gravels contain the largest proportion of like that of Europe, the elephant, hippebbles derived from Glacial beds, some popotamus, ox, and other mammals of of the implements themselves have species now extinct. A correlation of been manufactured from materials not the two faunas with a view of ascernative to the spot but brought from a taining their chronological relations is distance, and derived in all probability beset with many difficulties, but there either from the Boulder Clay or from seems reason for accepting this Indian some of the beds associated with it. Pleistocene fauna as in some degree

We must, however, take a wider view more ancient than the European. of the whole question, for it must not Is this not a case in which the imagfor a moment be supposed that there are ination may be fairly invoked in aid of the slightest grounds for believing that science? May we not from these data the civilization, such as it was, of the attempt in some degree to build up and Paläolithic Period originated in the reconstruct the early history of the British Isles. We find in other coun- human family? There, in eastern Asia, tries implements so identical in form in a tropical climate, with the means of and character with British specimens subsistence readily at hand, may we not that they might have been manufac- picture to ourselves our earliest ancestured by the same hands. These occur tors, gradually developing from a lowly over large areas in France under sim- origin, acquiring a taste for hunting, ilar conditions to those that prevail in if not, indeed, being driven to protect England. The same forms have been themselves from the beasts around discovered in the ancient river gravels them-and evolving the more compliof Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Some cated forms of tools or weapons from few liave been recorded from the north the simpler flakes which had previously of Africa, and analogous types occur in served them as knives? May we not considerable numbers in the south of imagine that, when once the stage of that continent. On the banks of the civilization denoted by these PalæoNile, many hundreds of feet above its lithic implements had been reached, the present level, implements of the Euro- game for the hunter became scarcer, pean types have been discovered; while and that his life in consequence in Somaliland, in an ancient river val. sumed a more nomad character? Twen, ley at a great elevation above the sea, and possibly not till then, may a series Mr. Seton-Karr has collected a large of migrations to “fresh woods and pasnumber of implements formed of fint tures new” pot unnaturally have enand quartzite, which, judging from sued; and these, following the usual their form and character, might have course of “westward towards the setbeen dug out of the drift deposits of the ting sun," might eventually lead to a Somme or the Seine, the Thames or the Palæolithic population finding its way ancient Solent.

to the extreme borders of western In the valley of the Euphrates imple Europe, where we find such numerous ments of the same kind have also been traces of its presence. found, and again further east in the How long a term of years may be inlateritic deposits of southern India they volved in such a migration it is imposhave been obtained in considerable sible to say, but that such a migration numbers. It is not a little remarkable, took place the phenomena seem to jusand is at the same time highly sugges- tify us in believing. It can hardly be tive, that a form of implement almost supposed that the process that I have peculiar to Madras reappears among shadowed forth was reversed, and that implements from the very ancient grav- man, having originated in north-westels of the Manzanares at Madrid. In ern Europe, in a cold climate where the case of the African discoveries we clothing was necessary and food scarce, have as yet no definite Paleontological subsequently migrated eastward to evidence by which to fix thelr antiquity, India and southward to the Cape of but in the Narbadá Valley of western Good Hope! As yet, our records of disIndia Palæolithic implements of quart- coveries in India and eastern Asia are zite seem to be associated with a local but scanty; but it is there that the fauna of Pleistocene age, comprising, traces of the cradle of the human race


are, in my opinion, to be sought, and example with the edge sharpened by possibly future discoveries may place grinding has as yet been found. All upon a more solid foundation the vision- that can safely be said is that the larger ary structure that I have ventured to implements, as well as the larger mamerect.

