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the removal of the wharves from time to time nearor to the by priests and people, although it had been first unequivo BCA The chief articles of export are wheat, barley, linseed, cally taught and reduced to a regular theory by Paschasius rapeseed, rye, and oats; and the imports include hardwares, Radbert only in 831) to an independent examination, and fruits, oil, and petroleum, the last-named being used for the had come to the conclusion that it was contrary to reason, lighting of the town. Large deposits of coal exist in the unwarranted by Scripture, and inconsistent with the teachbasin of the Azoff, and Berdiansk would afford the greatest ing of men like Ambrose. Jerome, and Augustine. Ho facilities for its exportation. In the immediate neighbour- did not conceal this conviction from his scholars and hood are valuable salt-lagoons. Population in 1867, friends, and through them the report spread widely that 12,323.
he denied the common doctrine respecting the Eucharist. BERDICHEFF, a town of Russian-Poland, in the gov- His early friend and school companion, Adelmann. archernment of Kieff, 24 miles from Jitomir, on the Gnilopyat, deacon of Liége, wrote to him letters of expostulation on and not far from the borders of Volhynia, to which it the subject of this report in 1046 and 1048; and a bishop, historically belongs. It consists of about a dozen main Hugo of Langres, wrote (about 1049) a refutation of the streets and a large number of cross lanes, by far the largest views which he had himself heard Berengar express in proportion of the houses being built of wood or brick. conversation. Berengar's belief was not shaken by their Besides the cathedral of the Assumption, finished in 1832. arguments and exhortations, and hearing that Lanfranc, there are three or four other Greek churches, several syna the most celebrated theologian of that age, strongly gogues, and places of worship for Roman Catholics and approved the doctrine of Paschasius and condemned that others, besides a Carmelite convent. The market, the ex of Ratramnus. he wrote to him a letter expressing his change, the theatre, the Jewish almshouse, and the Elizabeth surprise, and urging him to reconsider the question. The hospital, are among the most important secular buildings. letter arriving at Bec when Lanfranc was absent at Rome, A large number of schools are maintained An extensive was sent after him, but was opened before it reached him, trade is carried on, both with the surrounding country and and brought under the notice of Pope Leo IX. Because with Germany, in poltry, silk goods, iron and wooden wares, of it Berengar was condemned as a heretic, without being Balt-fish, grain, cattle, and horses. Five great markets are heard, by a synod at Rome and another at Vercelli, both held yearly, the most important being on 12th June and held in 1050. His enemies in France cast him into prison; 15th August Among numerous minor industries may be but the bishop of Angers and other powerful friends, of mentioned the manufacture of tobacco, soap, candles, oil, whom he had a considerable number, had sufficient influbricks, and leather. The population amounted in 1867 | ance to procure his release. At the Council of Tours to 52,563, the Jews forming about 50,000 of the whole (1054) he found a protector in the Papal legate, the number.
famous Hildebrand, who, satisfied himself with the fact Berdichcff is a place of some antiquity. In the treaty of demar.
that Berengar did not deny the real presence of Christ in cation between the Lithuanians and the Poles in 1546, it is assigned
the sacramental elemente, succeedod in persuading the to the former. In the 16th century the Kievan waiwole, Yanat assembly to be content with a general confession from him Teeshkevitch, built a castle in the village ; and in 1627 he founded a that the bread and wine, after consecration, were the body monastery for Carmelite monks, to which he shortly afterwards
and blood of the Lord, without requiring him to define presented the castle. The monks built themselves & crypt, and, as Berdicheff was subject to the incursions of Cossacks and Tatars,
how. Trusting in Hildebrand's support, and in the justico surrounded their monastery with rain part and ditch. In 1647,
of his own cause, he presented himself at the Synod of however, it was taken and plundered by Chmelnetzki, and the Rome in 1059, but found himself surrounded by fierce monks who had escaped did not return till 1663, and only obtained
and superstitious zealots, who forced him by the fear of possession of their former property in 1717. In 1766 Stanislas Augustus, at the request of Prince Radzevil, allowed the city to hold
death to signify his acceptance of the doctrino “that the ten yearly markets, and from that date its commercial prosperity
bread and wine. after consecration, are not merely & sacrahegan. In 1768 Casimir Pulavski, leader of the confederacy of ment, but the true body and the true blood of Christ, and Bart, fled, after the capture of that city, to Berdicheff, and there, that this to dy is touched and broken by the bands of the with 700 men, maintained himself during a siege of 25 days. During the Polish domination, Berdicheff was in the Vratislau
priests, and ground by the teeth of the faithful, not merely waiwodeship; after its annexation to Russia it was
in a sacramental but iu a real manner." He had no sooner Jitomir and Volhynia ; and in 1845 it was raised to be capital of a done so than he bitterly repented his weakness; and actcircle. In the beginning of the 18th century it had passed from ing, as he himself says, on the principle that “to tako an the Teeshkevitch to the Zavpsh family, and from them was
oath which never ought to have been taken is to estrange transferred by a marriage settlement to the Radzevila.
