, by the regular transmutation Biirhl (compare Germ, eren-nen and Eng. burn), Bttrhlin. The question is likely to remain in tho stage of more or less probable conjecture.
Similar obscurity rests on the origin of tho city. Tho hypotheses which carried it back to the early years of the Christian era have been wholly abandoned. Even the Margrave Albert the Bear (i 1170) is no longer unquestionably regarded as its founder, and the tendency of opinion now is to date its origin from the time of his great-grandsons, Otho and John. When first alluded to, what is now Berlin was spoken of as two towns, Coin and Berlin. The first authentic document concerning the former is from the year 1237, concerning the latter from the year 1244, and it is with these dates that the trustworthy history of the city begins. Fidicin, in his DiplomatitcAe Beilragt rur Gtschichte der Stadt Berlin, voL iii., divides the history of the town, from its origin to the times of the Reformation, into three periods. The first of these, down to the year 1307, is the period during which the two towns had a separate administration; the second, from 1307 to 1442, dates from the initiation of the joint administration of the two towns to its consummation. The third period extends from 1442 to 1539, when the two towns embraced the reformed faith.
In the year 1565 the town had already a population of 12,000. About ninety years later, after the close of the Thirty Tears' War, it hod Bunk to 6000. At the death of the Great Elector in 1688, it had risen to 20,000. The Elector Frederick UL, afterwords King Frederick L, sought to make it worthy of a royal "residence," to which rank it had been raised in 1701. From that time onwards Berlin grew steadily in extent, splendour, and population. Frederick the Great found it, at his accession in 1740, with 90,000 inhabitants. At the accession of Frederick William IT. in 1840 it had 331,894, and in the month of July 1874, thirty-four years later, the population had nearly trebled, the exact numbers in that year being 949,144. The two original townships of Coin and Berlin have grown into the sixteen townships into which the city is now divided, covering about 25 English square miles of land, and Berlin now takes its place as the fourth, perhaps the third, greatest city in Europe, surpassed only by London, Paris, and possibly Tienno. Its importance is now such that a hill, at present submitted by the Government to the consideration' of the Legislature, proposes to raise it to the rank of a province of the kingdom.
Progress and prosperity have, however, been chequered by reverses and humiliations. The 17th century saw the Imperialists and Swedes, under Wallenstein and under Gustavus Adolphus, as enemies, within its walls; the 18th century, the Austrians and Russians, during the Seven Tears' War; the 19th century, Napoleon L and the French; and the year 1848 witnessed the bloody scenes of the March Revolution. But the development of constitutional government, and the triumphs of 1866 and 1870, have wiped out the memory of these dark spots in the history of the Prussian capital.
The town has grown in splendour as it has increased in numbers. Daniel, in the fourth volume of his Handbook
III. - 75
of Otography, givee the number of its public building* as 700. Of these, its churches ore the structures which lay claim to the highest antiquity, four of them dating from the 13th and 14th centuries. But in respect of its churches, both in their number and their beauty, Berlin is, relatively speaking, probably the poorest of the capitals of Christendom. It has only 48 churches and chapels belonging to the State Church, 6 Roman Catholic churches and chapels, 8 foreign and free chapels, and 3 synagogues, to satisfy the religious wants of a million of people. Nor are these over-filled. Dr Schwabe, the statistician, fixes the number of actual worshippers in all the churches on an average Sunday at less than 2 per cent of the entire population. On the 1st of December 1871 the different creeds were
found to be represented in the following proportions :— 732,351 were Protestants of the State Church, 2570 Dissenters, 51,517 Roman Catholics, 36,015 Jews, 34 of nonChristian creeds, 3854 persons whose creed was uncertain.
In secular public buildings Berlin is very rich. Entering the city at the Potsdam Gate, traversing a few hundred yards of the Leipzigerstrasse, turning into the Wilhelastrasse, and following its course until it reaches the street, Unter den Linden, then beginning at the Brandenburg Gate and going along the Unter den Linden until its termination, there will be seen within the limits of half an hours walk the following among other buildings, many of them of great architectural merit:—The Admiralty, the-Upper House of the Prussian TefrUlaturc, the Imperial Pariia
A, halta Brflok* (Cutto Bridge)
B, Lass* or Kmflntea Brucke.
