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and elegant. With ell his faults he stands as the greatest Jgnre between Holberg and Ohlenschiiger. Of all his poems, however, the loveliest and best is a little simple song, called There tnu a time tcAen / teas very little, which every Dane, high or low, knows by heart, and whioh is. matchless in its simplicity and pathos. ft has outlived all his e?^a- (e. W. a.)
BAGHDAD, a Turkish pashalio or government of Asia, computed to have an area of above 100,000 square miles. It stretches In a N.W. direction, from the mouth of the Shatt-el-Arab at Bussorab, to Merdin, situated near the source of the Tigris j and from the confines of Persia to the banks of the Khaboar, which separates it from the pashalic of Diarbekir. Its general boundaries are the Euphrates and the Arabian desert of Nejd to the W. and 3 , Knaistan and Mount Zagros to the E., the pashalic of Diarbekir to tb» N.W., and Armenia with the territories of the Kurdish chief of Jullmerick to the N. This great tract comprehends ancient Babylonia and the greatest part of Assyria proper. The first includes the spice enclosed by the Tigris and the Euphrates, which is also known under the general appellation of Mesopotamia; and the second, that which is beyond the Tigris, commonly called Lower Kurdistan. This tract of country » an extensive and very fertile plain, and is watered by the Tigris and the Euphrates, which at Baghdad approach sithin 25 miles of each other, and afford an inexhaustible supply of the finest water. Only some parts of thtwe fertile districts, however, are cultivated, as the population consists In many places of wandering Arabs, who are irerse to agriculture, and who, in their vagrant life of idleness and rapine, neglect all the natural advantages cf the country. The most productive portion of the pashalio a on the banks of the Shatt-el-Arab, in the neighbourhood cf Bussorah. This tract, for upwards of 30 miles below that city, is well cultivated, and yields vast quantities of ditea, wheat, barley, and various kinds of fruits. The banks of the Euphrates produce abundant crops of dry ■• ..a. Higher up the Euphrates, the country which is possessed by the Arabs is a low marshy tract, formed by the expansion of the Euphrates, and is famed for plentiful crops of rice. Among the mountainous districts of the Upper Euphrates the country is highly picturesque and beautiful; it is watered by the River Mygdonius (tho Gozan of Scripture), and is in a tolerable state of cultivation. It produces in abundance the 'finest fruits, such as grapes, olives, figs, pomegranates, which are considered the most delicious in the East; apples, pears, apricots of an inferior quality; and the finest dates, on which the inhabitants, as in other parte of Asia, depend in many cases for subsistiuce. The domestic animals are, the horse, for which the country has long been famed, the ass, camel, dromedary, buffalo, and mule. Of the wild animals, the lion, the hyena, (she jackal, the wolf, and the wild boar, are common j and antelopes are very numerous. Hares are plentiful, but foxes are seldom seen. All sorts of poultry ire bred except the turkey. On the cultivated lands, and on the borders of the rivers, the black partridge is met with in great numbers. Snipes and almost every species of wild fowl may be found in the marshes, and ptlicans on the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris. In addition to these two rivers, the country is watered by the Khabour or Chaboras, formed by the junction of several small streams about ten miles to the S.W. of Merdin, and by the Mygdonius, or Gozan, tho Hennas of the Arabs, which used formerly to discharge a part of its waters into the Euphrates through the Khabour, and a put into the Tigris through the Thirthar, passing by Hatra, but which is now entirely lost in a salt marsh at the foot of the Singar hills.
In ancient times the plain of Mesopotamia was occupied by the great and wealthy cities of Nineveh, Babylon, Selcucia, Ctosiphon, 4c, and was in a high state of cultivation. It was intersected by many well-constructed canals and other works, which, in dispersing over the country the superfluous waters of the Tigris and Euphrates, proved extremely useful to agriculture. These works are now all ruined, and not a vestige remains of many of the canals, while the course of others can only be faintly traced in their imperfect remains. One canal, however, called El-Hye, still exists; it connects the Euphrates and the Tigris exactly half-way between Bussorah and Baghdad, and is navigable in spring for large boats.