one's self from God, but to retract what one has wrongBERENGARIUS, & celebrated mediæval theologian, fully sworn to, is to return back to God," when he got safo was born at Tours, 998 AD. He was educated in the again into France he attacked the transubstantiation theory famous school of Fulbert of Chartres, and early acquired a more vehemently than ever. He continuod for about great reputation for learning, ability, and piety. Appointed sixteen years to disseminate his views by writing and io 1031 superintendent of the cathedral school of his teaching, without being directly interfered with by either native city, he taught with such success as to attract pupils his civil or ecclesiastical saperiors, greatly to the scandal from all parts of France, and powerfully contributed to of the multitude and of the zealots, in whose eyes Berengar diffuse an interest in the study of logic and metaphysics, was “ille apostolas Satanæ," and the academy of Tours and to introduce that dialectio development of theology | the “ Babylon nostri temporis." An attempt was made at which is designated the scholastic. The earliest of his the Council of Puitiers in 1075 to allay the agitation writings of which we have any record is an Exhortatory caused by the controversy, but it failed, and Berengar Discourse to the hermits of his district, written at their narrowly escaped death in a tumult raised by fanatics. own request and for their spiritual edification. It shows a Hildebrand, now Gregory VII, next summoned hiin to clear discernment of the dangers of the ascetic life, and a Rome, and, in a synod held there in 1078, tried once moro deep insight into the significance of the Augistinian to obtain a declaration of his orthodoxy by means of a condoctrine of grace About 1040 Berengar was made arch-fession of faith drawn up in general terms ; but even this deacon of Angers. It was shortly after this that rumours strong-minded and strong-willed Pontiff, although sincerely began to spread of his holding heretical views regarding anxious to befriend the persecuted theologian, and fully tho sacrament of the supper. He had submitted the doc- alive to the monstrous character of the dogma of tradaubtino of transubstantiation (already generally received both stantiation as propounded by Pope Nicholas IL and
IIL - 74
U8818 it was assigned to
Cardinal Humbert at tho synod hold in 1059, was at of Christ. 4. He dwelt strongly on the importance of men length forced to yield to the demands of tho multitude and looking away from the externals of the sacrament to the its leaders; and in another synod at Rome (1079), finding spirit of love and piety which they presuppose, and the that he was only endangering his own position and reputa- divine power and grace, through the operation of which tion, he turned unexpectedly upon Berengar and com alone they can become channels of religious life. Tho manded him to confess that he had erred in not teaching transubstantiation doctrine seemed to him full of evil, a change as to substantial reality of the sacramental bread | from its tendency to lead men to overvalue what was And wine into the body and blood of Christ. “Then," sensuous and transitory in the sacrament, and to neglect says Berengar, “confounded by the sudden madness of tho what was spiritual and eternal 6. He rejected with inPope, and because God in punishment for my sins did not dignation the miraculous stories told to confirm the doctrine give me a steadfast heart, I threw myself on the ground, of transubstantiation. He saw in these legends unworthy and confessed with impious voice that I had orred, fearing inventions originated to awe and influence ignorant and the Pope would instantly pronounce against me the sentence | superstitious minds. On this account ho was falsely of condemnation, and, as a necessary consequence, that the accused of denying miracles altogether. 6. Reason and populace would hurry me to the worst of deaths." He was Scripture seemed to him the only grounds on which a truc kindly dismissed by the Pope not long after, with a letter doctrine of the Lord's supper could be rested. He had a recommending him to the protection of the bishops of confidence in reason very rare in the 11th century, but was Tours and Angers, and another pronouncing anathema on no rationalist. He attached little importance to mere all who should do him any injury or call him a heretic. ecclesiastical tradition or authority, and none to the voice He returned home overwhelmed with shame and bowed of majorities, even when sanctioned by the decree of a down with sorrow for having a second time been guilty of Pope. In this, as in other respects, he was a precursor of a great impiety. He immediately recalled his forced con- Protestantism. fession, and besought all Christian men " to pray for him,
The opinions of Borengar are to be ascertained from the works so that his tears might secure the pity of the Almighty." I written in refutation of them by Adelmann, Lanfranc, Guilinund, He now saw, however, that the spirit of the age was &c.; from the fragments of the De sacr. cæna adt. Lanfr. liber, against him, and hopelessly given over to the belief of edited by Staudlin (1820-29); and from the Liber posterior, edited what he had combated as a delusion. He withdrew,
by A. F. and F. T. Wischer (1834). See also the Berengarius Turon.
