of the Acropolis, and entering through the Propylen, hel Doomed, apparently, to become the prey of every spoiler, describes in order each object which adorned the summit. | Athens again emerges from oblivion in the 13th century, with an accuracy faily borne oat by recent excavations. under Baldwin and his crusaders, at a time when it was His last walk in Athens (ch xxvij. 4, uir ģ 1) con- | besieged by a general of Theodorus Lascaris, the Greek dacts us through the various buiding at the western base emperor. In 1427 it was taken by Sultan Amurath II ; but

emperor. In 142 of the Acropolis. From the temple of the Semnæ he passes soice tiine afterwards it was recovered from the infidels by to the court of the Areopagos, and the mention of this | another body of crusaders under the marquis of Montferrat, leads him to speak of the other judicial courts of Athens. a powerful baron of the West, who bestowed it, along with The rest of his first book is occupied with an account of Thebes, on Otho de la Roche, one of his principal followers. the suburbs of Atheas—the Academy, the sacred way to For a considerable time both cities were governed by Otho Eleusis, &c., and the topography of Attica in general and his descendants, with the title of dukes; but being

A few words may suffice to describe the ultimate iate of unable to maintain themselves in their Greek principality, Athens In the reign of Valerian the northern barbarians they were at length succeeded by Walter of Brienne, who, first appeared in the north of Greece, where they laid siege soon after his succession, was expelled by his new subjects, to Thessalonica. This extraordinary apparition having aided by the Spaniards of Catalonia. The next rulers of alarmned all Greece, the Athenians restored their city wall, Athens were the Acciajuoli, an opulent family of Florence, which Sulla had dismantled, and otherwise placed the town in whose possession it remained until 1455, when it was in a state of defence sufficient to secure it against a coup. taken by Omar, & general of Mahomet IL, and thus fell a de-main. But under Gallienus, the next emperor. Athens second time into the hands of the barbarians. The was besieged, and the archonship abolished, upon which victorious sultan Bottled a Mahometan colony in his new the strategos or general, who had previously acted as conquest, which he incorporated with the Ottoman empire ; inspector of the Agora became the chief magistrate. I and Athens. as well as Greece. continued to form an Under Claudius the city was taken, but recovered soon | integral part of the Turkish dominions, until the treaty afterwards. Constantine the Great gloried in the title of of Adrianople in 1829, following up the provisions and General of Athens, which had been conferred upon hiig, stipulatious of the treaty of London, 7th July 1827, estaband expressed high satisfaction on obtaining from the lished withiu certain limits the new state of Greece, of people the honour of a statue with an inscription,-a dis- / which Athens is now the capital tinction which he acknowledged by sending to the city a From the period of the Ottoman couquest to the comyearly gratuity of grain. He also conferred on the governor mencement of the insurrection in 1821 Athens was only of Attica and Athens the title of Méyas Aové, or Grand knowu in history by two attempts, on the part of the Duke, which soon became hereditary, and his son Constans Venetians, to expel the Turks and make themselves masters bestowed several islands on the city, in order to supply it of the city. The first of these took place in 1464, only with corn. În the time of Theodosius I, that is, towards nine years after its capture by the Osmanlis, and proved the end of the 4th century, the Goths laid waste Thessaly an entire failure. But the second, which was undertaken and Epirus; but Theodorus, general of the Greeks, acted in 1687, more than two centuries later, was crowned with with so much prudence, that ho saved the Greek cítics irom a temporary and fatal success in the month of Seplember pillage and the inhabitants from captivity, a service which of that year, Count Königainark, & Swede in the service was most gratefully acknowledged. But this deliver- of Venice, having disembarked at the Piræeus a force of ance proved only temporary. The fatal period was non 8000 foot and 870 horse, forming part of the annament fast approaching, and, in a real barbarian, Athens was under Francesco Jorosini, afterwards doge, marched to doorned to experience a conqueror yet more rernorseless | Athens, and having summoned the citadel without effeci, than Sulla. This was Alaric, king of the Goths, who, lhe erected a battery of_heavy ordnance or the hill of the under the Emperors Arcadius and Honorius, overran both Payı, and placing two mortars near the Latin convont at Italy and Greece, sacking, pillaging, and destroying. the western foot of the Acropolis, bombarded 1:or several Never, indeed, did the fury even of barbarían conquest days. The fire of the cannon was chiefly directed against discharge itself in a fiercer or more desolating tempest the Propylæa, and the modern defences below that edifice, The Peloponnesian cities were overturned; Arcadia and whilst the inoriara continued, without interroission, to Lacedæmon were both laid waste; the gulfs of Lepanto throw shells into the citadel. The consequence was, that and Ægina were illuminated with the flames of Corinth; the beautiful little temple of Nike Apteros, the fricze of and the Athenian matrons were dragged in chains to eatisfy which is now in the Bntish Museum, was completely the brutal desires of the barbarians. The invaluable destroyed by the breaching battery, and the Parthenon, treasures of antiquity were removed ; stately and magni. besides being greatly injured by the bursting of the shells, ficent structures were reduced to heaps of ruin; and Athens, was, towards the close of the attack, almost rent in pieces stripped of the monuments of her ancient splendour, was by the explosion of a powder magazine, which reduced the compared by Synesius, a writer of that age, to a victim of middle of the temple to a heap of ruins, threw down the which the body had been consumed, and the skin only whole of the wall at the eastern extremity, and precipitated remained,

