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sibility that this papyrus leaf is and leave it to be dealt with by the critfrom a collection of sayings made as ics as it deserves ? such, and not collected from larger works,
Yet in this case the introductory Something has been said of the form formula is puzzling. We should expect. of the fragment; the great question of the past tense, üleyev or elnev, "He its contents has now to be approached. used to say,” or “He said,” not "He Are these new sayings to be regarded saith.” In the “Pirke Aboth” the past as probably genuine words of Christ? I tense is always employed, and, indeed, think every one must be impressed by
them. In the case of one or two of it seems almost inevitabile that it should be employed when we are recording them the first feeling is that they justify
the high claim they make. Is this claim either traditions or personal remini
borne out by further examination of scences. The difficulty may not strike
their meaning, and by such external others as important; to me it is a real
evidence as can be brought to bear on
them? I do not, however, find that the same
With those sayings which are most objection applies, if we may regard the closely allied to matter in the canonical fragment as a series of excerpts made Gospels it would not be right for any for some purpose from a larger work or
one to deal who has not a special knowl. works. I can acquiesce in the recur- edge of the synoptic question. Only it rence of the bare words “Jesus saith,” may be suggested by such a one that if I am allowed to think of them as
the proverb, "noscitur a sociis," has some merely paragraph-marks to distinguish application here. It is something in one saying from another. I could favor of the new sayings that they are fancy them to correspond to the fa- found in company with the old. Somemiliar or with which Greek epitomiz- thing, not everything. The forger is ers, such as Photius, begin each new well advised, it may be answered, who extract from the book they are abridg- does not trust entirely to his own powing.
ers of invention, but uses some maI can also understand them very well terials at least which he finds ready to. if the collection was meant for liturgi- his hand. On the other hand, if these cal use of any kind; if, for instance, “Logia” can be in any sense described they are analogous to the formula,
as a forgery, they are a forgery of a “Hear also what St. Paul saith,” in our
class totally new to us. ommunion service. I do not,
The theory advanced above, that they of
may be excerpts from one or more Goscourse, mean that the collection was made to be used in a Church service, as
pels—such, for example as the “Egyp
tian Gospel"-would serve well to exare the "comfortable words” to which I have alluded; but I can very well im- plain the presence in them side by side
of elements of various degrees of auagine that a Christian teacher should thenticity; for it is most probable that make a collection of utterances of our
those early Gospels which the Church Lord from various sources, which he rejected contained an admixture of might read or quote to a circle of hear- genuine matter along with some that ers as occasion served him.
was corrupt and some that was pure May I, then, with all due diffidence, invention. set up the theory that this papyrus leaf is from a book of sayings of Christ, ex- The second saying in the fragment tracted from one or more Gospels, runs thus: “Except ye fast [to] the
world, ye shall not find the kingdom of 1 One only of the uncanonical sayings of Christ God: and except ye keep the Sabbath, collected by Resch (Agrapha No.47) resembles ours
ye shall not see the Father.” The exin form. It is preserved by Origen, and runs thus: και Ιησούς γούν φησίν δια τους ασθενούντας ήσθένουν pression rendered “fast to the world»
if allowable at και δια τους πεινώντας επείνων και δια τους διψώντας νηστεύειν τον κόσμον, έδιψων.
all, is, as the editors say, very harsh.
A doubt as to the correctness of the all have their scenes laid in these days. reading xbouov (the world) is natural, It is perhaps significant that a rather though it is hazardous to try and amend striking reminder of this saying does the work of two experienced readers of occur in the "Pistis Sophia”: papyri: I frankly allow that I can suggest nothing better. Yet something in
Now when the disciples heard this, they
fell down and worshipped Him, saying: the nature of a parallel to “the Sabbath" in the second clause is rather needed— "Help us, our Lord, have pity on us, that
we may be delivered from these evil chassay, the name of a day of the month or
tisements, which are prepared for the sinweek, or of some Jewish fast. How
Woe unto them, woe unto them, ever, as the name of a day (analogous to the sons of men, for they shall be as blind τεσσαρακοστή) would in all cases men groping in darkness, not seeing. quire the feminine gender, and, as no Have pity upon us, Lord, in this great name of a fast will suit the ductus lit
blindness wherein we are, and have pity terarum, κόσμον must stand for the
upon the whole race of men,” etc.
(Schwartze's translation, p. 232.) present. If it stands, and if the saying is to be looked upon as genuine, we The notion of the blindness of the whole must assign to it, I think, a spiritual and human race, and of the compassion of not a temporal meaning. The finding of Christ for them, is what is common to the kingdom is contingent upon keeping the two passages. the true fast-the fast that God has But I do not feel certain that this saychosen; the sight of the Father is to be ing is necessarily to be placed on the attained by keeping the true Sabbath. post-Resurrection period. It might, I On the other hand, literally interpreted, think, be of the nature of a parable. It these words are not the teaching of reminds one of the words of our Lord Christ. He who said, “The Sabbath (Matt. xxiv, 28; Luke xvii. 26) about the was made for man, and not man for the condition of the world in the days of Sabbath,” could never have made the Noah (and Lot). The point of these Jewish observance which He broke sayings is, of course, a different one; it down the necessary step to the attain- lies in the suddenness of the destruction ment of the heavenly life. Rather, in that came upon the careless livers; yet that case, must the words embody the a certain similarity exists. principle of some Judaising or Jewisb- The difficulty of regarding the words Gnostic sect; they can never have been as uttered before the Resurrection lies uttered by our Lord.
in the past tense used, and in the phrase, The third saying is the most immedi- "In flesh was I seen of them,” a phrase, ately attractive of all.