ensis of Lessing (1770), and especially of Sudendorf (1850); the therefore, into solitude and passed the rest of his life in Church Pitstories of Gieseler, ii. 396–411 (Eng. transl.), and Near. retirement and prayer on the island of St Côme near Tours. der, vi. 221-260 (Eng. transl.); Prantl's Geschichte der Logik, ii. He died there in 1088. In Tours his memory was held 70-75, and Hauréau's Histoire de la Philosophie Scolastique, i. 226– ia great respect, and a yearly festival at his tomb long
(R. F.) commemorated his saintly virtuos.
BERENICE, an ancient city on the western shore of Berengar left behind him a considerable number of the Red Sea, in 23° 56' N. lat, and 35° 34' E long., Dear followers. All those who in the Middle Ages denied the the head of the Sinus Immundus or Foul Bay. It was substantial presence of the body and blood of Christ in the founded or enlarged by Ptoleny II., and grew into great Eucharist were commonly designated Berengarians. These importance as an entrepôt for the trade between Asia and so-called Berengarians differed, of course, in many respects Africa. Ils harbour was sheltered on the north-east by an from one another, even in regard to the nature of the island that had topaz deposits, and in the neighbourhood supper Berengar's own views on the subject may be were emerald mines. The ruins of a temple in the thus summed up:-1. That bread and wine should become Egyptian style, but with Greek ornaments, are among the flesh and blood and yet not lose the properties of bread most important discovered on the site. and wine was, he held, contradictory to reason, and there BERENICE, the name of several Egyptian and Jewish fore irreconcilable with the truthfulness of God. A change princesses. The two most generally known arewhich would leave behind the properties or predicates of '. BERENICE, the daughter of Magus, king of Cyrene, and bread and wine, yot take away their substances, the subjects the wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, of Egypt. During her husof these predicates, seemed to him inherently incredible. band's absence on an expedition to Syria, she dedicated her In working out the proof of this position he showed very hair to Venus for his safe return, and placed it in the temple considerable dialectical skill. At the same time he em of the goddess at Zephyrium. The hair having by some ployed so many arguments, based on what is called unknown means disappeared, Conon, the mathematician, nominalism, that his theory of the Eucharist has been explained the phenomenon in courtly phrase, saying that it described by M. de Remusat as “ nominalism limited to a had been carried to the heavens and placed among the single question.” 2. He admitted a change (conversio) of stars. The name Coma Berenices, applied to a constellation, the bread and wine into the body of Christ, in the sense commemorates this incident. Only a few lines remain of that to those who receive them they are transformed by the poem in which Callimachus celebrated the transforma grace into higher powers and influences-into the true, the tion, but there is a fine translation of it by Catullas. intellectual, or spiritual body of Christ--so as to sustain 2. BERENICE, daughter of Agrippa L, king of Judah, and impart the life eternal. Christ does not descend from and born probably about 28 A.D. She was first married heaven to be portioned out by the hands of priests and to her uncle, Herod, after whose death she lived for some received into the mouths of communicants, but the hearts years with her brother Agrippa, not without scandal Her of true believers ascend to Christ in heaven, receive into second husband was Polemo, king of Cilicia, but she soca themselves his true and imperishable body, and partake deserted him, and returned again to Agrippa, with whom thereof in a spiritual manner. The unbelieving receive the she was living when Paul appeared before him at Cæsarea external sign or sacramentum ; but the believing receive in During the devastation of Judæa by the Romans, she fas Addition, truly although invisibly, the reality represented cinated Titus, whom she accompanied to Rome, and who by the sign, the res sacramenti. Berengar draws his would willingly have married her had it not been for the reasons for this view from Scripture. In confirmation of hatred cherished by the people against the Jewish race. its correctness he adduces the testimonies of the earlier BEREZINA, a river of Russia, in the government of church teachers. 3. He rejected the notion that the sacra- Minsk, forming a tributary of the Dnieper. It rises in ment of the altar was a constantly renewed sacrifice, and the marshes of Boresoff, and has, a course of more than held it to be merely a commemoration of the one sacrifice 1 330 miles, for the most part through low-lying but well