to the ground every statue on the eastern pediment. The After this dreadful visitation Athens sank into insigni western extremity was fortunately less injured, and a part ficance, and became as obscure as it had ouco been illustrious. of the Opisthodonios was still left standing, together with We are indeed informed that the cities of Hellas were put some of the lateral colunins of the peristyle adjoining to in a state of defence by Justinian, who repaired the walls the cell. But the shock was nevertheless abundantly of Corinth, which had been overturned by an earthquake, disastrous; and when the Turks afterwards regained and those of Athens, which had falleu into decay through possession of the citadel (from which, on this occasion, age. But from the time of this einueros a chasm of nearly they were expelled), they did all in their power to complete seven centuries crues in its history : except that, about the destruction which the Venetians had so vigorously the year 1100, it furnished Roger, the first king of Sicily, begun, by defacing, mutilating, or burning for lime every with a number of artificers, who there introduced the fragment of the edifice within their reach. culture of silk, whicb afterwards passed into Italy The In the course of the revolutionary war Athens susworms, it scems, had been brought froin India to Contained three sieges. The first was laid by the Greeks ciantinople in the reign of Justinian.

1 in 1822. Having carried the town by storm, and driven

the Turks into the citadel, they established a strict blockade / chiefly through the efforts of the Archæological Society of of the fortress, which was continued until the advance of Athens, but the antiquaries and scholars of all Europe the Pasha at the head of 4000 men induced them to have anxiously watched their endeavours, and France and abandon their enterprise, and fily, with the Athenians, to Prussia have vied with Great Britain in the prosecution of Salamis and Ægina. Two months afterwards, the Pasha Athenian discovery. The Theseium has become a treasury of having left Athens to the defence of 1500 men, the Greeks ancient sculpture, and a new archeological museum has been again ventured to attack the town, and succeeded in also erected to contain the ever-increasing stores of ancient obliging the Turks to seek refuge in the citadel, which they inscriptions and sculptures. The royal palace is a large forth with determined to besiege ; but, from ignorance and building of Pentelic marble, situated in the eastern quarter want of means, no progress whatever was made in the of the city, on the highest part of the gentle eminence operation until they obtained possession of the well which which rises from the level of the Tissus and Cephisus supplied the garrison with water, when the Turks agreed to towards Lycabettus. The University (maVETLOTÝ ÜLov) was capitulate upon condition of being immediately embarked founded in 1837, and numbers over 1200 students, while with their families and sent to Asia Minor. On various its staff of 52 professors includes the names of some of the pretences, however, embarkation was delayed from time to most learned Greek archæologists in Europe. In fact, time ; and when intelligence at length arrived that a large l the schools and other educational institutions of Athens are Turkish force was advancing upon Athens, the Palicari, very numerous, and thoroughly efficient. The archæoinstead of manning the walls and preparing for a vigorous logical journals of Athens are full of information concerndefence, rushed in a body to the houses where the prisoners ing the progress of excavations, and publish the texts of were confined, and commenced an indiscriminate massacre. newly-discovered inscriptions. The population in 1871 For this atrocity it is no palliation to remember that the was over 48,000, exclusive of the population of the Piraeus, Greek character had morally suffered from centuries of which would bring the total up to about 60,000. The servitude, and that they had terrible arrears of vengeance harbour is visited by ships of all nations. A railway to exact. The