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ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

A THE NS

ATHENS.('Aanvas, ATHENR) was the name of as many | vii. 81), afterwards known as the Erechtheiun,and an

A as nine towns in various parts of the Grecian world, altar of Zeus Polieus, where the strange sacrifices of the among which Athence Diades, in the N.W. of Eubea, a Dipolia were celebrated. A Prytaneium, containing the town belonging to the Athenian confederation, is worthy of hearth-fire of the state, and serving as the residence of the mention. But it was the capital of Attica which invested king, would be another indispensable feature in the the name of Athens with an undying charm for the poet, primitive town. But while the king and some of the most the artist, the philosopher, the historian, for all time. It sacred families probably had dwellings within the fortress is situated in long. 23° 44' E, lat. 37° 58' N., towards the itself, Thucydides (ü. 15) points out that a great part of south of the central plain (Tedlov) of Attica, about 44 the early population dwelt outside its walls, under the miles from the barbour of Piræeus, and nearly 4 from south side of the cliff, probably without fortification, but the Bay of Phalerum. The survey of Pausanias (i. 2-30), retiring to the citadel in times of peril In this quarter, when compared with existing remains, and supplemented towards the Tissus, stood the oldest Athenian sanctuary by the numerous incidental notices of ancient authors, of Dionysus, in a region called Aluvan from having been enables us to form a more perfect conception of the topo literally a marsh in early times. Not far off, and nearer graphy of ancient Athens than of any other Greek city. the stream, stood the temple of Zeus Olympius, said to Recent excavations have added greatly to our knowledge be founded by Deucalion (Pausan., i. 18), of which moro of it, and the literature of the subject is very extensive (see will be said presently, the precinct of Gasa Olympia, and p. 11, infra). Our object in this article will be to treat of other sacred places. Here also was the fountain of the topography of Athens from an historical point of view, Callirrhoe, afterwards ornamented by the Pisistratids, and and to show how the rise, the greatness, the decline of the called Enneacrunus, the water of which was sought for city may be read in the history of its buildings.

sacred purposes long after the city had outgrown these There seems little reason to doubt that the earliest settle early limits (Thucyd., Ü. 15). The region we have been ment on Athenian soil was upon the cliff afterwards famous describing formed the nucleus of the later city, and as the Acropolis. Such is the express statement of therefore, at the subdivision of all Attica into demes, this Thucydides (ii. 15), who observes that the Acropolis was quarter was distinguished by the name KudaDývaiov. commonly termed at Athens ý móds, much as the oldest To the west of the Acropolis there extends from N. to part of London is styled “ The City." The earliest inhabi- S. a range of hills, the three most prominent heights of tants appear to have been Pelasgians; and though it was which are commonly known respectively as the Hill of the the boast of the Athenians that they alone of all Greek Nymphs, the Pnyx, and the Museium,-the Nymphs' Hill stistes were indigenous (aúróxoves), yet their town would being separated from the Acropolis by the Areopagus, from the first have received accessions from various parts which intervenes between. Everywhere upon the slopes of the continent, the peaceful poverty of Attica affording of the hills just mentioned traces have lately been dis& welcome refuge in those early and unsettled times covered of ancient dwellings hewn out of the solid rock. (Thucyd., i 2). The most accessible portion of the Acro- But while all these rock-dwellings are extremely ancient, polis is the western side, where it is joined by a neck of yet some appear less primitive than others; it is remarked hill to the Areopagus. On this side there existed down that those which exist on the Areopegus and on the hillto later times the remains of fortifications built by the sides nearest to the Acropolis are of a smaller and ruder earliest inhabitants, with nine doorways, 'one within the type, those more distant from the citadel being somewhat other, called rò ledaryukov, or to 'Evvedrudov. This fort more convenient in plan and extent. Legend declares the protected the only entrance to the citadel, which was Athenians to have originally dwelt in rock-hewn caves surrounded by a wall, and artificially levelled for the recep- (Dyer's Athens, ch. i.), and it would seem that primitivo tion of buildings. Within this fortified enclosure stood the Athens gradually extended itself from the Acropolis in shrine of Athena Polias (Homer, Niad, ii. 449; Odyssey, this W. and S.W. direction. This quarter was afterwards

