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total area, are actually under cultivation. The last settle, where a house tax has been lovied. The district contains ment of the land revenue was made for a period of thirty 113 schools, with an attendance of 7624 pupils, or 0-8 of years at various times between 1848 and 1864. The total the entire population. Of the total number of schools, 2, imperial experditure in the district amounts to £98,097. with an attendance of 198 pupils, are private institutions, The following towns have a population of more than 5000 receiving Government aid. There is a stipendiary polics of inhabitants : Belgaum, 26,947; Gobak, 12,612; Athani, |684 men. The Kurirs, a wandering and thieving tribe, 11,588; Nipáni, 9371; Temkanmardi, 5296; Hougal, the Kamais, professional burglars, and the Baruds, cattle 9001; Sankeshwar, 8905; Sawadáti, 8180; Murgod, stealers and highwaymen, are special criminal classes. Of 7181; Ketur, 7166 ; Sádalgi, 6863; Mánoli, 6232; | these the Baruds are the most troublesome. The district Chikadi, 6184 ; Nandighar, 5748; Hukéri, 5364 ; and of Belgám was ceded to the East India Company by the Konganoli, 5143. Municipalities have been established in Peshwă, under the treaty of June 1817, for the maintenance the first five of these towns, the necessary revenue being of a subsidiary force to be provided by the British Goveraraised by octros dues, except in the case of Temkanmardi, ment.

BELGIUM D ELGIUM (Fr. Belgique, Ger. Belgien), is one of the and 6° 7' E.; and is bounded on the N. by Holland, E by

D smaller of the European states, among which it ranks | Dutch Limbourg, Luxembourg, and Rhenish Prussia. S. 16th in point of area and 8th according to population. It and 8.w. by France, and N.W. by the North Sea. It is lies between lat. 49° 30' and 51° 30' Ñ., and long. 2° 32' | somewhat triangular in form, the longest side—that which

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adjoins Franco-being 384 miles in length. The length | Flanders and Hainault in the W., Namur in the & of its other boundaries are, towards Holland 268 miles, Luxembourg in the 8.E., Liége and Limbourg in the E., Germany 59, Luxembourg 80, and the North Sea 41. Its and Brabant in the centre. greatest length from N.W. to S.E. (from Ostend to Arlon) is Belgium is in general a very flat country having fer 174 miles, and its greatest breadth from N. to S. 105. It has elevations, and these rarely exceeding 2000 feet in height. an area of 2,945,593 hectares, equal to 7,278,968 English They are principally to be found in the E and S.E, while acres, or 11,373 square miles,-being about one-eighth of the N. and N.W. parts of the country bear a considerable the area of Great Britain. This country is divided into resemblance to Holland. The elevations of Belgium take nine provinces,-Antwerp in the N., West and East their rise in France, and extend generally in a NE direc

tica. A chain proceeding from the neighbourhood of the at Namur. The navigable length of those is 142 miles. sourcos of the Saone separates the waters of the Meuse The small river of Y perles, which joins the Yzer, is navigable from those of the Moselle, passes Arlon and Neufchateau, for about 9 miles. The other streams are the Sonne, the then extends in a north-eastern direction towards Bastogne, Haine, the Semoy, and the Lesse. and finally enters Prussia. A branch of this chain goes off Besides these navigable rivers, Belgium has a number of at Neufchateau, proceeds northward towards Liége, passes canals for inland navigation, some of which are used also St Hubert, and separates the Ourthe from the Meuse. A for irrigation. They are twenty-nine in number, and their part of the Ardennes also extends into Belgium, and entire length is 605,440 metres, or 376 English miles. separates the basin of the Meuse from that of the Scheldt. The principal of these are the canals—from Bruges to It proceeds in a north-eastern direction, passing Fontaine | Ostend, from Brussels to Charleroi, from Bocholt to Xerenl'Evêque, Gembloux, Ramillies, and Tongres, then, gradually thal, from Brussels to Willebroeck, from Ghent to Bruges, decreasing in height, it turns northward to Asch, and after- from Liége to Maestricht, from Maestricht to Bois-le-Duc, wards N. W. to Hechtal, Lommel, and Turnhout. A series from Pommeroeul to Antoing, from Plasschendaele to of heights on the frontier of France, near Chimay, extends Nieuport, the Louvain canal, the Lieve, and the Moovaerts in a N.W. direction towards Namur, and separates the Each of these canals is upwards of 12 miles in length, and Meuse from the Sambre.