BAGHDAD, a city of Asia, formerly the capital of the empire of the caliph, and long renowned for its commerce and its wealth, is situated on an extensive and desert plain, which has scarcely a tree or Village throughout its whole extent; and though it is intersected by the Tigris, it stands mostly on its eastern bank, close to the water's edge. Old Baghdad on the W. is now considered as merely a suburb to the larger and more modern city on the eastern shore, the former containing an area of only 116 acres, while the latter extends over 691. It has, however, numerous and extensive streets, well furnished with shops, and is protected by strong walls, with three gates opening towards Hillah on the Euphrates and Kazimeen. Beyond these modern bulwarks vestiges of ancient buildings, spreading in various directions, are visible in the plain, which is strewed with fragments of brick, tiles, and rubbish. A burying ground has extended itself over a large tract of land formerly occupied by the streets of the city; and here is the tomb of Zobeide, the favourite wife of Haroun el Raschid, built of brick, of a high octagonal shape, and surmounted by a lofty superstructure in the form of a cone It was originally built in 827 A.D., but has been frequently restored. The two towns of Old and New Baghdad are connected by a bridge of thirty pontoons. The form of the new city is that of an irregular oblong, about 1500 paces in length by 800 in breadth; and a brick wall, about five miles in circuit, encloses the town on both sides of the river. This wall, which is built of brick, has been constructed and repaired at different periods; and, as in most other works of the same nature in Mahometan countries, the oldest portion is the best, and the more modern the worst port of the fabric At the principal angles are large round towers, with smaller towers intervening at short distances; and on these large towers batteries are planted, with brass cannon of different calibre, badly mounted. Of two of these angular towers Mr Buckingham remarked that the workmanship is equal to any ancient masonry that he had ever seen. The wall has three gates—one on the S.E., one on the N.E, and a third on the N.W. of the city; and it is surrounded by a dry ditch of considerable depth. A fourth gate on the northern side, which has been closed since the capture of the city by Sultan Amurath IV. in 1638, is a good specimen of Saracenic brick-work. It was formerly called " the white Gate," but is now known as the "Bab-el-Tilism," or "Tolismonic Gate," from a fine Arabic inscription in relief on a scroll border round the tower, which bears the data of 618 Jlh. (1220 A.D.) The town has been built without the slightest regard to regularity. Tho streets are even more intricate and winding than those in most other Eastern towns; and, with the exception of the bazaars and some open squares, the interior is little else than a labyrinth of alleys and passages. The streets are unpaved, and in many places so narrow that two horsemen can scarcely pass each other; and as it is seldom that the houses have windows facing the great public thoroughfares, and the doors are small and mean, they present on both sides the gloomy appearance of dead walls. All the buildings, both public and private, are constructed of furnace-burnt bricks, of a yellowish-red colour, taken chiefly from the ruins of other edifices, as their rounded angles evidently show. A house is generally laid out in ranges of apartments opening into a square interior court, and furnished with subterranean rooms called terdaubt, into which the inhabitants retreat during the day for shelter from the intense heats of summer; and with terraced roofs, on which they take their evening meal, tad sleep in the open air. Occasionally in the months of June, July, and August, when: the Shcrki or south wind is blowing, the thermometer at break of day is known to stand at 112° Fahr.; while at noon it rises to 119", and a little before two o'clock to 122°, standing at sunset at 117°, and at midnight at
111°. But this scale of temperature is cxceptioni During the summer months the wind is usually in the north-west, and the air, though hot, is fresh and exhilarating, the thermometer ranging from about 75° at sunrise to 107° at the hottest time of the day. The interiors of the houses of the rich are splendidly furnished, and ornamented in the ceilings with a sort of chequered work, which has a handsome appearance. A great portion of the ground within the walls of the town is unoccupied by buildings, especially in the north-eastern quarter; and even in the more populous parts of the city near the river, a considerable space between the houses is occupied by gardens, where pomegranates, grapes, figs, olives, and dates grow in great abundance, so that the city when seen from e distance has the appearance of- rising out of the midst of 1
The principal public buildings in Baghdad are the mosques, the khans or caravanserais, and the serai or palace of the pasha. The palace, which is situated in the north-western quarter of the town, not far from the Tigris, is distinguished rather for extent than grandeur. It is a comparatively modern structure, built at different periods, and forming a large and confused pile, without proportion, beauty, or strength. There are no remains of the ancient palace of the caliphs.