third siege was laid by the Turks in 1826. connects the Piræeus with the city, and enters the ancient The Greeks had left a strong garrison in the Acropolis, town about half-way between the site of the Dipylum and with provisions for several months; and a spring of water Piræan gates The terminus stands in the midst of what having been discovered in the cave of Pan, and enclosed by once was the Agora in Cerameicus. The principal street Odysseus within the defences of the citadel, there was no is Hermes Street, running from west to east, a little north danger of its being starved into a surrender. But the of the terminus, until it reaches the royal palace. Two Turks having established batteries near the Pnyx and on other good streets, Athena Street and Æolus Street, traverse the hill of the Museium, and having drawn a line of this at right angles. The other streets, with the exception trenches round the citadel, with the view of intercepting of Stadium Street on the N.E., between the chamber of all communication between the besieged and the Greek deputies and the University, are generally narrow and army, the garrison was hard pressed ; and although Colonel winding. Altogether, Athens, like the rest of Greece, is Fabrier succeeded in forcing his way through the Turkish in a condition of increasing prosperity, and reaps the lines with 500 men and a supply of ammunition, and thus blessings of freedom. It is true that in our own country affording immediate relief, yet the total defeat of the Greek the ardent philhellenism of forty years ago has cooled army under General Church at the battle of Athens, fought down, and Greece is no longer an object of popular and in the hope of raising the siege, led soon afterwards to the sentimental admiration. Yet never did the scholars of surrender of the Acropolis, which remained in the hands of Europe turn with keener zest to the study of her ancient the Turks until the termination of the revolutionary war. monuments; and if Attica were cleared for ever of

In 1812 Athens could boast of a population of 12,000 ! brigands, and furnished with satisfactory roads, then in souls, but during the war the greater part of the city was | numbers tenfold greater than now would reverent travellers laid in ruins, and most of the inhabitants were dispersed. | from the west of Europe delight to make their pilgrimage In 1834 it was declared the capital of the new kingdom to the birthplace of philosophy, literature, and art. of Greece. Great exertions have been made since then to The following are some of the most important works on the restore the city; streets have been opened, levelled, subject :-- Leake's Topography of Athens; Wordsworth's Athens widened; the ancient sewers have been cleared and

and Attica; Bursian's Geographie von Griechenland, and article

" Athenä" in Pauly's Real- Encyclopädie, 2d ed. ; E. Curtius's repaired, and the marshes of Cephisus drained. Excava

| Attische Studien; Dyer's Ancient Athens ; Wachsmuth's Die Stadt tions of ancient sites and buildings have been carried out,- | Athen in Alterthum.

(E. L. H.)

ATHENS, the name of several towns in the United ATHIAS, JOSEPH, a celebrated rabbi and printer at States of America, the chief of which are the following :- Amsterdam, whose editions of the Hebrew Bible are noted (1.) The capital of a county of the same name in the S.E. | for the general correctness of the text. Although he was a of the state of Ohio, finely situated on the Hocking River: | learned Hebraist, there aro occasional errors in the points, It is the seat of the Ohio university, which was founded in especially in the edition of 1661, but many of these were 1804. Population of county, 23,768. (2.) The capital of corrected in that of 1667. He also printed several editions Clarke county, Georgia, on the W. bank of the Oconee River. of the Bible in the corrupted Hebrew spoken by the Jews It is the seat of the Georgia university, which was of Spain, Germany, Poland, and England. He died in founded in 1801, and the central town of a large cotton- 1700. growing district. Population in 1870, 4251. of whom ATHLETÆ (