the longest, that from Brussels to Charleroi, upwards of The provinces of Liége, Luxembourg, and Namur present 46 miles. The entire length of the river and canal navithe greatest irregularities of surface. This part of the gation of Belgium is 1006 English miles. country is intersected by numerous ravines and streams Belgium possesses a number of mineral springs, the with steep and rocky banks, by deep valleys, and by ridges principal of which are the hot springs of Chaudfontaine, of hills, which often have precipitous and rocky escarpments. situated about five miles from Liége, and the mineral spring The vegetation here is of a very poor and languid character. of Tongres; but the most celebrated waters are those of The greater part of the region is covered with dense forests, Spa. The ferruginous springs of Huy were formerly in marshy and uncultivated plateaus or poor pasture land, considerable repute, but are now little used. and corn is very rarely cultivated. Descending towards The climate of Belgien is similar to that of England, the coast the forests become less extensive ; and rye, oats, but is a little colder in winter and hotter in summer. and potatoes take the place of the pasture land. In the In the south-eastern parts the atmosphere is more pure and western and north-western provinces are extensive and bracing than in the lower parts towards the N.W., where well-watered plains, which, from their great fertility and it is frequently damp and hazy. Frost rarely appears the high state of their cultivation, are the boast of the before the middle of October or after the middle of April. Belgians and the admiration of strangers.

Observations made at Brussels from 1833 to 1872 give the In the provinces bordering on the sea the land is in mean annual temperature as 50°6 Fahr.,--the mean maxisome places so low as to require to be protected from mum being 570.2, and the mean minimum 44°1 Fahr, inundation by dikes. These parts are called polders. During that period there were no frosts in the five months Numerous places along the banks of the rivers are also from May to September inclusive, and snow fell only eight protected by embankments; these are called interior times in May and four times in October. The average polders. About & sixtieth part of the kingdom (50,000 number of foggy days annually, from 1833 to 1862, was hestares, or 193 square miles) is thus artificially gained 60, and with thunder 15. The annual average of days on from the sea and rivers.

which rain fell was 197, and the quantity of rain 28.04 The coast of Belgium is said to be undergoing a change inches, or 3 inches less than the rainfall at London. similar to that of Scandinavia,- in some parts a gradual The population of Belgium in 1831 was 3,785,814 ; in elevation, and in others a gradual depression. Nieuport is | 1840, 4,073,162; in 1850, 4,426,202; in 1860, 4,731,957, said to be on the axis of this change, from which, northward and in 1873, 5,253,821, being 2,645,147 males and to the mouth of the Scheldt, the sea is continually gaining 2,608,674 females. The following table shows the popular upon the land, while southward to Pas de Calais it is losing. tion of the different provinces in each of tha years 1831,

The principal rivers are the Scheldt, Mouse, and Yzer, 1850, and 1873 (31st December) :with their tributaries. The Scheldt is navigable during its

1831. 1850. 1878. entire course through Belgium, and has a general direction

Antwerp ................... 849,942 420,666 618,648 from 8.W. to N.E., passing through' the province of Brabant..

561,828 784,617 922, 468 Hainault, along the eastern boundary of West Flanders,

East Flanders ....... 742, 973 783, 450 854,866

West Flanders ..... 608, 226 681, 187 traversing East Flanders, and finally forming the boundary

682,921

Hainault ................: 613, 179 783, 740 982,086 between the provinces of East Flanders and Antwerp. Its Liége ...............

875,080 467,848 828,165 entire length through Belgium is 108 miles. The Meuse

Limbourg ..........

160,090 188, 198 202,922 has a course nearly parallel to that of the Scheldt, traversing

Luxembourg......

160,762 192,588 206,069

218,784 Namur .....

274,073 the provinces of Namur, Liége, and Limbourg.

316,831 It is 115 miles in length, during the whole of which it is navigable.