In all Mahometan cities the mosques arc conspicuous objects. The number in Baghdad is above 100; but of these" not more than thirty are distinguished by the characteristic minarets or steeples, the rest being merely chapels and venerated places of prayer. The most ancient of these mosques was erected in the year of the Hegira 633, or 1235 of the Christian era, by the Caliph Mustansir. All that remains of the original building is the minaret, and a small portion of the outer walls; the former a short, heavy erection, of the most ungraceful proportions, built
of bricks of various colours, diagonally crossed. The jamah or mosque of Merjaneeah. not far distant from the former, though the body of it is modern, has some remains of old and very rich arabesque work on its surface, dating from the 14th century. The door is formed by a lofty arch of the Pointed form, bordered on both sides by rich bands exquisitely sculptured, and having numerous inscriptions. The mosque of Khaseki, supposed to have been an old Christian church, is chiefly distinguished by the niche for prayer, which, instead of a simple and unadorned recess, is crowned by a Roman arch, with square pedestals, spirally fluted shafts, a rich capital of flowers, and a fine fan or shell-top in the Roman style. Around t' n arch is a sculptured frieze; and down the centre, at the back of the niche, is a broad band, richly sculptured with vases, flowers, Ac, in the very best style of workmanship,—the whole executed on a white marble ground. The building in its present state bears the date of 1682 A.d., but the sculptures which it contains belong probably to the time of the early
caliphs. Hie moeque of the vizier, near the Tigris, has s fine dome and lofty minaret; and the great mosque in the square of El Heidan is alio a noble building. The others do not merit any particular notice. The domes of Baghdad are mostly high, and disproportionately narrow. They are richly ornamented with glazed tiles and painting, the colours chiefly green and white, which, being reflected from a polished surface, impart more liveliness than magnificence to the aspect of these buildings. In the opinion of Mr Buckingham, they are not to be compared to the rich and stately domes of Egypt, as the minarets, although they hare the same bright assemblage of colours, are far from being equal "to the plain and grave dignity of some of the Turkish towers at Diarbekir, Aleppo, and Damascus, or to the lighter elegance of many of those in the larger towns on the banks of the Nile."
There are about thirty khans or caravanserais in Baghdad, ill of inferior construction to those in the other large towns of Turkey. The only remarkable building of this class is called Khanrd-Aourtmeh, and adjoins the Merjaneeah mosque, to which it formerly belonged. The vaulted roof of wis building is a fine specimen of Saracenic brickwork, and like the adjoining mosque, bears the date of 13S6 A.D. It is said, however, to occupy the site of an ancient Christian church. The bazaars, which are numerous, are mostly formed of long, straight, and tolerably wide avenues. The one most recently built is the largest and the best; still it has an air of meanness about it that is not common in the bazaars of large Turkish cities. It is long, wide, and lofty, and well filled with dealers and wares of all sorts. Several of these bazaars are vaulted over with brick-work; but the greater number are merely covered with flat beams which support a roof of straw, dried leaves, or branches of trees and grass. There are about fifty baths in Baghdad, which are also very inferior in their accommodations to those in the other large towns of Mesopotamia. The only other Mahometan remains which it is necessary to mention are—1. The Tekiyeh, or ihrise of the Bektash dervishes, on the western bank of the river. The shrine is in ruins, but it contains a fine Cufic inscription now mutilated, which bears the date of 333 A.H. (or 944 A.D.) 2. The tomb of the famous Maaruf-el-Kerkhi, in the immediate vicinity, dating from 1215 A.D. 3. In Eastern or New Baghdad the college of Mustansir, near the bridge, now in ruins, but bearing a fine inscription dated 630 A.H. (or 1233 A.D.) 4. The shrine of the famous Saint Abdul Eadir, which is visited by pilgrims from all parts of the Mahometan world. The original tomb was erected about 1252 A.D., but the noble dome which now canopies the grave dates from about two centuries later. An aqueduct, the only one in the city, conveys water from the river to this shrine. None of the other mosques or tombs require particular notice.