wooded country. Its width increases from 40 or 60 feet | W. of Lake Iseo there are numerous mineral wells, the near Bobruisk to 100 feet at the mouth of the Svesloch, most important of which are those of Trescoro. Marble is one of its western tributaries. As a navigable river, and abundant in the mountains, and there are valuable iron forming & portion of the great canal system which unites mines. At an early period the wealth of the capital appears the Black Sea with the Baltic, it is of great importance for to have been increased by the working of copper mines in the commerce of the country, but unfortunately it is sub the district. (See Finazzi, Sulle antiche miniere di Berject to severe floods. The principal ports along its course gamo, Milan, 1860.) The vine and flax are largely grown, aro Boresoff, Berezino, Yakshetzee, Bobruisk, and Parichi. and the culture of the silk-worm is extensively carried on. In history the river has been rendered famous by the cross The people speak a rough dialect, and are liable to bo ing of the army of Napoleon in 1812. See Stucken- laughed at by the other Italians. The two stock characters berg's Hydrographie, iii., and Canäle; Güldenstadt's of popular Italian comedy, Harlequin or Truffaldino and Reise
the sly Brighella, were both at one time represented as BEREZOFF, a town of Asiatic Russia, capital of a circle natives of the Bergamo district. in Tobolsk, 700 miles N. of that city, situated on three BERGAMO, the capital of the above province, is situated hills on the left bank of the Sosna, 13 miles above its mouth, between the Brembo and Serio, two tributaries of the Adda, and on the Bogul, a tributary of the Sosna, in 63° 55' N. lat. | 39 miles N.E. of Milan, on the railway that runs from and 64° 7' E. long., at a height of 297 feet above the Venice to the Lake of Como. It consists of a new and sea-level Berezoff was founded in 1593 for the collection an old town, the latter known as the Città, or city, being of taxes near the Ostyak settlement of Samg@t-Bozh, which built on a hill, while the former, or Borgo S. Leonardo, means in Russian Berezovi-Gorod, or Birch-town. Berezoff occupies the level ground below. On the eastern side there was more than once exposed to destructive conflagrations, are also two important suburbs, S. Caterina and Palazzo. is, for example, in 1719. In the second quarter of the Bergamo is the seat of a bishop and a prefect, and pos18th century Berezoff was appointed a place of banishment sesses a school of art known as the Accademia Carrara, for certain important royal families. In 1727 Prince Men a museum, a lyceum, & library contained in the Palazzo schikoff was sent thither with his sons and two daughters, | Vecchio or Broletto, & musical institute, two theatres, and of whom the eldest, Mary, was the first bride of Peter II.; various scientific societies. There are also a lunatic asylum, and in 1730 he was followed by Prince Ivan Dolgoruki, a hospital, and other charitable institutions. Among its with his wife, father, mother, three brothers and three numerous churches may be mentioned S. Maria Maggiore, sisters, of whom Catherine was the second bride of Peter which dates from 1173, and the neighbouring Colleoni IL In 1742 General Osterman was sent to Berezoff with chapel, the old Arian church of San Alessandro della Croce, his wife, and died there in 1747. In 1782 the town was S. Bartolommeo, and S. Grata. The principal objects of raised to the rank of chief town of a district of the Tobolsk | industry in the city are silk, cotton, and woollen. goods, government In 1808 it was again burned down. In iron-wares, waxcloth and wax candles, and playing carda, 1860 it had two stone churches, a cathedral called the A large fair, called the Fiera di S. Alessandro, is annually Resurrection of the Lord, near which lie buried Mary held in the new town. It dates from the 10th century, Monschikoff and some of the Dolgorukis, and the church of and is of great importance, especially for the silk trade. Our Lady's Conception, built on the site of the Menschikoff Bergamo, or Bergomum, was a municipal town during the building. There are in the town a departmental school, a Roman empire, and, after being destroyed by Attila, lazaretto, and a stranger's hospital. The trade, which is became one of the most flourishing cities of the Lombard of considerable importance, consists of furs, mammoth kings, who made it the capital of a duchy. In the 15th bones, dried and salted fish, &c. There is a yearly market, century it was appropriated and fortified by the Venetians. in which the transactions amount to £9000. Population In 1509 it' was occupied by Louis XII. of France, who in 1860, 1462.