8,786,814 4,428,202 6,258,821 The small river of Yzer, which enters the sea at Nieuport, is navigable for about 26 miles. The navigable rivers

The principal towns aro-Brussels, with 180,172 inhabi connected with the Scheldt are, the Dyle, which after

tants; Antwerp, 141,910; Ghent, 128,424; Liége, 113,774; receiving the Nethe at the village of Rumpst, takes the

| Bruges, 48,113; Verviers, 38,876; Tournay, 31,923; name of Ruppel, and joins the Scheldt nearly opposite to

Malines, 38,540; Louvain, 32,314. Rappelsmonde ; the Great and Little Nethe, which after Belgiam is the most densely populated country of Europe, having their junction take the name of Nethe, and fall into the on an average 178 inhabitants to the square kilometre, which is

equivalent to 461 to the squarf mile. The density differs greatly Dyle; the Demer, also an affluent of the Dyle; the Dender,

in the several provinces, being as high as 285 per square Hlometro which enters the Scheldt at Dendermonde ; the Durme, in East Flanders, 281 in Brabant, and 250 in Hainault; end as low which joins it near Thielrode ; and the Lys at Ghent as 86 in Namur, 84 in Limbourg, and 47 in Luxembourg. The The entire navigable length of these streams is 230 English general census of 1866 gives 134,001 as under one year of age;

849,077 between ono and five years, and 494,382 between five and miles. The navigable rivers of the Mouse are the Amblere

ten; while 299,711 were from sixty to seventy, 116,216 from and the Vesdre, affluents of the Qurthe; the Ourthe, which seventy to eighty, 23,890 from eighty to ninety, 1892 from ninety joins, the Meuse at Liége; and the Sambre, which joins it to a hundred, and 12 a hundred and upwarda. The number of

A

anmarried persons was 3,011,566, of married persons 1,528,543, | themselves. He nominates to civil and military offices, of widowers and widows 287,724. As regards their places of birth,

and commands the sea and land forces. He declares war, 8,348,506 had been born in the same commune in which they lived; 1,381,231 hari been born in another commune of the same province;

and concludes treaties of peace, of alliance, and of com288,672 had been born in another province of the kingdom, 13,044 | merce, communicating the same to the chambers as far as in the coded districts of Luxembourg or Limbourg, 26,435 in other may be consistent with the interest and safety of the state. parts of Holland, 32,021 in France, 20,701 in Germany, 3003 in

He sanctions and promulgates the laws, and has the power of England, and 2892 in other countries. In 1873 the births were 170,708, being 87,128 males, and 83,580 females, or 104 males to

remitting or reducing the punishments pronounced by the 100 females, -giving opa birth to every 30•3 of the population, judges, except in the case of his ministers, to whom he can and 151 births to a hundred deaths. Of the births 158,585 wore extend pardon only at the request of one of the chambers, legitimate and 12,123 illegitimate, or 13 legitimate births to 1

In default of male heirs the king may nominate his sueillegitimate. The proportion, however, varies much in the different

cessor with the consent of the chambers. The regency can provinces, being 7:5 to 1 in Brabant, and 37 to 1 in Luxembourg. The number of marriages that took place was 40,598, and of deaths only be conferred upon one person, and no change in the 112,873. Of the latter, 24,282 were under one year, and 16,730 constitution can be made under his rule. between one and five years of age ; 315 males and 62 females were

The people are represented in the Legislature by the by suicide, 2068 were from accidents, and 69 were murdered. The

Chamber of Representatives and the Senate, the members immigrations wero 15,792, and the emigrations 7981.

of which are chosen by the people. Each chamber detcrThe languages spoken in Belgium are French or Walloon | mines the manner of exercising its own powers and erar (a dialect of the ancient French), and Flemish or Dutch. session nominates its president and vice-presidents, and French is the language of the upper and educated classes, forms its bureau. No petition can be presented personally; and is generally understood even in the Flemish parts of and every resolution is adopted by the absolute majority, the kingdom. In 1866 those speaking French or Walloon except in some special cases, when two-thirds of the votes amounted to 2,041,784 ; Flemish or Dutch, 2,406,991; of the members are required to be favourable ; in the case French and Flemish, 308,361; German, 35,356, French of an equality of votes the proposition is thrown out. and German, 20,448; Flemish and German, 1625 ; and The chambers meet annually in the month of November, the three languages, 4966. The French or Walloon is the and should sit for at least forty days; but the king has prevailing language in the provinces of Hainault, Liége, the power of convoking them on extraordinary occasions, Luxembourg, and Namur ; the Flemish or Dutch in and of dissolving them either simultaneously or separately. Antwerp, Brabant, the two Flanders, and Limbourg. On dissolution a new election must take place within