III.

known as the intramural deme of Melite, a name derived, | Apollo near the Olympium, was also ascribed to Pisisperhaps, from the balm which then grew there (the evóóns tratus, whose grandson and namesake dedicated an altar Melírcia of Theocr., iv. 25). The historian E. Curtius within it (Thucyd., vi. 54). To Pisistratus was ascribed (Attische Studien, pt. i.) has, indeed, gone so far as to the founding of the Lyceium, or temple of Apollo Lyceius, regard these rock-dwellings as earlier than the occupa.which stood on the right bank of the Missus, à short tion of the Acropolis itself. But the contrary opinion of distance from the city. The names both of Pericles and Thucydides is worth something, and the natural strength Lycurgus the orator are also associated with this building; of the Acropolis would make it the most obvious spot for yet it is not known who added the gymnasium close by, primitive occupation. Accordingly, we shall not be giving which afterwards became famous as the favourite haunt of too free a licence to our imagination if we conceive of Aristotle, and the birthplace of the Peripatetic philosophy. primitive Athens as a. twofold settlement, partly on the The yet more famous seat of the rival philosophy seems Acropolis and the low ground at its southern foot, and also to have owed something to the Pisistratids, for partly upon the eastern slopes of the hills on the west. It Hipparchus was said to have enclosed the Academy with a may even have been the consolidation of these two villages wall. This was a gymnasium surrounded by pleasant into one township that gave rise to the legend ascribing to gardens lying to the N. of the city, about a mile from Theseus the OUVOLKLO JUOS or consolidation of Attica. It the Dipylum gate. It owes all its fame, of course, to its would be natural for legend to assign to one definite timè, connection with Plato, who lived, taught, and was buried and connect with one great mythical name, that process of there. This site, so full of glorious memories, cannot now unification which probably was as gradual as it was be identified with certainty. Its trees, like those of the spontaneous. As the population of the early town con- Lyceium, were despoiled by Sulla to make implements of tinued to increase, two more districts seem to have been in war. The name of Pisistratus is connected with another corporated-Collytus, extending from the east of Melite, important site. Professor E. Curtius (Attische Studien, pt. between the Acropolis and Areopagus, and Cerameicus, or 2), supposes that the most ancient Athenian market lay on the “ Potters' quarter” (“Tuileries "), which extended from the S. of the Acropolis, and that the Pisistratids superseded the same two hills towards the north and north-west. The it by a new market at the northern foot of the Areopagus. regions we have now described appear to have made up Be this as it may, we are sure that, as early as their times, the Athens of Solonian times. The earliest historical this site formed the centre of Athenian commercial and event which illustrates Athenian topography is the rising civic life. The narrow valley between the Pnyx Hill and of Cylon (Herod., v. 71 ; Thucyd., i. 126 ; Pausan., i. 28). the Areopagus, where older topographers placed the The narratives of that event imply that the Acropolis was Agora, is not a spacious enough site for the purpose. The already fortified by the Enneapylum, that the Areopagus obvious locality for an Agora would be the rectangular was already the seat of the court which bore its name (see space enclosed by the Areopagus on the S., by the

AREOPAGUS), and that near the entrance of the citadel Acropolis on the E., and on the W. by the eminence | stood an altar of the Semnæ, or Furies, at which Cylon occupied by the Theseium. To the N. and N.E, no barrier

and his partisans were slain. This altar has been immor existed ; accordingly, the entrance was from the Dipylum talised by Æschylus in the splendid conclusion of the gate on the N.W., and on the N.E. the market received Eumenides. Another sacred spot in early Athens must extension in Roman times. The Agora thus stood in the have been the Leocorium, where Hipparchus was assassin- region known as Cerameicus. But as the Cerameicus ated (Thucyd., i. 20 ; vi. 57). This was a shrine erected in extended for some miles in a N.W. direction, it became honour of the daughters of Leo, who were sacrificed by divided by the city wall into the outer and the inner their father to Athena, in order to avert a pestilence. Cerameicus. The outer Cerameicus was an agreeable The nature of the legend testifies to the antiquity of the suburb, lying on the road to the Academy and Colonus, site. The words of Thucydides respecting Cylon imply the home of Sophocles ; and it was here that citizens who that the early city was already surrounded by a ring-wall, died in their country's wars received a public burial. and this probably remained intact until the invasion of the Through gate Dipylum one passed into the inner CerameiPersians, although the buildings within the walls under cus, the most important quarter of which was naturally the went great alteration and improvements under the govern Agora itself; and so it was common to speak of the Agora ment of Pisistratus and his sons.