Baghdad is about 500 milee from the mouth of the Tigris (following its course), and about 400 from Bussorah; and with the latter place it carries on a constant communication by means of boats of from twenty to fifty tons burden, though the river is navigable for larger vessels. With a northerly wind these boats will make the passage to Bussorah in seven or eight days; in calms, when they have merely the aid of the current, the passage occupies from ten to fifteen days. Sir B> K Porter mentions that the stream of the Tigris runs at the rate of seven knots an hour. This, however, is probably during floods, since, with such a powerful current, a boat could not occupy ten or fifteen days on its passage from Baghdad to Bussorah. Incoming up the stream, thirty or forty days are required to reach Baghdad. Of late years, however, steam communication has almost entirely superseded the use of the native craft between Baghdad and Bussorah. British steamers were first placed upon
the Tigris and Euphrates by Colonel Chesney in 1836, and, with the sanction of the Turkish Government, they have ever since been maintained there, one small vessel of the Indian naval service being attached to the British Residency, and two commercial steamers belonging to an English company being employed in navigating the Tigris for trade purposes. The Turks have also endeavoured to establish a line of mercantile Bteamers of their own between Baghdad and Bussorah, but they have not hitherto been very successful. The smaller craft, used for bringing supplies of provisions and fruit to the city, are circular boats of basket-work, covered with skins, the same that have been employed from the remotest antiquity. The Euphrates and the Tigris are liable to spring floods; and the streams of both rivers being sometimes joined, inundate the desert plain on which Baghdad stands, when the city appears like an island in the midst of the sea. The inhabitants are supplied with water from the Tigris, which is brought to their houses in goats' skins, the convenience of water-works, cisterns, and pipes being entirely unknown.
Baghdad has much declined from its ancient importance. It was formerly a great emporium of Eastern commerce; and it still receives, by way of Bussorah, from Bengal the manufactures and produce of India, which are distributed over Arabia, Syria, Kurdistan, Armenia, and Asia Minor. At the same time the inland trade from Persia and the East has fallen off. The productions and manufactures of Persia, which were intended for the Syrian, Armenian, and Turkish markets, and were sent to Baghdad as a central depot, now reach Constantinople by the more direct route of Erzeroum and Tocat Wealth, indeed, appears to be deficient among all classes, and Baghdad has many symptoms of a decayed city. It must, however, be noted that a very considerable trado has sprung up of late years between the European markets and Baghdad, several English houses being established in the city, who import goods direct boat London and Liverpool, via the Suez Canal and Bussorah, and French, German, Swiss, and Greek merchants being also engaged in the traffic. The staple articles of export are dates, wool, and grain, to which may be added cloth of various kinds, drugs, dye-stuffs, and miscellaneous productions. A very considerable trade in horses is alao carried on. The total value of the exports in 1870-71 reached about £46,900, while the imports for the same year were stated at upwards of £285,000. There is a considerable manufacture of red and yellow leather, which is made into shoes, and finds a ready sale.
The population is a mixture of nations from various quarters of the East. The chief officers of Government, whether civil or military, are of the families of Constantinopolitan Turks, though they are mostly natives of the city; the merchants and traders are almost all of Persian or Arabian descent; while the lower classes consist of Turks, Arabs, Persians, and Indians. There are some Jews and Christians, who still remain distinct from the other classes; while the strangers in the town are Kurds, Persians, and desert Arabs in considerable numbers. Tho dress of the Baghdad Turks is not nearly so gay or splendid as that of their northern countrymen; and the costume of the residents is, upon the whole, unusually plain in comparison with that of other Asiatics, As every nation retains its own peculiar dress, it may be easily conceived what an amusing variety of costume must be seen in the streets of Baghdad. The dress of the females is as mean as that used in the poorest villages of Mesopotamia; women of all classes being enveloped in a blue checked cloth, such as is worn by the lowest orders in Egypt, and having their faces covered by hideous veils of blaci horse-hair."
Baghdad is governed by a pasha, assisted by a council. He was formerly chosen from the ranks of the Georgian
in. — 30
MameluKes, but is now always selected from among the highest officers of the Constantinople court, his term of office being usually for four or five years. He is also governor-general of Irak, and possesses supremo authority from Diarbekir to Bahrein, though he does not under ordinary circumstances interfere with the subordinate governments of Mosul and Kurdistan.1
The East India Company used to maintain a resident in Baghdad with a large establishment, a&d his post is now replaced by that of a consul-general and political agent. A French consul is also regularly appointed.