ånraí), among the Greeks and Romans, 1967 were coloured.

was the designation of persons who contended for prizes ATHERTON, or CHOWBENT, a township in the parish (801a) in the public games, exclusive of musical and other of Leigh and hundred of West Derby, in Lancashire, 200 contests, where bodily strength was not called into play, miles from London. It is one of those places which have though here also the word was sometimes applied, and it was grown to Wealth and populousness through the extension even extended to horses which had won a race, and agaia of the cotton trade. Besides its factories, it has collieries metaphorically, e.g., to persons who had exerted themselves and ironworks, Population in 1871, 7531.

l in good deeds (áðintás Twv Kalâ cpywv). On the other band, the term was restricted so as to exclude those who, the other side with a figure of Pallas Athena, with an for mere exercise, without the incentive of a prize, prac- inscription telling where they were gained, and in some tised in the daily gymnastic competitions. For such the cases adding the name of the eponymous magistrate of name was åywiotaí, and this distinction was the more Athens, from which the exact year can be determined necessary in the later period of Greek history, when Among the Romans, fond as they were of exhibitions of trained athletes became a professional class (400–300 B.C.) physical skill and strength, the profession of athletes 6:13 Yet it was not the value of the prizes themselves which entirely an exotic, and was even under the empire with led men to devote their lives to athletic exercises. That difficulty transplanted from Greece. The system and tho was at most very insignificant. But from the heroic athletes themselves were always purely Greek. (A. 8. 2.) legends of competitions for prizes, such as those at the ATHLETIC SPORTS. Although this term is un. obsequies of Patroclus (Iliad, xxiii. 257, foll.), from the doubtedly derived from the ancient ådantai, the derivation great antiquity of the four national games of Greece (the does not exactly indicate its present meaning, inasmuch Olympian, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian, with the local as our inodern athletes are distinctly defined to be amateurs, Panathenæa at Athens), and from the high social position in contradistinction to professionals. In fact, the former of the competitors in early times, there gradually became pursue the agonistic art, and should be styled “ agonistics," attached to victory in one of these games so much glory, if we may be allowed to invent such a word, rather than that the townsmen of a victor' were ready to, and frequently athletes. How the pastime came to be thus named in did, erect a statue to him, receive him in triumph, and Britain some fifteen years ago it is hard to say. Till about care for him for the rest of his life. Against specially | 1860, all exercises wherein the feet played the principal part trained athletes the better class of citizens refused to were rightly styled “pedestrianism." Up to that period all compete, and the lists of the public games being thus left prizes, whether contended for by amateurs or professionals, practically open only to professionals, training became were invariably in Loney. As the practice of the pastime, more a matter of system and study, particularly in regard however, rapidly stread amongst the former, it was naturally to diet, which was rigorously prescribed for the athletes found they were loth to compete on the same terms with, and by a public functionary, styled the Aleiptes, who also had for similar trophies as, the latter. Hence arose the modern to salve their bodies when practising. At one time their definition of an aniateur athlete, viz., “Any person who principal food consisted of fresh cheese, dried figs, and has never competed in an open competition, or for public wheaten bread. Afterwards meat was introduced, gene- money, or for admission money, or with professionals for a rally beef or pork; but the bread and meat were taken prize, public nuoney, or admission money; nor has ever at separately, the former at breakfast (äplotov), the latter at any period of his life, taught, or assisted in the pursuit dinner (Peitvov). Except in wine, the quantity was of athletic exercises as a means of livelihood ; uor is a unlimited, and the capacity of some of the heavy weights mechanic, artisan, or labourer.” The moment this defini(Bapeîs å nraí) must have been, if such stories as those tion was brought into force a wide barrier arose between about Milo are true, enormous. Cases of death from the two classes, and amateurs ceased to compete for money apoplexy are not unknown among them. The Tarentine | prizes amongst themselves, or against professionals, on any Iccus was an example of the strictest abstinence. Their terms, unless they were willing to forfeit their