mals, had become scarcer; that greater It may be thought that my hypothesis power in chipping flint had been atdoes not do justice to what Sir Thomas tained; that the arts of the engraver Browne has so happily termed "that and the sculptor had considerably develgreat antiquity, America.” I am, how- oped; and that the use of the bow bad ever, not here immediately concerned probably been discovered. with the important Neolithic remains Directly we encounter the relics of the of all kinds with which this great conti. Neolithic Period, often, in the case of nent abounds. I am now confining my- the caves lately mentioned, separated self to the question of Paläolithic man from the earlier remains by a thick and his origin, and in considering it I layer of underlying stalagmite, we find am not unmindful of the Trenton imple- fint hatchets polished at the edge and ments, though I must content myself by on the surface, cutting at the broad (and saying that the “turtle-back” form is not at the narrow) end, and other forms essentially different from the majority of implements associated with a fauna. of those on the wide dissemination of in all essential respects identical with which I have been speculating; and, that of the present day. moreover, as many here present are Were the makers of these polished aware, the circumstances of the finding weapons the direct descendants of of these American implements are still Palæolithic ancestors whose occupation under careful discussion.

of the country was continuous from the Leaving them out of the question for days of the old river gravels? or had the present, it may be thought worth these long since died out, so that after while to carry our speculations rather western Europe had for ages remained further, and to consider the relations uninhabited, it was re-peopled in Neoin time between the Palæolithic and the lithic times by the immigration of some Neolithic Periods. We have seen that new race of men? Was there, in fact, the stage in human civilization denoted a “great gulf fixed” between the two ocby the use of the ordinary forms of cupations? or was there in Europe a Palæolithic implements must have ex- gradual transition from the one stage of tended over'a vast period of time if we culture to the other? have to allow for the migration of the It has been said that “what song the primeval hunters from their original Syrens sang, or what name Achilles ashome, wherever it may have been in sumed when he hid himself among Asia or Africa, to the west of Europe, women, though puzzling questions, are including Britain. We have seen that, not beyond all conjecture;" and though during this migration, the forms of the the questions now proposed may come weapons and tools made from silicious under the same category, and must stones had become, as it were, stereo- await the discovery of many more estyped, and further, that, during the sub- sential facts before they receive definite sequent extended period implied by the and satisfactory answers, we may, I erosion of the valleys, the modifications think, throw some light upon them if we in the form of the implements, and the venture to take a few steps upon the changes in the fauna associated with seductive, if insecure, paths of conjecthe men who used them, were but slight. ture. So far as I know, we have as yet

At the close of the period during no trustworthy evidence of any transiwhich the valleys were eing eroded, tion from the one age to the other, and comes that represented by the latest oc- the gulf between them remains practicupation of the caves by Palæolithic cally unbridged. We can, indeed, man, when both in Britain and in the hardly name the part of the world in south of France the reindeer was abun- which to seek for the cradle of Neolithic dant; but among the stone weapons and civilization, though we know that implements of that long troglodytic traces of what appear to have been a phase of man's history, not a single stone-using people have been discovered



in Egypt, and that what must be among affirmative? We have, it must be conthe latest of the relics of their industry fessed, nothing of a substantial charhave been assigned to date

acter to guide us in these speculations; thirty-five hundred to four thousand but, pending the advent of evidence to years before our era. The men of that the contrary, we may, I think, provitime had attained to the highest degree sionally adopt the view that owing to of skill in working flint that has ever failure of food, climatal changes, or been reached. Their beautifully-made other causes, the occupation of western knives and spear-heads seem indica- Europe by Paläolithic man absolutely tive of a culminating point reached ceased, and that it was not until after after long ages of experience; but an interval of long duration that Europe whence these artists in flint came, or was re-peopled by a race of men immiwho they were, is at present absolutely grating from some other part of the unknown, and their handiworks afford globe where the human race had surno clue to help us in tracing their origin. vived, and in course of ages bad devel

Taking a wider survey, we may say oped a higher stage of culture than that that, generally speaking, not only the of Palæolithic man. fauna but the surface configuration of I have been carried away by the libthe country were, in western Europe ilt erty allowed for conjecture into the reall events, much the same at the com- gions of pure imagination, and must mencement of the Neolithic Period as now return to the realms of fact, and they are at the present day. We have, one fact on which I desire for a short too, no geological indications to aid us time to insist is that of the existence at in forming any chronological scale. the present day, in close juxtaposition