Until recently Baghdad was supposed to be entirely a Mahometan city, dating from the time of Al Manstir; but Sir H. Bawlinson discovered in 1818, during an unusually dry season, when the rivers had fallen six feet below the ordinary low-water mark, that the western bank of the Tigris was lined with an embankment of solid brick-work, dating from the time of Nebuchadnezzar, as the bricks were each stamped with his name and'titles; and it has been since remarked that in the Assyrian geographical catalogues of the time of Sardanapalus, one of the Babylonian cities bears the name of Bagdad, and may thus very possibly represent the after site of the capital of the caliphs. According to the Arabian writers, however, there were no traces of former habitation when Al Manstir laid the foundation of the new city. It was adorned with many noble and stately edifices by the magnificence of the renowned Haroun el Raschid, who also built on the eastern side of the river, connecting the two quarters of the town by a bridge of boats. Under the auspices of Zobeide, the wife of that prince, and Jaffer the Barmecide, his favourite, the city may be said to have attained its greatest splendour. It continued to flourish and increase, and to be the seat of elegance and learning, until the 656th year of the Hegira (1277 A.d.), when Hulaku the Tatar, the grandson of Genghis Khan, took it by storm, and extinguished the dynasty of the Abbassides. The Tatars retained possession of Baghdad till about the year 1400 of our era, when it was taken by Timur, from whqm the Sultan Ahmed Ben Avis fled, and finding refuge with the Greek emperor, contrived afterwards to repossess himself of the city, whence be was finally expelled by Kara Tusef in 1417. In 1477 bis descendants were driven out by Usum Cassim, who reigned 39 years in Baghdad, when Shah Tshnwil the First, the founder of the royal house of Sefi, made himself master of it From that time it continued for a long period on object of contention between the Turks and Persians. It was token by Soliman the Magnificent, and retaken by Shah Abbas the Great; and it was afterwards besieged by Amurath the Fourth, with an army of 300,000 men. After an obstinate resistance, it was forced to surrender 1638 A.D. j when, in defiance of the terms of capitulation, most of the inhabitants were massacred. Since
1 Bt»iJo« tha court of superior officer* which assists the paths In tho general administration of the province, then is alto a Mejlis, or mixed tribunal, for the settlement of municipal and oommerctel affairs, to which both Christian and Jewish merchants are admitted. Much, of course, depends on the individual charactei of the pasha, but, on the whole, justice is fairly administered, and with leas disposition perhaps to press on the non-Mussulman portion of the population than in any other city of Asiatic Turkey. The Jewish and Christian communities, indeed, from their wealth, intelligence, and long standing in the country, enjoy an exceptionally favourable social position, and live on terms of equality with their Mahometan neighbours.
Baghdad is also the headquarters of the army of Irak, and regular troops to the amount of fire or six thousand men of all arms are usually kept together in the city, while an equal force is distributed in •mall garrisons in the Arab and Kurdish districts. lUfjkA^ after paying all its expenses, remits about £100,000 per annum to the imperial treasury, but its resources are capable of almost indefinite development, and there is indeed no reason why the valleys of the Tigris and 'Euphrates should 'not, under an enlightened government, field a revenue fully equal to that of the valley of the Nile,
that period it has remained under a nominal subjection to the Turks. Achmet, the greatest of the pashas of Baghdad, and the first who rendered the paabalic independent of the Porte, defended the town with such courage against Nadir Shah, that the invader was compelled to raise the siege, after suffering great loss. Baghdad, according to Colonel Chesney, had 110,000 inhabitant* previously to the great plague of 1830; but in 1853 Mr Layard estimated its population under 50,000. As estimate made in 1872 on a census taken in 1869 rises as high as 150,000, but this is in all probability an exaggeration (v. Allen's Indian Mail, 1874). Long. 44* 24' £, hxt. 36° 21' N. Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia (1827); Sir R K. Porter's Travel* in Georgia, Pertia, Armenia, and Ancient Babylonia (1821-22); Kinneir's Ceographical Memoir of the Persian Empire (1813); Chesney1! Expedition (1850); Rousseau's Description du pachalik de Bagdcd (1809); Wellsted's City of the Caliphs; Grove's Residence in Baghdad (1830-32); Transactions of Bombay Geog. Soc. (1856). (a. a B.)