status. A instruction consisted, besides the ordinary gymnastic generic term was required for the new pastime, and in lieu exercises of the palæstra, in carrying heavy loads, lifting of a better it was entitled “athletic sports," and its votaries weights, bending iron rods, striking at a suspended leather “athletes." Hence the haphazard origin of the name. The back (Kúpukos) filled with sand or four, taming bulls, &c. birthplace of the modern pastimo was undoubtedly the great Boxers had to practise delving the ground, to strengthen. universities and the military and public schools. Cricket their upper limbs. The competitions open to athletes has always been justly considered the national game of were in running, leaping, throwing the discus, wrestling, Great Britain during the summer months, and football fills boxing, and the Pancratiam, or combination of boxing and the same position in the winter. For a month or six weeks wrestling. Victory in this last was the highest achieve in spring and autumn the weather and condition of the ment of an athlete, and was reserved only for men of ground are in a transition state, and fit for neither of these extraordinary strength. The competitors were naked, pastimes, and athletic sports step in and appropriately fill having their bodies salved with oil. Boxers wore the the vacuum. About the year 1812 the Royal Military cæstus, i.e., straps of leather, round the wrists and fore- College at Sandhurst inaugurated modern athletic sports; arms, with a piece of metal in the fist, which was some- but the example was not followed till about 1840, when times employed with great barbarity. An athlete could Rugby School, Eton College, Harrow School, Shrewsbury begin his career as a boy in the contests set apart for boys. Royal School, and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, He could appear again as a youth against his equals, and came to the front. Fifteen years later college meetings had though always unsuccessful, could go on competing till the become pretty general both at Oxford and Cambridge. age of 35, when he was debarred, it being assumed that Kensington Grammar School had founded the first annual after this period of life he could not improve. It some series of gatherings held in London, whilst Cheltenham times happened that an athlete would agree to allow his College led the van amongst English public schools. After rival to win; but for that and other cases of dishonesty a a few months' negotiations the first Oxford v. Cambridge fiue was imposed, and the money expended in erecting annual meeting was held in 1864, and is justly considered statues, called Záves, with warning inscriptions. The most the premier réunion of the whole year, the interest shown celebrated of the Greek athletes whose names have been and the attendance of spectators being little, if anything, handed down are Milo, Hipposthenes, Polydamas, Proma- less than at the annual boat race between the same two scats chus, and Glaucus. Cyrene, famous in the time of Pindar of learning. Two years later the annual amateur chom. for its athletes, appears to have still maintained its reputa pionship meeting was founded in London, when the Oxford tion to at least the time of Alexander the Great; for in and Cambridge victors meet representatives from all parts the British Maseunı are to be seen six prize vases carried of the United Kingdom, and contend for the “blue off from the gaines at Athens by natives of that district. | ribands” of the various events. The principal athletic These vases, fouri in the tombs, probably, of the winners, society at present in existence is undoubtedly the “London are made of clay, and painted on one side with a repre Athletic Club," which takes the lead in all matters persentation of the contest in which they were won, and on taining to athletics throughout the United Kingdom. In England, moreover, there is now scarcely a country town, / ing and putting the weight, yet t'uey are now practised at sea-side watering-place, cricket, rowing, or football club of nearly every English and Irish meeting. 16 I) is the usual importance, and probably not a single university or school, weight of the missile except in Ireland, where a 42-1b, and which does not hold its annual gathering for athletic pur- sometimes a 56-lb weight are put, though in a very unposes. Across the border the professional still far eclipses satisfactory fashion. Athletic sports may be practised in the amateur element, and there is no meeting of amateurs a well-rolled grass field, but the best arena is an enclosure, which can by any means be compared with the autumn | with a regularly laid down running track, the foundation Highland gatherings at Braemar and elsewhere. Until | made of clinkers and rubble, and the surface of well-rolled recently the two classes contended indiscriminately together, fine cinder ashes.