as “The Cerameicus." How much this market-place The reign of the Pisistratids was recoguised by the may have owed to the designs of the Pisistratids we ancients as marking an important era in Athenian topo cannot now determine. The statues of Harmodius and graphy. We have already mentioned the fountain of Aristogiton formed a conspicuous ornament of the south Enneacrunus as being built by them. It was Pisistratus portion, and Thucydides (vi. 54) informs us that the who laid the foundations of the great temple of Zeus grandson and namesake of Pisistratus adorned the Agora Olympius upon the ancient site above mentioned. His by building the altar of the twelve gods. If the Agora magnificent design had an eventful history : left unfinished belongs to the age of Pisistratus, some of tho civic buildby its author, the Atheniaus, perhaps from dislike to l ings within it would also be coeval with him. Such were the “tyrant,” made no effort to complete it. At length, the Stoa Basileius, or Portico, where the archon basileius after receiving additions from various foreign princes, it presided ; the Bouleuterium, where the senate of 500 held was completed by Hadrian (c. 130 A.D.), and formed the its sittings; the Tholus close by it, where the Prytanes of grandest edifice in the region of the city which, in acknow the senate sacrificed--a circular building with a dome of ledgment of the imperial munificence, was called Hadrian-stone, from whence it gained its name; and the Prytanopolis. The Olympium was one of the largest temples in eium, said to be founded by Theseus (Thucyd., ii. 15), the world ; but of its 124 Corinthian columns only 15 are which contained the hearth-fire of the state, and where now standing. The Pythium, or sanctuary of the Pythian the Prytanes and public benefactors had the privilege of

dining at the public expense. The statues of the ten * Many of the names of the Attic demes, and indeed of Greek local heroes (eponymi), who gave their names to the Athenian names everywhere, were derived from plants and flowers ; see Tozer's tribes, decorated the Agora

tri

probably from the first; Lectures on the Geography of Greece, p. 338: “ The most plausible

against these statues were affixed public notices and derivation that has been suggested for the name 'Aonvai is from &0.,

proclamations. Other buildings in the Agora of later and the root of & vos, a flower; and Lobeck proposed to translate it by Florentia.'".(Ibid., p. 161).