BAGHERMI, or Basquc, a district or kingdom of Central Africa, lying to the S. of Lake Chad and S. W. of Borau. It extends about 240 miles from N. to 8., and has s breadth of barely 150 miles. The surface is almost flat, with a slight inclination to the N., and the general elevation is about 950 feet above sea-leveL The Shari, a large and always navigable river, forms the western boundary, and throws out an important effluent called the Bachikam, which passes through the heart of the country. The soil consists partly of lime and partly of sand, and is by no means unfertile. In many parts not a stone is to be seen. Negro-millet, sesamum, and sorghum are the principal grains in cultivation, but rice grows wild, and several kinds of grass or jpoa are used as food by the natives. Cotton and indigo are grown to a considerable extent, especially by Bomu immigrants. Among the trees the most important are the tamarind, the deleb-palm, the durn-palm, the hajilij or Balanites agyptiaca, the sycamore, and the cornel. The country often suffers from drought, and is greatly plagued with worms and insects, especially ants of all kinds, red, black, and white. The Kungjungjvdu, a sort of beetle which does great damage to the crops, is eaten by the natives. A large proportion of the people have their feet mutilated by the attacks of a small worm, which takes up its residence in the first joint of the little toe and eats it gradually away. The inhabitants of Baghermi are a vigorous, well-formed race, who, according to their own traditions, came from the Far list several centuries ago. They speak a language cognate with those spoken by the Sara, who dwell about two degrees further south, and the Dor, who are situated at the confluence of the Dyor with the White Nile. On their arrival they soon extended their power over the Fellata and Arabs already settled in the district, and after being converted to Monometallism under Abd-Allah, their fourth king, they extended their authority over a large number of heathen tribes. The most important of these are the Sokoro, the Bua, the Nyillam, the Sara, the Tumok, and the Busso. They are almost all in a low state of dvHisation, and practise strange superstitions—a belief in a god whom they identify with thunder being the greatest extent of their religion. They are subject to the barbarous raids of their Baghermian masters, who derive from them a constant supply of slaves with which to pay the tribute demanded from them in their turn by the sultan of Bornu. For our knowledge of this district we are principally indebted to Barth and Nachtigal; the former was for some time a prisoner in Massefia, the capital.
See Barth, Travels in Northern and Central Africa in 1849-53, voL iii, and Nachtigal, in Petermann'i Mitthnl. for 1874, and in ZeitscK d. Ges.f. Erdhmdetu Berlt\ 1879.
8AGHMATT, a river of Hindustan, which has its source in the hills to the north of Katmandu, the capital of Nepal, whence it flows in a southerly direction through the district of Tirhut in the province of Behar, and, receiving the waters of the Buchia on its north bank, and of Bura Oandak on its south bank, joins the Ganges, after a course of 288 miles, in 25' 23' N. lat and 86° 34' E. long., about 8 miles below tho town of Monghir, but on the opposite bank.
BAGLTVX, Giobqio, an illustrious Italian physician, descended from a poor persecuted Armenian family, was born at Ragusa in 1669, and assumed the name of his adoptive father, Pietro Angelo Baglivi, a wealthy physician of Lecce. He studied successively at the universities of Sslemo, Padua, and Bologna; and after travelling over Italy, he went in 1602 to Rome, where, through the influence of the celebrated Malpighi, he was elected professor of anatomy in the college of Sapienza. He died at Rome in 1707, at the early age of thirty-eight. A collection of bis writings, which are all in the Latin language, was published in 4to in 1704, and has been several times reprinted, in the same form. An edition in 2 vols. 8vo was published in 1788. Baglivi's work Be Fibra Motrice, is the foundation of that theory of medicine which was substituted by Hoffmann and Cullen for the Humoral Pathology.
BAGNACAYALLO, Baktolommeo, an Italian painter, who flourished about the beginning of the 16th century. His real name was Ramenghi, but he received the cognomen Bagnacavallo from the little village where he was born in 1484. He studied first under Francia, and then proceeded to Rome, where he became a pupil of Raffaelle. While studying under him he worked along with many others it the decoration of the gallery in the Vatican, though it is not known what portions are his work. On his return to Bologna he quickly took the leading place as an artist, and to him were due the great improvements in the general style of what has been called the Bologneae school. His works were considered to be inferior in point of design to some other productions of the school of Baflaelle, but they were distinguished by rich colouring sad graceful delineation. They were highly esteemed by Guido and the Carracci, who studied them carefully and in some points imitated them. The best specimens of Bagnaeavallo's works, the Dispute of St Attffuttin and a Madonna with Child, are at Bologna. He died in 1642.