(1. F. W.) and the prowess displayed by such amateurs as the late! ATHLONE, a market-town and parliamentary borough Professor Wilson affords ample testimony that gentlemen of Ireland, lying partly in West Meath and partly in were quite capable of holding their own against profes- | Roscommon, 76 miles W. of Dublin. The River Shannon sionals. The number of annual amateur gatherings held | divides the town into two portions, which are connected in Scotland is, however, extremely limited, and scarcely | by a handsome new bridge, opened in 1844. The rapids extends beyond the universities and chief schools connected of the Shannon at this point are obviated by means of a with Edinburgh, St Andrews, Glasgow, and Aberdeen. In canal about a mile long, which renders the navigation of Ireland the origin of the pastime is again attributable to the river practicable for 71 miles above the town. In the leading university, viz., Trinity College, Dublin, where the war of 1688 the possession of Athlone was considered the decision of isolated events, from about the year 1845, of the greatest importance, and it consequently sustained has given rise to the meetings now annually held in the two sieges, the first by William III. in person, which picturesque College Park at Dublin, The Irish civil service failed, and the second by General Ginkell, who, in the face meeting was inaugurated in 1867, since which time the of the Irish, forded the river and took possession of tho pastime has made marvellous strides in the island, as is town, with the loss of only fifty men. At the time of the testified by inportant meetings now held annually in last war with France it was strongly fortified on the RoscomBelfast, Cork, and Galway; whilst the recently formed mon side, the works covering 15 acres and containing two Irish Champion Athletic Club takes the lead, and stands magazines, an ordnance store, an armoury with 15,000 in the same relation to Ireland as the London Athletic stand of arms, and barracks for 1500 men. There are two Club does to the whole of Great Britain. Athletic sports parish churches, two Roman Catholic parochial chapels, a are also now extending on the Continent, at many great Franciscan and Augustinian chapel, Presbyterian, Baptist, watering-places where Englishmen are in the habit of con and Methodist meeting-houses, a court-house, bridewell, a gregating. Our great colonies of India, Australia, New union work-house, and two branch banks. It has a Zealand, and Canada, too, as well as the United States of woollen factory, as well as other industries, and an activo America, Buenos Ayres, China, and even Japan, are not trade is carried on with Shannon harbour and Limerick by without their annual gatherings for competitors of the steamers, and with Dublin by the Grand and Royal Canals Anglo-Saxon race. The contests now classified under the and several railway lines, while the importance of its fairs name “ athletic sports" are, walking, running, leaping, and markets is increasing. There is also a valuable throwing the hammer, and putting the weight. Leaping fishery in the river. Market-days, Tuesday and Saturday. and running are respectively identical with the alma and The borougli returns one member to parliament. Popula. @pózos of the ancient pentathlon; whereas throwing the tion in 1871, 6566; constituency in 1873, 336.-Thom's hammer and putting the weight bear some resemblance to Irish Almanac for 1875. throwing the Siokos. Spear-hurling, åkóvrlov, is never ATHOR, ATHYR, HATOR, the name of the Egyptian practised but by a few gymnastic societies; and wrestling, | divinity corresponding to Aphrodite or Venus. Her name rain, between amateurs is rarely witnessed. Running and meant "the abode of Hor” or Horus, and she was tho leaping, however, are nearly always combined on every mother of that deity in some of his types, and as such a occasion in two descriptions of contests, viz., steeplechasing form of Isis, of whom she was a higher or celestial maniand hurdle-racing. Race-walking finds most votaries in festation. Her name occurs as early as the 4th dynasty, London, the northern counties of England, and in Ireland, when she is styled the mistress of the tree, or sycamore, all distances, from 1 mile to 7, being in vogue amongst neha, or the tree of the south. Besides the local titles of aincteurs. Running comprises all distances from 100 yards the different cities over which she presided, she was entitled up to 4 miles. Leaping may be divided into three principal regent of the gods, living mistress of the upper and lower heads, viz., running high-leaping, running wide-leaping, world, mistress of the heaven and regent of the West, and and running pole-leaping, which are found to be included pupil or eye of Ra, or the Sun, with whom she was conin nearly every athletic programme. Adjuncts to these are nected. In her celestial character she is represented as an the running hop-step-and-jump, standing high-leaping, and Egyptian female holding a sceptre, her head surmounted standing wide-leaping, all of which are favourite pastimes by the sun's disk, horns, and uræus, and her flesh coloured in the northern and midland counties of England. Vault- blue, the colour of the heaven, or yellow, that of gold and ing, too, is sometimes practised, but belongs rather to the beauty (according to Egyptian notions), a term also applied gymnasium than outdoor athletic arena. Steeplechasing to Aphrodite in Greek mythology. In her terrestrial charproper can only be practised over natural courses across acter she was the goddess who presided over sports and country. Its home is to be found at Rugby School, and dancing, music and pleasure, like the Greek Aphrodite, the amongst members of hare-and-hounds' clubs, who keep goddess of love ; but her particularly special type was the themselves in exercise thereby during the winter months. white or spotted cow, the supposed mother of the sun. Artificial steeplechase courses are often made on athletic The solar deities Shu and Tefnut were her children. Ir grounds; but the leaps are generally far too sensational, certain legends she is mentioned as the seven cows of and constructed rather to afford merriment to the spec- Athor, which appear in the Ritual or Book of the Dead. tators than a fair test of the competitors' leaping powers. These cows, like the Moire, or fates of Greek mythology, & prettier sight than a well-contested hurdle race can appeared at the births of legendary persons, and predicted scarcely be imagined; but few first class hurdle racers are the course and events of their lives. It is in this capacity met with outside the universities and public schools. Scot | that Athor is connecteá with Ptah, or the Egyptian Land is undoubtedly the birthplace both of hammer throw. | Hephæstus, and is allied to Sekhet or Bast, called the wife