I ascertained dates will be enumerated in their proper place. The revolution which expelled the Pisistratids (510 B.C.), I a large scale, hewing out what is still known as the benja, and gave Athens a free government, left its mark upon the giving the semicircular wall a wider sweep, and raising topography of the city. The old Pelasgic fortress (To the tiers of seats at least to a level with the new bema, 'Ervetulov), in which "the tyrants” had for a time held if not above it. For there is no reason to suppose that out, was now broken down, and the site occupied by its the surface of the lower terrace has undergone no change ruins was devoted by the Delphic oracle to eternal in the lapse of centuries, or that the “ Cyclopean” wall desolation. Only in the Peloponnesian war, when the surrounding it never exceeded its present height country population was crowded within the city walls, do A building of greater architectural importance and of we read of this spot being occupied by dwellings (Thucyd., equal interest belongs to this same period. Dramatic ü. 17). Another work which may probably be assigned performances at Athens originally took place in wooden to the age of Clisthenes is the first arrangement of the theatres extemporised for the occasion ; but the fall of Pnyx, or place of public assembly. The hill that is one of these led, in the year 500 B.C., to the erection of commonly known as the Pnyx Hill contains one of the the marble theatre on a site already consecrated to most remarkable ruins in Athens ; the silence, however, Dionysus as the Lenæum, upon the S.E. slope of the of Pausanius respecting what was probably in his day Acropolis. (Suidas, 8. v. Iparivas.) We may be sure already a mere ruin has occasioned some doubt concerning that the first stone theatre was comparatively simple in its proper identification. The spot in question consists of construction, consisting of a kollov or auditorium, with two terraces sloping down the hill towards the Areopagus, tiers of rock-hewn seats, and an opxnotpé, or space for the from S.W. to N.E The upper terrace, indeed, does not chorus, while the stage itself and its furniture were of slope, but is levelled out of the solid rock near the summit wood. The excavation of the Dionysiac theatre in 1862 of the hill, being about 65 yards in length (E. to W.), has made every one familiar with the row of marble and about 43 in breadth at its broadest part (N. to s.) thrones for the various priests and officers of state, the It is bounded at the back (S.) by a rock-wall, and at the elaborate masonry of the stage, the orchestra floor, and 1. end there stands a cubical block, allowed to rise out other features. But theso and other interesting decoraof the solid rock when this apper terrace was levelled. tions of the theatre belong to a later age. It was under There is good reason for considering this as the altar for the administration of Lycurgus tho orator (337 B.C.) that the sacrifices (teplotia) with which every assembly of the the building was first really completed ; and many of the ecclesia was opened (Bursian, Philologus, 1854, p. 369, foll.; sculptures which have been lately brought to light belong Dyer, Athens, p. 462). The lower and considerably larger to a restoration of the theatre in the 2d, or perhaps even terrace is separated from the upper terrace by another wall in the 3d, century AD." cut out of the solid rock. This wall, which is nearly 126 Enough has now been said of the condition of Athens yards long, is not quite straight, but encroaches slightly upon before the Persian War. It was surrounded by a ring-wall the upper terrace, and forms at the centre a veryobtuse angle. of narrow circuit, some doubtful traces of which are supAt this point there rises, projecting from the wall, a large posed to remain. At its centre stood the Acropolis, already cubical mass, cut out of the solid rock, resembling somewhat, crowded with temples and sanctuaries, some upon the though on a larger scale, the altar described above. It is summit, some built at its foot, and others—like the famous itself 11 feet square and 5 feet high, and stands on & plat grotto of Pan, on the N.W. slopemmere caves in its rocky form consisting of three very massive steps. This remarkable sides. . monument has been recognised by tradition as the orála Toll The Persian invasion, which forced the Athenians to take Anpool éveos, and almost every traveller since Chandler's refuge in their “wooden walls," and to leave their city at time has regarded it as no other than the famous bema of the mercy of the barbarian, marked an important epoch in the ancient Athenian assembly. The rock-wall from which the annals of Athenian building. Upon the retreat of Marit projects forms the chord of a vast semicircular space, the donius, the Athenians returned to Attica to find their city enclosure of its are being a wall of “Cyclopean ” masonry. | virtually in ruing. Its fortifications and public buildings The radius of the semicircle measures between 76 and 77 had been destroyed or burnt, and the privato dwellings yards from this outer wall to the bema. Here, then, was had been wantonly defaced or ruined by neglect. Amid the auditorium of the Pny. But several difficulties beset the enthusiasm of hope which followed upon the great the identification. Towards the bottom of the lower bema deliverance of Greece, a natural impulse led the Athenians Prof. E. Curtius (Attische Studien, pt. i) has discovered to rear their city more glorious from its ruins. Themisanother similar though smaller bema. Again, Plutarch tocles fanned their patriotism with the foresight of a 25serts that the bema which had originally faced towards statesman, and Athens rose again with marvellous rapidity. the sea was by the Thirty Tyrants turned round the other This haste, however, though creditable to their patriotism, way, in their hatred of the maritime democracy. More and, indeed, necessary in order to forestall the jealous op over, if the block of marble above mentioned be rightly position of Sparta, was not without its evils. The houses identified as the bema, then it would have the auditorium were rebuilt on their old sites, and the lines of the old sloping downwards from it, an arrangement ill suited for streets, narrow and irregular as they had been, were too addressing a tumultuous popular assembly. Dr Curtius readily followed. A similar haste marked the rebuilding of accordingly pronounces the entire identification to be a the city walls, a work in which men and women, old and mistake, and would regard this spot as a primitive precinct young, took zealous part, not scrupling to dismantle any 2od rock-altar of the Most High Zeus. It would not be building or monument, private or public, which could sup difficult, if space allowed, to disprove Dr Curtius's theory.ply materials for the building. But in rebuilding the walls Far more reasonable is the view of Dr Dyer (Athens, App. Themistocles gave them a wider circuit, especially towards iil) He thinks that the lower and smaller bema dis- the N. and N. E. (Thucyd., i. 90, 93). At the same time copared by Dr Curtius was the bema of Clisthenes, which he determined to construct new harbours, and to fortify did (however much Plutarch's statement is discredited by the Piræeus, regarding the navy of Athens as her principal his own absurd explanation) face in the direction of the source of strength. It is doubtful whether the “Long sea The orator would thus speak from the arc of the Walls " formed a distinct portion of his designs ; but he semicircie, having the audience above him. The Thirty may certainly be regarded as the founder of the greatness may well have dofaced the Pnyx, and it would have been