BAGNERES-DE-BIGORRE (the Vicut Aquetuii of the Romans), the capital of an arrondissement in the department of Hautes-Pyreneee, is situated on the left bank of the Adour, 13 miles S.E. of Tarbes. It is one of the principal watering-places in France, and is much admired for its picturesque situation and the beauty of its environs, particularly the valley of Cam pan, which abounds with beautiful gardens and handsome villas. The town is remarkably neat and clean, and many of the houses are built or ornamented with marble. Its thermal springs and baths are numerous and varied, and are very efficacious in debility of the digestive organs and other maladies. Their temperature is from 90° to 135° Fahr. The season commences in May and terminates about the end of October, during which time the population is more than doubled. Manufactures of woollen cloth, worsted, leather, pottery, and toys are carried on, and marble from the neighbouring quarries is wrought in the town. Greatly frequented by the Romans, and destroyed by the Gothio invaders, Bagneres begins to appear again in history in the 12th century, and rose into permanent importance under the reign of Jeanne d'Albert, the mother of Henry IV. Permanent population, about 9500.
BAGNERES-DE-LUCHON, a small well-built town of France, department of Haute-Garonne, pleasantly situated in the r alley of the Luchon, at the foot of the Pyrenees.
It is celebrated for its sulphurous thermal springs, which vary in temperature from 88° to 180° Fahr. The bathing establishment is one of the most complete in Europe. The waters are employed with success in a variety of chronic affections, and about 10,000 patients visit the town annually. Resident population, about 3600.
BAGPIPE (Fr. musette, Ger. Saehp/ei/e, Ital. cornamuta), a musical instrument of unknown antiquity, which seems to have been at one time or other in common use among all the nations of Europe, and still retains its place in many Highland districts, such as Calabria, the Tyrol, and the Highlands of Scotland. The wind is generally supplied by a blowpipe, though in some cases bellows are used. These and other slight variations, however, involve no essential difference in character or construction, and a description of the great bagpipe of the Highlands of Scotland will serve to indicate the leading features of the instrument in all its forma It consists of a large windbag made of greased leather covered with woollen cloth; a mouth-tube, valved, by which the bag is inflated with the player's breath; three reed drones; and a reed chanter with finger-holes, on which the tunes are played. Of the three drones, one is long and two are short. The longest is tuned to A, an octave below the lowest A of the chanter, and the two shorter drones are tuned each an octave above the A of the longest drone; or, in other words, in unison with the lowest A of the chanter. The scale of the chanter has a compass of nine notes, all natural, extending from G on the second line of the treble stave up to A in alt. In the music performed upon this instrument, the players introduce among the simple notes of the tune a kind of appoggiatura, consisting of a great number of rapid notes of peculiar embellishment, which they term warbler*. No exact idea of these warbltrt can be formed except by hearing a first-rate player upon the Highland bagpipe. The history of the bagpipe can be clearly traced from the earliest periods by means of pictorial representations and references occurring in literature. The instrument probably consisted at first of the pipes without the bag, and in this form it is mentioned in Scripture (1 Sam. x. 5; Isa. v. 12; Jer. xlviii 36), and was used by the Egyptians, tha Greeks, and the Romans. The strain upon the player of these pipes was so great that he had to bandage up his lips and cheeks with a <popBt(a or rtpurro/uov, the Roman capietrum, a leathern muzzle or headstall It seams very probable that the bagpipe derived its origin l*roXQ these double and triple reed-pipes, by the after addition to them of a wind-bag made of the skin of a goat or kid, together with a valved porte-vent, in order to relieve the strain on the lungs and cheeks of the player. There are several evidences that the bagpipe was well known in the time of Nero. It is represented on a coin of that reign, copied in Montfaucon's Antiquities, and Suetonius (ifer., 54) speaks of a promise made by Nero shortly before his death, that he would appear before the people as a bagpiper (utrieulariat). In mediaeval Latin the instrument is designated the Tibia utrieularia. Chaucer represents the miller as skilled in playing the bagpipe; and Shakspeare's familiar alluaidn to " the drone of a Lincolnshire bagpipe " is sufficient of itself to disprove the common notion that the instrument has always been peculiar to Scotland,
BAQRATION, Piter, Pbxnck, a distinguished Russian general, descended from the noble Georgian family of the Bagratides, was born in 1765. In 1782 he entered the Russian army and served for some years in the Caucasus. In 1788 he was engaged in the siege of Oczacow, and afterwards accompanied Suwaroff, by whom he was highly esteemed, through all his Italian and Swiss campaigns. He particularly distinguished himself in 1799 by the capture of the town of Brescia. In the wars of 180B his