Since the formation of Belgium into an independent state, forty days, and a meeting of the chambers within two the Government has taken a laudable interest in all that months. An adjournment cannot be made for a period concerns the advancement and happiness of the people ; exceeding one month without the consent of the chambers, and not being trammelled by a respect for old laws or The Chamber of Representatives is composed of deputies useless customs, it has adopted, as far as possible, the most chosen directly by the people paying a certain amount of improved systems of other countries. The whole system direct taxes. The number of deputies is fixed according to of government is based upon the broadest principles of the population, and cannot exceed one member for every rational freedom and liberality. All power emanates from 40.000 inhabitants ; at present they amount to 124. To the people, and can be exercised only according to law. be eligible for membership it is necessary to be a Belgian The people are upon a strict equality in the eye of the law; by birth or to have received the grand naturalization, to be personal liberty is guaranteed to all, as well as entire in the possession of the civil and political rights of the freedom in opinion and in religious worship. All the kingdom, to have attained the age of twenty-five years, religious sects are endowed by the state, and large grants and to be resident in Belgium. The members not residing are also given avnually for educational and charitable in the town where the chamber sits receive, during the purposes. Home is inviolable, nor can any one be deprived session, an indemnity of 200 florins (£16, 138. 4d.) each of his property unless for the good of the state and for a per month. The members are elected for four years, ont suitable indemnity. Justice is open to all, as well as the half going out every two years, except in the case of a means of education, and the bevefits of the public charities. dissolution, when a general election takes place. This

The press is free, and civil death is abolished. Any one chamber has the parliamentary initiative and the preliminary may address petitions to the public authorities signed by vote in all cases relating to the receipts and expenses of one or more pessons. Trial by jury is established for all the state, and to the contingent of the army. criminal and political charges, and for offences of the press. The electors of the Chamber of Representatives have The contents of letters are inviolable, and the post-office is also the nomination of the members of the Senate. To be responsible for all letters committed to it.

eligible as a senator it is necessary to be a Belgian by The government is a constitutional representative and birth or to have received the grand naturalization, to be hereditary monarchy. The legislative power is vested in in the enjoyment of civil and political rights, to be domithe king, the chamber of representatives, and the senate.ciled in Belgiuin, to be forty years of age, and to pay The judicial power is exercised by fixed tribunals, freed l at least 1000 forins (£84) of direct taxes. In those profront. all authoritative influences, judging publicly, and vinces where the number of those paying 1000 florins of assigning reasons for their decisions. Affairs exclusively taxes does not amount to one in every 6000 inhabitants, provincial or communal are managed by the provincial or this proportion is made up by those paying the highest communal councils

amount below that sum. The permanent deputations of The royal succession is in the direct male line in the | the provincial councils annually prepare a list of those who order of primogeniture, to the exclusion of females and are eligible to the Senate. In 1874 the number of these their descendants. The king's person is declared sacred, was 453. At the age of eighteen the heir-presumptive to and his ministers are held responsible for the acts of the the throne has a seat in the Senate, but he has no voice in Government. No act of the king can have effect unless | its deliberations till he attain the age of twenty-five. The countersigned by one of his ministers, who thus becomes senators receive no indemnity. They are elected for eight the responsible party. The king convokes, prorogues, and years, one-half going out every four years, except in the dissolves the chambers, and makes rules and orders | case of a dissolution. The Senate is composed of ball as necessary for the execution of the laws, but has no power many members as the Chamber of Representatives, the to suspend or disponse with the execution of the laws number at present being 62.