retained it for seven years, and then restored it to Venice. BERG (Ducatus Montensis), a former duchy of Germany, In 1796 the French again made themselves masters of the on the right bank of the Rhine, bounded on the N. by the city, and constituted it the capital of their department of duchy of Cleves, E by the countship of Mark and duchy of Serio. Bergamo was the birthplace of Tiraboschi, Rubini, Westphalia, and on the S. and W. by the bishopric of and Donizetti. Population, 37,363. Cologne. Its area was about 1188 square miles. The district BERGAMOT, OLL OF, an essential oil obtained from the was raised in 1108 to the rank of a countship, but did not rind of the fruit of a species of Citrus, regarded by Risso become a duchy till the 14th century, after it had passed as C. bergamia, but not generally believed to constitute a into the possession of the Jülich family. On the extinc- distinct species. The bergamot is a small treo with leaves tion of this house in 1609, Austria laid claim to the duchy and flowers like the bitter orange, and a round fruit nearly as an imperial fief; but, in keeping with the wishes of the 3 inches in diameter, with a thin lemon-yellow smooth rind. inhabitants, it was administered conjointly by the electors The tree is cultivated in the neighbourhood of Reggio, in of-Saxony and Brandenburg and the Elector Palatine till Calabria, whence the entire supply of bergamot oil is drawn. 1624, when by the Düsseldorf treaty the last of the three The oil is contained in small vesicles in the rind, from which obtained the sole authority. In 1806 it was bestowed by it can be expressed by simple pressure in the hand. An Napoleon, along with the duchy of Cleves and other pos- old method of obtaining the oil, now almost superseded, is sessions, on Murat, who bore the title of grand duke of by skitining the fruit, and pressing the outside of the rind Berg; and after Murat's elevation to the throne of Naples, it against a sponge. The rind being turned over so that tho was transferred to Louis, the son of the king of Holland. outside becomes concave, the vesicles are easily ruptured by By the Congress of Vienna in 1815 it was made over to hand pressure against the sponge, which absorbs the oil Prussia, and now forms a flourishing part of her territory. is it escapes. The oil is now obtained by placing several
BERGAMA, a town of Asia Minor, with 2500 in- fruits in a saucer-shaped apparatus, the surface of which habitants. See PERGAMUS.
is cut into radiating sharp-edged grooves. Against the BERGAMO, a northern province of Italy, bounded on sharp edges of this dish the fruits are rapidly revolved by the N. by Sondrio, E. by Tyrol and Brescia, S. by Cre- | means of a heavy cover placed above it, which is moved by mona, end W. by Milan and Como. The northern a cog wheel. The oil vessels aro ruptured by pressure portion is mountainous and well wooded, while the southern against the knife edges, and the oil which exudes falls belongs to the alluvial plain of Lombardy. To the N. and through small perforatiors in the bottom into a vessel placed underncath. It is allowed to rest till a greasy sub- | Motley's United Netherlands, chap. 1.), and in 1606 it was suck stance-bergamot camphor-deposits. after which it is | denly attacked by Du Terail (Rid. chap. xliv.) In 1629 it defied bottled for use. Bergamot oil is a limpid greenish-yellow
the utmost attempts of Spinola, who was forced to abandon the
enterprise after a siego of ten weeks and the loss of 1200 men. Its fluid of a specific gravity of 0.869, of a powerful but plea fortifications were greatly strengthened in 1688 by Cooehoorn, who, sant citrine odour and an aromatic bitterish taste. It con it was believed, had almost rendered it impregnable ; and in 1795 sists of a mixture of two essential oils, the most volatilo
they were further extended. In 1747, however, the town was taken
by the French general Lowendal. Restored at the end of the war, of which is a pure hydrocarbon isomeric with oil of turpen
it was again in 1795 taken by Pichegru. The English, under Sir tine; the other, containing oxygen, being regarded as a Thomas Graham, afterwards Lord Lynedoch, in March 1814 made hydrato of lemon oil. The chief use of bergamot oil is in an attempt to tako it by a coup de main, but were driven back with perfumery and as a flavouring material in cookery.