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or mistress of Ptah, the seven cows being the mystical | the number of hermits and monks that have found shelter companions of the Apis, the second life or incarnation of in its retreats. No fewer than 935 churches, chapels, and the god of Memphis. She was also represented under the oratories are said to exist, and many of the communities attributes and with the titles of the goddess Nut, or the possess considerable wealth. It is believed that, with the Egyptian Rhea. The cow of Athor wore on its head the exception of the dwellings of Pompeii, some buildings in solar disk, and hawk feather plumes, like Amen Ra; and in this character as the great cow she has on some monuments

Æ A N her human head replaced by that of a cow wearing a disk, or the disk and plumes. This emblem also appears in her

SE A type at a later period, when her head is represented with long tresses curled into a spiral at the end, and she has the ears of a cow instead of human ears. Her head is then surmounted by a doorway or its cornice, emblem of

chilandan the abode of the sun, which she represented. This is sometimes surmounted by the disk and horns. The

Zyrophes handle of the sistrum, a musical instrument with bars, was generally made in shape of this head and cornice, as

Dogbeinreicher s tevronics were also the capitals of the columns of Abusimbel, Den

Xesopbote derah, and other temples, and the ægis and prows of certain

GULA OF Xeropotan arks. As the goddess of beauty and youth, many of the queens of Egypt assumed her type and attributes, and young females after death, at the Ptolemaic and subsequent periods,


HACION OROS : Crego fol had their names preceded by that of th3 goddess, as both sexes had “Osiris” from the period of the 19th dynasty, that of Athor being a later substitute, and for females only. The third month of the Egyptian year was named