In order to be a general elector it is necessary to be a | provinces, prepare the budgets, direct taxation, and superJelgian by birth or to have received the grand naturaliza- intend public works. They give a healthy impulso to tion, to be twonty-one years of age, and to pay direct taxes agriculture, trade, and commerco; direct the construction to the amount of at least 20 florins (338. 4d.) In 1874 of roads, canals, and bridges; and extend the benefits of the total number of general electors was 111,135, or at the education and religion throughout the country. The comrate of 21.15 per 1000 of the population.

munes have the power of appeal to the king if they consider The king appoints and dismisses his ministers at pleasure. themselves aggrieved by any of the acts of the provincial No member of the royal family can be a minister, nor council, or of the permanent deputation. any but a Belgian, or one who has received the grand natu- ' Matters exclusively communal are managed by communal ralization. Ministers have a right of admission to the councils. The councillors are Belgian citizens in the full chambers, and may demand a hearing; but they have no enjoyment of civil and political rights, and, except in some voice in the deliberations unless they are members. The special cases, resident in the commune. They are elected chambers can at any time require the presence of the for six years, one-half going out every three years. The ministers. No act or writing by the king can free a number of the councillors is from 7 to 31, in proportion to minister from responsibility. The Chamber of Represen- the population of the commune, which varies from under tatives has the power of accasing the ministers, and of 1000 to upwards of 70,000 inhabitants. Communal electors bringing them before the conrt of cassation, which alone require to be Belgians or to have received naturalization, has the right of judging them, in all cases of offences and to pay taxes to the amount of 10 francs (48.) The total committed in the exercise of their functions. There are number of electors in 1874 was 347,441, being 66:13 per six ministers, viz., of foreign affairs, of the interior, of justice, 1000 of the population. Communes with less than 20,000 of finance, of war, and of public works.

inhabitants have two aldermen, and those having more Naturalization is of two kinds, the one conferring on the than that number have four. There is also in each comforeigner all the civil and political rights belonging to a mune a bargomaster, who, as well as the aldermen, is Belgiat, with certain exceptions specified by law, such as chosen by the king from among the members of the comthe right to vote in the choice of members for the legisla munal council. tive chambers or of sitting there; to obtain these the grand Full liberty is guaranteed to all in the exercise of the naturalization is requisite. The registration fee for the public or private rites of their worship; nor does the state former is 500 francs; for the latter, 1000. Since 1831 interfere in any way in matters of religion, except where only 47 have received the grand naturalization and 1527 the public safety may be concerned or the laws infringed. the ordinary.

Almost the entire population of Belgium is Roman Catholic, For civil purposes the provinces are divided into 26 there being only about 15,000 Protestants and 3000 Jews. arrondissements, 204 justice-of-peace cantons, and 2528 The ministers of each denomination are paid by the state, communes ; and for military purposes, into 41 arrondisse- -the amount 80 paid in 1873 being 4,648,757 francs, or ments, 303 military cantons, and 2568 communes. £185,950, of which Roman Catholics received 4,568,200