great loss by the French, who, however, surrendered the place by BERGEN, a city and seaport on the west coast of Nor
the treaty of peace in the following May. way, capital of the province of South Bergen, in 5° 29'E. long. BERGERAC, the chief town of an arrondisseraent in and 60° 23' N. lat. It is situated on a rocky promontory the department of Dordogne, in France, situated in a ferat the head of a deep bay called the Vaag, has a fine harbour tile plain, 30 miles S.S.W. of Périgueux, on both banks of with two good entrances, and is surrounded by hills, some the Dordogne, which is here crossed by a fine bridge of of which attain the height of 2000 feet. Towards the sea five'arches and rendered navigable by a large dam. The it is defended by the ancient fortress of Bergenhuus, the town is rather poorly built, and, in spite of its age, CODcitadels of Fredericksberg and Sverresberg, and some lesser tains no monuments of antiquarian interest. It is, howworks. The appearance of the town, which rises in the ever, a place of great industrial activity, has a communal form of an amphitheatre and is generally well built, is college, tribunals of primary jurisdiction and commerce, decidedly picturesque, with its wooden houses painted of and a public library; and manufactures paper, iron and various colours. It contains & cathedral, several churches, copper wares, hats, hosiery, and leather. The wines of the of which the oldest, St Mary's, dates from the 12th cen- neighbourhood are in good repute, and form an important tury, hospitals, a lazaretto, a national museum, a diocesan article in the trade of the town, which is principally carcollege, a naval academy, a school of design, public libried on with Bordeaux and Libourne. Bergerac owes its raries, various charitable institutions, and a theatre. It is origin to the abbey of St Martin, which was founded in the seat of a bishopric, and possesses a tribunal of secondary 1080, and during the English invasious it played an injurisdiction and one of the three public treasuries of Nor- portant part as a fortress. In the 16th century it was a way. Bergen has a considerable export trade, which con- very flourishing and populous place, but most of its inhabisists of stockfish, lobsters, fish-roes, herrings, whale oil, tants having embraced Calvinism it suffered greatly during horns, skins, rock moss, and timber, and is chiefly carried the religious wars. Its fortifications and citadel were de on with the northern countries of Europe. In 1867 the molished by Louis XIII. in 1621, and it was injuriously number of steamships that entered the port was 164, with affected by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Paper A tonnage of 28,454. The imports of that year amounted lation in 1872, 8679. to £92,600, and the exports to £344,000. Bergen was BERGMANN, TORBERN OLOF, Swedish chemist and founded in the 11th century by Olaf the Peaceful, king of naturalist, was born at Catherinberg, West Gothland, in Norway. In 1445 the Hanseatic League established a 1735. At the age of seventeen he entered the University factory in the city, and continued to have almost the sole of Upsala, and distinguished bimself by extraordinary assicontrol of the trade till 1558, when it was expelled by duity in study, directing his attention more particularly to the Norwegians, who found its presence oppressive. There the natural sciences. During a residence at home rendered js still a kind of German colony in the place, which keeps necessary by his weak health, he employed himself in col up the Hanseatic tradition, and the old German chnrch, lecting specimens of insects and plants, which he forwarded hospital, and "factory” or contor are still extant, tbe to Linnæus, who'was much pleased with them. In 1756 lattor furnishing excellent warehouse accommodation. A | he gained great reputation by his memoir on the Cooow large part of the town was burnt down in 1855, and has aquaticus, which, contrary to the opinion of Linnæus, he since been rebuilt in a more regular and open manner. It proved to be nothing but the ovum of a certain species of is the second largest town in Norway. Population (1870), leech. Some years later he was made professor of physica 30,282.