The best account yet given of the Dionysiac thoatre is to bo found Datural for Thrasybulus after the anarchy to restore it on I la Dr Dyer's rocent work on Athons,

of Athens, the works and embellishments carried cut by Hippodamus, the eccentric architect, planned the Agora Pericles being only a fulfilme.it of the far-sighted aims of which bore his name ; and the various public buildings Themistocles. Thucydides (ii. 13) makes the circuit of the which adorned Piræeus doubtless arose with growth of city wall to be 43 etades (about 51 miles), exclusive of the Athenian commerce. The harbour-basin was lined with unguarded space between walls; this is found to correspond porticces, which served as warehouses and bazaars. Two accurately enough with the existing remains. In tracing theatres existed in the town, and numerous temples. the circuit of the ancient walls, we may take our start from The local deity was Artemis Munychia ; but the large the N.W. side of the city, at the one gate whose sitz is number of foreigners (UÉTOLKOL) who became naturalised at absolutely certain, the Thriasian gate (called also the Sacred this port led to the introduction.of many foreign forms of gate, as opening upon the sacred way to Eleusis, and also worship. Artemis herself came to be identified with the Almudov, as consisting of two gates, perhaps one within Thracian Bendis, and her festival (rà Bevdídela) is referred the other), which is marked by the modern Church of the to in the immortal opening of Plato's Republic. Holy Trinity, a little N. of the bottom of Hermes Street, If not a part of the original designs of Themistocles, it a spot attractive to the modern tourist through the beautiful was at least a natural development of thera, to carry" Long “street of tombs" here laid bare by recent excavations. Walls” from the newly-fortified Piraeus to the upper city, From the Thriasian gate the wall of Themistocles ran due and thus combine them both into one grand system of E for some distance; thence, skirting the modern theatre, fortification. The experiment of connecting & town by it ran N.E., parallel to the modern Piræeus Street as far as long walls with its port had been already tried between the Bank, when it returned in a S.E. direction across the Megara and Nisæa (Grote, Hist. Greece, c. xlv.), and it was site of the present Mint, as far as the Chamber of Deputies. now repeated on a grander scale under Cimon. From the Thence towards the S.E. it included nearly all the modern portion of the city wall between the Museium and the Royal Gardens, and then ran S.W., following the zig-zag Nymphs' Hill a sort of bastion was thrown out to S.W. 80 of the hills above the north bank of the Ilissus, until as to form an irregular triangle, from the apex of which a westwards by a straight course parallel with the Acropolis " long wall," about 4 miles long, was carried down to the it reached the Museium Hill. Thence it may be traced in N. portion of the Piræean fortifications; this was termed a direction N.W. and N., following more or less the contour To Bópelov reixos. Another “long wall” of somewhat of the hills, until we return to our starting-point at the shorter length ran down to the wall of Phalerum, which Dipylum gate. Eight other gates (exclusive of wickets, had hitherto served as the port of Athens ; this was tò mlides, which must have existed) are mentioned by an Palnpixòv teixos. A third wall, between the two, parallel cient authors—the Piræan, Hippades, Melitides, Itonian, to the first, and but a few yards from it (rò vóriov teixos, Diomeian, Diocharis, Panopis, and Acharnian. Their exact rò Slà négov teixos), was afterwards added by Pericles, and sites cannot be certainly fixed, but some of them may the maritime fortifications of Athens became complete. be determined within narrow limits, such as the Piræan But the city owed still more to the munificence of Cimon. gate, which led out of the Agora, and opened upon the long Out of the spoils of his Persian campaign he fortified the walls. Having completed the defences of the city proper, S. side of the Acropolis with a remarkably solid wall, among which must be included the building of the north which terminated in a sort of bastion at the W. end. Here wall of the Acropolis (Dyer, p. 121), Themistocles pro- he reared a little temple of Athena Nike (otherwise called ceeded to fortify the Piraeus.