In each province is a governor named directly by the francs, Protestants 69,336, Jews 11,221. king, for the purpose of superintending and securing the The kingdom is divided into six Roman Catholic dio due execution of the laws, and a provincial council, coni- ceses, the archbishopric of Malines, and the bishoprics of posed of Belgian citizens at least twenty-five years of age, | Bruges, Ghent, Liége, Namur, and Tournay. The arch. residing in the province, and in the enjoyment of civil and bishopric has three vicars-general, and a chapter of twelve political rights. The number of members of each provincial canons; and each of the bishoprics, two vicars-general, council is made to depend upon the population, and varies and a chapter of eight canons. In 1873 there were 156 in the different provinces from one for every 11,500 of the deaneries, 233 rectories, 2788 chapels of ease, 148 public population in Brabant and Hainault, to one for every 5000 chapels, and 1745 vicariates. in Limbourg and Luxembourg. Each canton, however, is | The temporal afairs of the churches are managed by a entitled to be represented by at least one member, and the vestry-board and a board of wardens. There is an ecclesinumber of members for each canton depends upon the astical seminary in each diocese, and scholarships are population according to the scale fixed for the province. annually given by the state to certain of the students upon The total number of members in 1874 was 559,-Antwerp the presentation of the chief of the diocese. The state also council having 58; Brabant, 73; East Flanders, 80; West contributes to the salaries of the professors by an annual Flanders, 69; Hainault, 76; Liége, 67; Limbourg, 40; grant to each of the seminaries, except that of Liége which Luxembourg, 41; and Namur, 55. The electors of the has sufficient funds otherwise. The provinces are bound members of the provincial councils were formerly the same to provide and maintain suitable buildings for these semias the electors of the legislative chambers, but in 1872 the naries. There are a number of religious houses in Belgium provincial franchise was lowered, and the number of electors for males and females, whose lives are spent in pious conin 1874 was 219,619, or 41.80 to 1000 inhabitants. A pro- templation, teaching, and visiting the sick. The number vincial elector requires to be a Belgian or to have received of these houses in 1866 was,- for males 178, and for females naturalization, and to pay taxes to the amount of 20 francs 8144; the number of persons in the former was 2991, and (16s.) Members of the chambers, governors, and persons 16,205 in the latter. in the employment of the state or province, are ineligible The Protestant Evangelical Church is under a synod, as councillors. The councils have an annual session of composed of the clergymen of the body and a representanot more than four weeks; but the king can convoke them tive from each of the churches. It sits in Brussels once on extraordinary occasions. Those not residing in the 1 a year, when each member is required to be present, or to provincial capital receive an indemnity during the session. delegate his powers to another member. The Anglican Each provincial council appoints a permanent deputation Church has eight pastors and as many chapels in Belgium, for conducting business in the interval between the sessions, -three in Brussels and one in each of the towns Antwerp, particularly in matters requiring immediate attention. It Bruges, Ghent, Ostend, and Spa is coraposed of six members chosen for four years, one-half The Jews have a central synagogue at Brussels, three going out every two years.

branch synagogues of the first-class at Antwerp, Ghent, These councils are of the highest importance to the and Liége, and two of the second-class at Arlon and country. They watch over the interests of their several | Namur. The civil and religious affairs are conducted by a. consistory of nine members, six of whom are appointed by tricts at least twice a year. In 1872 the primary schools subthe central, and one by each of three first-class synagogues. mitting to inspection were—communal, 3949; adopted, 469; The grand rabbi, who is at the head of this body in Bel- private, 18; and boarding, 22; besides which there were 990 gium, is, ex officio, a member of the consistory.

private schools and 230 boarding schools not under inspecThe Belgian Government has shown itself thoroughly tion. Of the inspected schools 1353 were for boys, 1284 for alive to the great importance of a general diffusion of girls, and 1821 for both sexes; and of the non-inspected education among the people. Numerous public schools and 267 were for boys, 693 for girls, and 261 for both sereu. literary and scientific institutions are established through- The total number of primary schools was 5678, giving on out the country, supported out of the communal, provincial, an average 2:21 schools to each commune, and 1.13 to each or Government funds. Different classes of inspectors are 1000 of the population. The total number of scholars appointed to visit and report upon the state of education attending these schools was 618,937 (or 12-3 per cent of in their various districts. Prizes, scholarships, and other the population), of whom 313,165 were boys and 305,772 rewards are bestowed upon those that distinguish them. girls; 518,141 were at inspected schools, and 100,796 at selves most in the prosecution of their studies. Religious non-inspected. The number of scholars attending the and moral instruction is under the direction of the sect to communal schools was 449,940, of whom 325,432 wers which the majority of the pupils belong; but those con- instructed gratuitously; and attending the adopted schools nected with other sects may be exempted from attendance 63,594, of whom 42,521 were receiving gratuitous instrucon this course. Normal schools have also been established tion. The total number of teachers and assistants was for the purpose of securing trained and efficient teachers. 10,629, of whom 5394 were males and 5235 females; of The schools are open to all, and gratuitous instruction is these, 4656 males and 2977 females were in the communal provided for those who may not otherwise have the means or adopted schools. The teachers in the communal schools of acquiring it. Yet, with all these advantages, there are are appointed by the conmunal councils, which have the still many among the lower classes growing up in ignorance. power of suspending them for a period not exceeding three According to the census of 1866, out of a population of months, the Government decreeing as to their absolute dis4,827,833, only 2,279,891 were able to read and write, missal or reinstatement. They are required to have atgiving, if we exclude all of seven years of age and under, tended, for at least two years, the classes of a normal school. only 58 per cent of the population. This proportion Besides the primary schools properly so called, there are varied considerably in the different provinces, being as high | in many localities other establishments where primary as 77 in Luxembourg and 71 in Namur, and as low as 48 | instruction is communicated, as the infant, adult, manuin East and 51 in West Flanders. In 1843 only 49 per facturing schools, &c. The infaut schools are for children cent. of those who took part in the balloting for the militia between two and six years of age. There were in 1872, were able to read and write ; in 1853, 56; in 1863, 62; 780 of these schools, of which 212 were communal, 220 and in 1873, 74. Out of 42,313 in 1873, 8678 were un private but under inspection, and 348 private and nonable to read or write, 2027 could read but could not write, inspected. The total number of pupils was 78,181. 13,887 were able to read and write, and 16,836 had re In the adult schools the branches taught are generally ceived a superior education. This show that it is not the same as in the communal primary schools. The comenough merely to provide the means of education in order munal councils are invited to establish such schools, and of to secure an educated population. In the industrial locali late years considerable progress has been made in this ties the parents are generally anxious to get their children direction. In 1863 the dumber of adult schools was 1194, admitted as soon as possible into workshops and manufac- with in all 188,890 scholars; and in 1872, 2351, with tories, and in rural districts they are engaged in tending | 199,957 scholars. In the latter year 1454 of the schools cattle or in field labour.