English Milano Athor after her, and the fish aten or latus, a kind of carp,

Cape si Georgia was sacred to her. The names and titles of Athor were very

Sketch-Map of Athos. numerous, and she is named in the inscriptions the lady or Athos are the oldest specimens of domestic architecture in mistress of Silsilis, Abusimbul, Pselcis, Ombos, Hermonthis, Europe; the shrines are in many cases richly decorated Apollonopolis Magna, and Heliopolis ; but the chief site with goldsmith's work of great antiquity; the wealth of her worship was Denderah, or Tentyris, where she is of the monastic libraries in illuminated manuscripts has mentioned under many names, and all the different festi. long been celebrated ; and nowhere, according to Mr vals held in her honour are recorded in the calendar of the Tozer, can the Byzantine school of painting be studied temple. Athor is one of the oldest of the Egyptian deities, with equal advantage. The date of the oldest religious and her worship continued till the fall of Pantheism and foundation in the peninsula is not clearly ascertained, and substitution of Christianity. Her worship passed from the traditional chronology of the monks themselves can Egypt to the neighbouring isles, cow-headed figures of the hardly be trusted. A bull of Romanus Leca penus speaks goddess having been discovered in Cyprus. Her figures of the restoration of the monastery of Xeropotamu in 924, and representation are common. Jablonski, Panth.; Wil- and as early as 885 a rescript of Basil the Macedonian kinson, Manners and Customs, iv. 387; Birch, Gall. | forbids the molestation of the “ holy hermits." Lavra, on Antiq., p. 25; Duemichen, Bauurkunde der Dendera, Leip. Mount Athos proper, was founded by St Athanasius in 1865.

(8. B.) 960; the village of Caryes or "The Hazels," was appointed ATHOS is, strictly speaking, the terminal peak of the as the seat of government about the same time; and most eastern of the three peninsular promontories which shortly afterwards there followed the establishments Iveron stretch south from the coast of Turkey (Macedonia), like (rwv 'IBńpwv), Vatopedi (Batonédov), and Sphigmenu (roll the prongs of a trident, into the Archipelago. The name 'Eo blyuevov). The family of the Comneni (1056-1204) is, however, frequently extended to the whole peninsula bestowed great privileges on the existing monastaries, and which was formerly known as Acte. The peak rises like added to their number. In the reign of Alexius the first a pyramid, with a steep summit of white marble, to a purely Slavonic monastery (that of Chilandari) was founded þeight of 6780 feet, and can be seen at sunset from the by the Servian prince Stephen Nemenja. The taking of plain of Troy on the one hand, and on the other from the Constantinople by the Latins in 1204 brought persecution slopes of Olympus. The whole peninsula is remarkable and pillage on the monks ; this reminded them of earlier for the beauty of its scenery, with rocky heights and richly- Saracenic invasions, and led them to appeal for protection wooded Alanks, ravines "embowered from the light," and to Pope Innocent III., who gave them a favourable reply: glimpses or free outlook over the surrounding sea. The Under the Palæologi they recovered their prosperity, and climate is for the most part healthy and pleasant, though were enriched by gifts from various sources. In the 14th the western side is perhaps too much exposed to the heats century the peninsula. became the chosen retreat of several of summer; and Lucian assures us that in ancient times of the emperors, and the monasteries were thrown into the inhabitants were famous for longevity. Several towns, commotion by the famous dispute about the mystical such as Sane, Dium, Olophyxus, Cleonæ, are mentioned by Hesychasts. Their numbers were gradually increased by Greek and Latin writers as existing in the Peninsula; but the foundation of St Dionysius, Simopetra, Constamonitu, none of them seem to have attained any great importance, Russico, St Paul. In the 15th century the monks made and the most remarkable event in the ancient history of terms with the Turkish conqueror Amurath, and have Athos is the construction by Xerxes of a ship-canal across since been molested by none of the sultans, except Soliman the isthmus between the outer sea and the Singitic gulf. the Magnificent, who laid waste some parts of the peninsula. Traces of this canal, which was regarded by Juvenal as a In 1545 Stavroniceta, the last monastery, was added to the Greek myth, have been found almost right across the neck list. The hospodars of Wallachia, who were recognised of land, and leave no doubt of the truth of the story. In as the protectors of Athos, enriched the communities with more modern times the district of Athos has been famous for lands; but a process of secularisation was commenced by

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