The occupation of some of the caves with our own civilization, of races of in the south of France seems to have men who, at all events but a few genbeen carried on after the erosion of the erations ago, lived under much the same neighboring river valleys had ceased, conditions as did our own Neolithic and, so far as our knowledge goes, these predecessors in Europe. caves offer evidence of being the latest The manners and customs of these in time of those occupied by man during primitive tribes and peoples are changthe Paläolithic Period. It seems barelying day by day, their languages are bepossible that, though in the north of coming obsolete, their myths and tradiEurope there are no distinct signs of tions are dying out, their ancient procsuch late occupation, yet that, in the esses of manufacture are falling into south, man may have lived on, though oblivion, and their numbers are rapidly in diminished numbers; and that in diminishing, so that it seems inevitable some of the caves—such, for instance, that ere long many of these interesting as those in the neighborhood of Men- populations will become absolutely extone—there may be traces of his exist- tinct. The admirable Bureau of Ethence during the transitional period that nology instituted by our neighbors in connects the Palaeolithic and Neolithic the United States of America has done Ages. If this were really the case, we much towards preserving a knowledge might expect to find some traces of a of the various native races in this vast dissemination of Neolithic culture from continent; and here in Canada the ana North Italian centre, but I much nual Archæological reports presented to doubt whether any such traces actually the minister of education are rendering exist.

good service in the same cause. If it had been in that part of the world Moreover, the committee of this Assothat the transition took place, how are ciation appointed to investigate the we to account for the abundance of pol- physical characters, languages, and inished stone hatchets found in Central dustrial and social conditions of the India? Did Neolithic man return east- north-western tribes of the Dominion of ward by the same route that by Canada is about to present its twelfth which in remote ages his Palæolithic and final report, which, in conjunction predecessor had migrated westward? with those already presented, will do Would it not be in defiance of all proba- much towards preserving a knowledge bility to answer such a question in the of the habits and languages of those


tribes. It is sad to think that Mr. highly-trained staff, shows how ready Horatio Hale, whose comprehensive are those concerned in its management grasp of the bearings of ethnological to undertake any duties that may conquestions, and whose unremitting duce to the welfare of the outlying labors have so materially conduced to parts of the British Empire; a fact of the success of the committee, should be which I believe that Canada is fully no longer among us. Although this re- aware. The Institute is therefore likely port is said to be final, it is to be hoped to develop, so far as its scientific dethat the committee may be able to indi- partment is concerned, into a bureau of cate lines upon which future work in advice in all matters scientific and techthe direction of ethnological and ar- nical, and certainly a Bureau of Ethchæological research may be profitably nology, such as that suggested, would carried on in this part of her Majesty's not be out of place within its walls. dominions.

Wherever such an institution is to be It is, however, lamentable to notice established, the question of its existence how little is being, or has been, officially must of necessity rest with her Majdone towards preserving a full record of esty's government and treasury, inasthe habits, beliefs, arts, myths, lan- much as without funds, however modguages, and physical characteristics of erate, the undertaking cannot be carried the countless other tribes and nations on. I trust that in considering the quesmore or less uncivilized, which are com- tion it will always be borne in mind that prised within the limits of the British in the relations between civilized and Empire. At the meeting of this asso- uncivilized nations and races it is of the ciation held last year at Liverpool, it first importance that the prejudices, and was resolved by the general committee especially the religious or semi-religious “that it is of urgent importance to press and caste prejudices, of the latter upon the government the necessity of should be thoroughly well known to the establishing a Bureau of Ethnology for former. If but a single "little war" Greater Britain, which by collecting in- could be avoided in consequence of the formation with regard to the native knowledge acquired and stored up by races within and on the borders of the the Bureau of Ethnology preventing empire will prove of immense value to such a misunderstanding as might culscience and to the government itself.” minate in warfare, the cost of such an It has been suggested that such a institution would quickly be saved. bureau might with the greatest advan- Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D, tage and with the least outlay and permanent expense be connected either with the British Museum or with the Imperial Institute, and the project has already been submitted for the consideration of the trustees of the former establishment.

Translated for THE LIVING AGE.