C, Monument to Frederick the Greet, n Konnment to Frederick
mont, the War Office, the residence of the Minister of Commerce, the palaces of Prince Carl and the Princes Pleas and Radriwill, the Foreign Office, the Imperial Chancery, the palaces of the Ministers of the Royal House and of Justice, the palaces of the Princes Alexander and George, the Brandenburg Gate, the Royal School of Artillery and Engineering, the residences and offices of the Ministers of the Interior and of Worship, the Russian Embassy, the Great Arcade, the Netherland Palace and the palace of the Emperor, the Royal Academy, the University, the Royal Library, the Opera, the Arsenal, the palace of the Crown Prince, the palace of the Commandant of Berlin, the Castle Bridge, the Academy of Architecture, the Castle, the Cathedral, the Old and Now Museums, and the National
Gallery. At a short distance from this line are the Exchange, the Rathhaus, the Mint, the Bank, and the Royal Theatre. Further away are the various barracks, the palace of the general staff, and the eight railway termini. Berlin differs from other great capitals in this respect, that with the exception of the castle,—a large building enclosing two courts, and containing more than 600 rooms, and which dates back in its origin to the 16th century,—all its public buildings are comparatively modern, dating in their present form from the 18th and 19th centuries. The public buildings and monuments which render it famous, such as the palaces, museums, theatre, exchange, bank, rathhaus, the Jewish synagogue, the monuments and columns of victory, date almost without i
than 1814, the close of the great conflict with Napoleon L The Exchange, finished in 1863, at a cost of £180,000 sterling; the Synagogue, a proud building in Oriental style, finished in 1866, at a cost of £107,000; and the JEUthhaus, finished in 1869, at a cost of £500,000 sterling, including the land on which it stands, are the most recent of its great buildings. The New National Gallery is nearly completed, and the Imperial Bank is being rebuilt. It is probable that no city in the world can show so large a number of fine structures so closely clustered together.
Up to a very recent date Berlin was a walled city. Those of its nineteen gates which still remain have only an historical or architectural interest The principal of these is the Brandenburg date, an imitation of the Propyhea at Athens. It is 201 feet broad and nearly 65 feet high. It is supported by twelve Doris columns, each 44 feet in height, and surmounted by a car of victory, which, taken by Napoleon to Paris in 1807, was brought back by the Prussians in 1814. It has recently been enlarged by two lateral colonnades, each supported by 16 columns.
The streets, about 520 in number, are, with the exception of the districts in the most ancient part of the city, long, strait, and wide, lined with high houses, for the old typical Berlin house, with its ground floor and first floor, is rapidly disappearing. The Outer den Linden is 3287 feet long by 160 broad. The new boulevard, theKoniggratzerstrasse, is longer still, though not so wide. The Friedrichstrasse and the Oranienstrasse exceed 2 English miles in length. The city has about 60 squares. It has 25 theatres and 14 large halls for regular entertainments. It has an aquarium, zoological garden, and a floral institution, with park, flower, and palm houses. It has several hospitals, of which the largest is the Charity with accommodation for 1500 patients. The Bethany, Elizabeth, and Lazarus hospitals are attached to establishments of Protestant deaconesses. The St Hedwig's hospital is under the care of Roman Catholic sisters. The Augusta hospital, under the immediate patronage and control of the empress, Is in the hands of lady nurses, who nurse the sick without assuming the garb and character of a religious sisterhood. The people's parks are the Humboldt's Hain, the Friedrich's Hain, the Hasenheide, and, above all, the Thiergarten, a wood covering 820 Prussian acres of ground, and reaching up to the Brandenburg Gate.