at Opsala, and published numerous scientific memoirs In BERGEN-OP-ZOOM, a town of Holland, in the pro | 1767 the chair of chemistry and mineralogy baving become vince of North Brabant, situated on both sides of the River vacant through the resignation of Wallerius, Bergmann Zoom, near its confluence with the East Scheldt, in 51° resolved to become a candidate. He had not hitherto de 29' N. lat and 4° 17' E. long. It is about 15 miles N. voted special attention to chemistry, but in a very short of Antworp, and 22 W.8.W. of Breda. The houses are welt period by incredible application he produced as evidence built, the market places and squares handsome and spacious. et his fitness for the post a paper on the composition of It possesses a port and an arsenal, and contains a town- | alum, which is still regarded as a masterpiece. He was house, a Latin school, and an academy of design and archi- appointed to the chair, which he held till his death in 1784. tecture. The tower of the old castle is remarkable for an In 1776 he had declined an offer from the king of Prussia increase of its breadth from the bottom upwards, and for its inviting him to settle in Berlin, Bergmann was an upliability to be rocked when struck by a strong wind. There usually acute and sagacious analytical chemist, and made aro numerous tile-works and potteries of fino ware ; and a extensive and constant use of the laboratory. He described considerable trade'is carried on in anchovies caught in the very carefully the properties of carbonic acid gas, and gsro Scheldt.
a valuable analysis of mineral waters. His researches in BERKELEY, a market-town in the county of Gloucester, | against traditional scholasticism in physics and in motanear the River Sovern, on the Midland Railway. It is physics." pleasantly situated on a gentle eminence, in a rich pastoral Although more competent than any man of his time to vale to which it gives name, and which is celebrated for its appreciate these new movements of thought, Berkeley did dairies, producing the famous cheese known as “ double not neglect the routine work of the university. He had a Gloucester.” The town has a handsome church, a grammar distinguished career, was made scholar in 1702, took his school, a town-hall, a market-house, and some trade in coal, B.A. degree in 1704, and obtained a fellowship in 1707. timber, malt, and cheese. Berkeley was the birthplace of That his interest, however, was mainly directed towards the celebrated Dr Jenner, whose remains are interred in the subjects purely philosophical, is evidenced partly by the church Berkeley castle, on an eminence S.E. of the share he took in setting afloat a speculative society in which town, was built in the reign of Henry L out of the ruins the problems suggested by Descartes and Locke seem to of a nunnery which had been in existence some time before have been discussed with infinite vigour, but, above all, by the Conquest. It suffered considerably during the civil bis Common Place Book, containing his thoughts on physics wars of the 17th century, but is still one of the noblest and philosophy from about the year 1703. This curious baronial castles existing in England. It is noted as the document, one of the most valuable autobiographical scene of the barbarous murder of Edward II. Since the records in existence, throws a flood of light on the growth time of Henry II. it has been in the hands of the Berkeley of Berkeley's own conceptions, and enables us to understand, family. Population of the parish in 1871, 4607,-about a far more clearly than we otherwise could, the significance fourth of the number being in the town.
mineralogy, to which he applied his geometrical knowledge, In the 13th century Rargen-op-Zoom became the seat of Count Gerhard of Wesemael, who surrounded it with walls. In 1633 it
were even more important, and led the way to Haus's was erected by Charles V. of Germany into a marquisate, which was
discovery and classification. The theory of elective or Buccessively held by the families of Berghes, Nerode, Witthem, chemical affinities, which he worked out very fully, has had s'Heeren borgh, Hohenzollern, Tour d'Auvergne, and Sulzbach, and
great influence in the history of chemistry. A collection thus passed to the house of Bavaria, which, however, in 1801 abdi.
of Bergmann's papers was published from 1779 to 1783, cated ita rights in favour of the Dutch republic. In 1676 the town joinod the United Netborlands, and was shortly afterwards fortified. Opuscula Physica et Chemica, 6 vols. They have been In 1688 it was unsuccrgsfully besieged by tho duke of Parma (H0e translated into French, German, and Englisb.