the Wingless Victory), although the existing sculptures of Athens, like most of the old Greek towns, was built, for the frieze are pronounced on account of their style to greater security, at a distance from the coast, and only belong to a somewhat later date (Pausan., i. 28, 3; Com. when more settled times brought her greater prosperity Nep., Cimon, ii; Plutarch, Cimon, xüi.) It was Cimon was a harbour formed at the nearest bay of Phalerum, who first set the example of providing the citizens with near the modern church of St George. It is said that agreeable places for promenade (Plutarch, ibid.), by plantThemistocles would gladly have transported the Athenian ing the Agora with plane trees, and laying out the Acapopulation bodily from the upper city to the coast, there demy with trees and walks. It is probable that some of to form a great maritime state. Though this was impos the porticoes in the Agora were built by Cimon; at all sible, yet he could strengthen Athens on the seaward side. events, the most beautiful one amongst them was reared by The isthmus of Piraeus, though somewhat more distant Pisianax, his brother-in-law, and the paintings with which than Phalerum, presented obvious advantages as a sea Polygnotus, his sister's lover, adorned it (representing port. It formed on its north side the spacious and scenes from the military history of Athens, legendary and secure basin of Piræeus (now Port Drako), the north and historical) made it ever famous as the Stoà Toukian. One south shores of which towards the entrance fall back into more building, the most perfect existing relic of ancient two smaller bays-harbours within the harbour-known Athens, was also built by Cimon. The Theseium (as we respectively as the kwpós lepnv and kártapos. The neck still may venture to call it, in spite of the doubts lately of the isthmus on the south is formed by Port Zea (now cast upon its identification) is å hexastyle Doric templo Phanari), the entrance of which was secured by Phreattys, standing on an eminence due N. of the Areopagus, and is the headland of Munychia. Round to the east of the the first object which meets the eye of the tourist who district of Munychia, again, and facing Phalerum, was approaches the city from the Piræeus. Having served in the harbour known anciently as Munychia, and now Byzantine times for a Christian church, it is now a museum as Port Stratiotiki. Themistocles thus, in giving up Port of antiquities, and contains some of the choicest treasures Phalerum, gave Athens three harbours instead of one. discovered by recent excavations, The fortifications of Piræeus were conceived on a grand We have now brought this sketch of Athenian topography scale, and carried out with no sign of hurry. The whole down to the most distinguished period of Athenian history circuit of Piraeus and of the town of Munychia was and Athenian architecture—the era of Pericles. As the enclosed alike on the sea and land sides by walls of immense champion of Hellenic freedom against the Persians, as the thickness and strength, which were carried up to a height head of the Ionic confederation, Athens had suddenly grown of more than 60 feet—this being only half the height to be the foremost city in Greece. But when one by one intended by Themistocles ! (see Grote, Hist. Greece, c. xliv.) | the confederate states sank into the position of subjectThe laying out of the new seaport belonged rather to the

ther to the

I See Di

See Dyer, Athens, p. 230, foll., who thinks it is really the temple regime of Pericles (Grote, c. xlvii.) It was then that of the Amazons.

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