As has been seen, the population has trebled itself within the last 34 years, naturally not so much by the excess of births over deaths, as by an unbroken current of immigration. In 1873 the births were 35,954, the deaths 26,427, leaving an excess of 8527 births. But the increase in the population of the city in the same year was 60,184, leaving 41,657 as the increase through the influx from without. It will thus be seen at a glance that only a minority of the population are native Berliner*. In the census of 1867 it was found that, taking the population above 20 years of age, only one-third were natives of th'e city. The immigration is almost exclusively from the Prussian provinces, and among these principally from Brandenburg and from the eastern and north-eastern provinces. In 1871 it was tound that out of every 10,000 inhabitants, 9725 were Prussian subjects, 165 were from other German states, 55 from foreign lands, and 47 were of a nationality not ascertained. The foreign element almost vanishes, and the German element is represented principally by the north, so that in blood and manners Berlin remains essentially a northeastern German city, ».«., a city in which German, Wend, and Polish blood flows commingled in the veins of the citizens. In past times Berlin received a strong infusion of foreign blood, the influence of which is perceptible to the present day in its intellectual and social life. Such names as Savigny, Lancitolle, De la Croix, De le Coq, Du
Bois-Reymond, tell of the French refugees who found a home here in the cold north when expelled from their own land. Daniel, in his Geography, vol. iv. p. 155, says that there was a time when every tenth man in the city was a Frenchman Flemish and Bohemian elements, to say nothing of the banished Salzburgers, were introduced in a similar manner. Add to these the 36,013 Jews now resident in the city, and the picture of the commingled races which make up its population is pretty complete.
The 826,341 inhabitants of the city were found at the census of 1871 to be living in 14,478 dwelling-houses, and to consist of 178,159 households. These numbers show that the luxury of a single house for a single family is rare, and this holds good also of the wealthier classes of the people. These numbers fall far short of the present (1875) number of houses and of households, as will be seen from the fact that the value of the household property of the city in 1874 exceeded that of 1871 by £18,000,000 sterling, of which the greatest part falls to newly-built houses or houses enlarged. In 1871 the average number of persons comprised in a household was found to be 4*6, the number of households dwelling in a house 12'3, and the number of persons dwelling in a house 57'1. These numbers throw light on the moral and social life of the city, and compared with the past, show the change in the domestic habits of the people. In 1540 the average number of inmates in a house was 6, in 1740 it was 17, in 1867 it had risen to 32, and in 1871 to 67. Between the years 1864 and 1871 the one-storied houses of the city decreased 8 per cent, the two and three-storied houses 44 per cent, while the number of four-storied houses increased 11 per cent, and the five-storied and higher houses 50 per cent With the increase of high houses, the underground cellar dwellings, which form so striking a feature in the house architecture of the city, increase in a like proportion, and these and the attics are the dwellings of the poor. In 1867 there were 14,292 such cellar dwellings, in 1871 they had increased to 19,208. Taking the average of 1867— 4 inmates to a cellar dwelling—we get 76,832 persons living under ground. In 1871 there were 4565 dwellings which contained no room which could be heated. This class of dwelling Lad doubled between the two census years of 1867 and 1871. Taking 3 inmates (the ascertained average of 1867) to such a dwelling, we have 13,695 persons who pass the winter in unheated dwellings, in a climate where the cold not unfrequently sinks below the zero of Fahrenheit Of the remaining dwellings of the city, 95,423 had only one room which could be heated. This number, at 4 persons to a dwelling, give us an insight into the domestic life of 381,692 of the inhabitants of the city; that is, with the 13,695 persons mentioned above, of nearly half the population. Such dwellings engender no feeling of home, and the habits of the people are in a certain sense nomadic In 1872, 74,568 changes of dwelling took place, involving an expense at a very moderate calculation of £158,900. In the poorer townships there were 70 removals to every 100 dwellings I
The rite of mortality is high. In 1873, a favourable year, it was 28 to every 1000 of the population. Taking the deaths as a whole, 58 per cent were of children under 10 years of age. The rate of mortality is on the increase. Professor 'Vlrthow. in a report to the municipal authorities, Btated that, dividing the last 15 years into periods of 5 years each, the general mortality in each of the thiee-periods was as 5, 7, 9. The mortality of children under 1 year in the same three periods was as 5, 7,11; that is, it had more than doubled. In the year 1872t out of 27,800 deaths, 11,136 were of children under 1 year.
The city is well supplied with water by works constructed by an English company, which have now become