of his first published works. In the Common Place Book, BERKELEY, GEORGE, bishop of Cloyne, one of the if in any writing, is to be found the keen consciousness of most subtle and original Englieh metaphysicians, was born possessing a fresh, creative thought, the application of which on the 12th March 1685, at Dysert castle, on the banks of will change the whole aspect of speculative science. The the Nore, about two miles below Thomastown, Ireland. very first sentences refer to some new principle, and the Not much is known of his family, who seem to have been whole book thereafter is occupied turning over and over connected with the noble English house of the same name again the new conception, showing the different aspects it His father, William Berkeley, was an officer of customs, assumes, and the various applications it has, bringing it and appears to have had at one time the rank of captain in face to face with possible objections, and critically conthe army. We know next to nothing of the mental sidering the relation in which it stands to the fundamental character of either him or his wife. George, their eldest thoughts of his great predecessors, Descartes, Malebranche, 800, was entered in 1696 at the famous Kilkenny school, and Locke. So far as reading goes, the Common Place of which he was not the only pupil afterwards distinguished. Book shows but a slight acquaintance with ancient or He was remarkably well advanced in studies for his years, scholastic philosophies; it is evident that the author does and in 1700 was qualified to matriculate at Trinity College, | not appreciate Spinoza; he does not refer to Leibnitz ; Dublin. There, for the first time, we begin to have a fair Malebranche is frequently mentioned, but hardly in such a knowledge of the circumstances in which he was placed, way as to manifest sympathetic understanding of him ; and of the peculiar mental qualities with which he was Norris, the English follower of Malebranche, seems to be endowed. From his own account, and from the few unnoticed; More and the Mystics, when referred to, are notices of contemporaries, we can gather that his was a quoted on isolated points, and to their system the young mind of peculiar subtilty, keen to probe to the very founda- philosopher evidently felt no attraction. Descartes and tion any fact presented to it, and resolutely determined to Locko, above all the latter, are his real masters in specularest satisfied with no doctrine which had only the evidence tion, and it is from the careful consideration of their systems of authority or custom, and was not capable of being that the now principle has sprung to light. And what is realized in consciousness. This turn of mind naturally led this principle 7 As Professor Fraser has said, there are him somewhat off the beaten track of university studies ; many ways of expressing it, and Berkeley himself has he was not understood by his college companions, and never given any very definite enunciation. To put it in a began to be looked upon as either the greatest dunce or form as nearly as possible resembling the statements in the greatest genius in the university. To such a reputation the Common Place Book, it may be expressed in the pro his eccentricity of manner, which seems to have resulted position thut no existenoo is conceivable and therefore from his occasional absorption or passionato enthusiasm, possible which is not either oonscious spirit or the ideas largely contributed. Of the greatest importance for the i.e., objects) of which such spirit is conscious. Existing development of his rare powers in a definite direction was things consist of ideas or objects perceived or willed, whilo the general condition of thought at the time of his residence perception and volition are inconceivable and impossible at Dublin. The older text-books of physics and philosophy save as the operations of mind or spirit. In the language were no doubt in use (Dublin in this respect has always of a later philosophy, the principle is that of the absolute been conservative), but alongside of them the influences of synthesis of subject and object; no object exists apart from the new modes of thinking were streaming in. The mind. Mind is therefore the deepest reality; it is tho opposed physical systems of Descartes and Newton had prius both in thought and in existence, if for the moment begun to be known; the new 'and powerful calculus was we assume the popular distinction between these two. being handled; the revolution in metaphysical speculation From this primitive truth, which, it seems to Berkeley, inaugurated by Descartes had reached Dublin ; and, above merely requires careful consideration in order to be at onco all, the Erst great English work on pure philosophy, the accepted, he never wavers. Let attention bo but confined Essay of Locke, had been translated into Latin, and its to the only possible meaning which existence can have, and, doctrines were being eagerly and minutely discussed by the Berkeley thinks, the principle must appear self-evident. young Trinity College students. Add to this the undoubted Thus he puts in a new light the perennial problems of innuence exercised by the presence in Dublin of such men philosophy, and instead of discussing the nature and as the university provost, Peter Browne, afterwards bishop relations of assumed entities, such as matter, substance, or of Cork, and King, archbishop of Dublin from 1703, and cause, would ask us to consider whether or not these have it will readily be seen that Berkeley, to use Professor any significance apart from the perceptions or volitions of Fraser's words, “entered an atmosphere which was conscious spirit, what in that case they do mean, and beginning to be charged with the elements of reaction whether the suprosod difficulties connected with them do