were communal, 74 private inspected, and 823 private The educational institutions may be divided into four non-inspected. Of the scholars 98,558 were males, and classes, viz., primary, middle, superior, and special. 101,399 females ; 56,880 were at communal schools, where

A law passed in 1842 enacted that there should be at 54,630 were receiving gratuitous instruction, and 7362 at least one primary school in every commune, except in adopted schools, where 7179 were gratuitously instructed. certain cases where primary education is already sufficiently There are also primary schools annexed to prisons, hospitals, provided for by private schools, or where one school may and depôts of mendicants, and reform schools. The number serte for several neighbouring communes. The communes of these in 1872 was 97, and of scholars 6485. Considermay also adopt one or more private schools, possessing the able sums are given by Government for providing food, legal qualifications, to occupy the place of the communal clothing, and other necessaries for the poor children attend. school. The branches taught are reading, writing, and ing the primary and infant schools. the elements of arithmetic; the rudiments of the language The expenses of public primary education fall in the first spoken in the locality, French, Flemish, or German ; instance on the commune; and in case of insufficiency a moral and religious instruction; and the legal system of funds, the province, and finally the state, come to its weights and measures, in most schools taught practically. assistance. Each commune, however, must contribute s In many of the schools gymnastics, music, the elements sum equal to at least two per cent. upon its direct tars of drawing, the outlines of history and geography, and the tion before being entitled to claim any assistance from the rudiments of the natural sciences, are also taught. The province or state. The total expenditure for public primary communes are obliged to afford gratuitous instruction to all education was,-in 1843, 2,651,639 francs; in 1853, the children within their bounds whose parents are in poor | 4,465,411; and in 1863, 9,372,259. In 1872 it was circumstances or are otherwise unable to educate them. 16,200,843 or £648,033, of which 1,326,659 francs Fere The primary schools are under the surveillance of the school fees received, 506,512 public or private donations, communal authorities and Government inspectors; and the 5,863,561 were contributed by the communes, 1,584,010 imparting of moral and religious instruction is superintended by the provinces, and 6,643,415 by the state. by delegates from the religious bodies. Each province The middle schools are divided into two classes, those has a general inspector of the primary schools, who is supported by the Government, and those maintained by the appointed by the king, and inspects, at least once a year, communes. The former are of two kinds-(1), the royal all the communal schools in his district. Under him are the athenæums, called also the middle superior schools; and (2), cantonal inspectors, who must visit the schools in their dis- | the middle inferior. schools, or the middle schools properly

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