CONTEMPORANEOUS PROBLEMS.1 The existence of an almost unrivalled

THE COLONIAL POLICY OF EUROPE AND ethnological collection in the museum,

WHAT THAT OF SPAIN SHOULD BE. and the presence there of officers already well versed in ethnological re- I must congratulate the worthy memsearch, seem to afford an argument in bers of the Geographical Society of favor of the proposed bureau being con- Madrid upon the fact that they have nected with it. On the other hand, the created an actual literary controversy. Imperial Institute was founded with an I also congratulate them upon the idea especial view to its

centre and upon the manner in which this idea around which every interest connected has been carried out. Although my obwith the dependencies of the empire servation of this congress has been conmight gather for information and sup

1 This address was delivered by the late Senor port. The establishment within the

A. Canovas del Castillo, Prime Minister of Spain, last twelve months of a Scientific De- before the Geographical Society of Madrid, No partment within the Institute, with vember, 1883. Among Senor Canovas's published well-appointed laboratories and addresses none is more charaoteristie or forceful.




fined, until to-day's discussion, to what blies and congresses of this class are the press has sent to my chamber, I not for one time alone. I sincerely hope have been most gratefully surprised by that this congress, so brilliantly begun, one thing which does not generally dis- may be one more step in the pathway of tinguish this class of assemblies, and the expression and development of the that is the strong practical spirit which national ideal-an ideal which, although has illumined it.

it cannot be fully realized, is in certain It cannot be said of this assembly, full decisive moments of history, as I have of spontaneity, youth and life, not said before, the very soul of the counbound by any regulations or traditions try, the soul without which a nation -this assembly of Spaniards whose may be considered dead. minds are inspired by the heroic deeds Debates like those which have taken of the past and who might be easily car- place here arouse, naturally, a contraried away by illusions—that the de- diction of interests, more or less latent, a bates have been marked by raslı enthu- diversity of ideas obvious to every one, siasm or excess. No, it is enough for From these interests and ideas, to-day me to have heard to-day's discussion to discordant, there will be born some day, know that there is in this congress that if not harmony,-for harmony is a diffi, truly virile spirit which in unfortunate cult thing for humanity in general and circumstances, or at least in those less for nations in particular, and still more fortunate, will not be content with the difficult for individuals, because it consimple and perhaps youthful pleasures tradicts in itself the individual liberty of the imagination, but will know how of each thought,—therefore, I say, if not to look at adversity when it comes, face harmony, at least that co-ordination of to face, to struggle valiantly with it, to interests and of ideas which finally resist it, to dominate it, to conquer it produces in nations, as in individuals, sooner or later, as I hope that, sooner or those systems of conduct without which later, the noble and glorious wpanish all action is half-hearted and ineffecnation will conquer all its misfortunes tual. and all its difficulties.

We have done, or rather, you have It often happens that among the great done well to consider, to demonstrate number of ideas which discussions here this afternoon, as you have often bring forth, only a few seem practical done here before, that there are interand timely, but in this congress, which ests in the heart of the Spanish nation is a completely free and spontaneous which seem contradictory, and which effusion of the national spirit, there is are irreducible. You have done well to no obligation nor necessity for any one lay bare different principles and systo accept what is said in its entirety. tems which are, in truth, more contraThe conclusions themselves, although dictory and more irreducible in themthey express the opinions of the major- selves. Each one has loyally defended ity, do not by any means carry the legal his own ideas. You have taken, in force which the usages of human so- these discussions, the first step, or one ciety give to the majority in other of the first steps towards that fruitful places, and therefore the minority-the co-ordination which only the joint labor individuals who do not agree with some of human activity can bring to a perfect of the theories or conclusions-preserve end. their rights intact. They may leave Why should a nation like ours sit here declaring that although they have silent in these times of historical resympathized with the general spirit of membrance? Why, I say, should Spain the Congress, although they have ap- remain mute; the nation that discovplauded, although they may be satisfied ered and populated so great a part of in a great measure with the ideas and America; the nation that has spread conclusions which have been expressed, upon all seas and upon all continents so they still reserve their own personal much renown in her own tongue-the opinions. The Congress leaves us free sure evidence of an epoch of glory, alto speak, free to resolve. We go out though now the object of a singular and from here free, and we come back an- fitting melancholy. other day yet more free, because assem- Ought such a nation to remain inert,

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