by the way, which has a markedly “Jesus saith: I stood in the midst of Johannine look. Even this, however, the world, and in flesh was I seen of would be tolerable in a parable such as them: and I found all men drunken, and that in Matthew xxv., in which the Son none found I athirst among them, and of Man says, “I was an hungered, and my soul grieveth over the sons of man, ye gave me meat," etc. It is not, cerbecause they are blind in their heart.” tainly, often that our Lord refers to His
Where must we suppose these words coming upon earth as a past event; still, to have been said? Must they be placed He does so refer to it; and I would subin the days after the Resurrection? If. mit that it is very possible that in this so, the presumption that they came saying we have a reminiscence, perhaps from a Gnostic source is very strong; garbled, but preserving a genuine elefor the early heretical teachers and ment, of a parable or simile actually writers of Apocalypses appropriated uttered by Christ. In any case, that period to themselves, and repre- ing is a very beautiful one. sented it as the time par excellence when The last of these "Logia” to which I Christ communicated His most import can here refer is that puzzling sentence, ant revelation to His chosen disciples. “Raise up the stone, and there thou The “Pistis Sophia,” the “Books of Jell,” shalt find me; cleave the wood, and the “Questions of Bartholomew," and there am I.” the "Apocalypse of Peter" (as it seems) It seems to me that there are three
possible lines of interpretation for this: direct and simple, and it is in accord
(1) Christ is everywhere and in every- ance with Christ's known teaching. thing. This, as Messrs. Grenfell and Possibly the collector of the "Logia" Hunt have said, is favored by the near may have understood the sentence difneighborhood of what seems to be a ferently, and therefore placed it in the form of the utterance, “Where two or position in which we find it. If he did, three are gathered together, there am I he acted, I believe, under a misapprein the midst of them," and the sentence hension. from the “Gospel of Eve," which With these scattered suggestions I Epiphanius has preserved, supplies an must leave the fragment. The interest attractive illustration.
of this first-fruit of the Oxyrhynchus (2) The emphasis is to be laid upon find cannot easily be exaggerated. the hard and laborious character of the Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt have already acts prescribed—the heaving up of the earned our warmest thanks by the way stone and the cleaving of the wood. We in which they have dealt with it; and should then have a parallel to the pre- during many years to come, one is glad cept, “Ask, and ye shall receive; seek, to think, they will be constantly increasand ye shall find; knock, and it shall be ing our obligations alike to themselves opened unto you;" an utterance in and to the Egyptian Esploration Fund. which the command seems to me quite
M. R. JAMES. as important an element as the promise. Effort is necessary if the knowledge of Christ is to be won.
(3) The "stone" and the "wood" may just possibly be the important factors in
From Chambers's Journal, the saying. Both of them are familiar A TRAPPIST MONASTERY IN NATAL. types of the Lord. But I cannot give a Durban, the port of Natal, is, like satisfactory meaning to the whole Jerusalem, "beautiful for situation," clause on this hypothesis, though it despite the fact that the alleged port is seems just worth mentioning.
nothing but an open roadstead where The first interpretation has a flavor of passengers are always landed in a sort Pantheism about it, of something far of marine lift, a small wicker-work removed from the ordinary lines of our chamber constructed to hold four inLord's genuine sayings. If the interpre- side, and rigged to a derrick. By this tation be correct, the words would bet- comfortable contrivance one is lowered ter suit a "Gnostic" milieu than an with ease and safety from the steamer orthodox one. But I doubt its correct- to the tender. ness. Would any sect which is likely to The city, which is not the capital of have produced this mystical saying have the colony, although the largest town, put it in such a form? Were they not lies just a little below the tropic of Capan too deeply imbued with a belief in ricorn, and thus enjoys a temperately the inherent evil of matter? Stone and warm climate, and is graced with a rich wood, the productions of an ignorant or tropical vegetation that justifies the evil Creator, with whose works it is the town's unchallenged claim to be the object of every enlightened soul to have garden city of South Africa. Indeed, in as little to do as possible, could they be this respect the whole colony of Natal spoken of in so emphatic a manner as stands out in precise contrast to the surthis? I do not think that a Gnostic rounding states, a bright green gem in would thus conceive of the presence of the weary waste of the monotonous Christ in created things. The Lord “is brown veldt. It is the Wales of South everywhere and heareth every one of Africa, and with a sturdy spirit of indeus,” say the docetic "Acts of John,” it pendence has paddled its own canoe is true; but there is no hint to show that against that of its bigger and richer He is present in inanimate things of rival, the Cape Colony. Possibly the
large leaven of Scot, particularly in I incline rather to the second of the Durban, is responsible for this solidarity interpretations suggested above. It is and stubbornness in a contest where
the odds were certainly not equal. The But pretty as Durban itself was, and population is of a very mixed descrip- interesting as was its labor problem, tion, and there is a distinct Oriental there was yet something outside the city touch about it that is pleasant and re- that possessed stronger attractions for freshing. The ricksha is the favorite me. About sixteen miles from the town public conveyance; but instead of the was a Trappist monastery, and a day's small vehicle of Ceylon and Japan, that excursion to this home of silence reof Natal, although still light in struc- mains in my mind as the most salient ture, is capable of carrying two persons. experience during my brief sojourn in Only a race of giants, such as the Basuto Natal. I believe that strictly speaking and his kindred tribes are, could man- there is no longer any such congregation age a double-seated ricksha up the in- as a Trappist brotherhood, since by a clines round about the city. In stature decree of the present Pope the order has and physique the Bantu tribes are prob- been amalgamated with the Carthuably the finest specimens of humanity sians; but it is simpler to adhere for on the globe. Certainly they are su- present purposes to the old appellation, perior to the Maori, although perhaps not in any measure as a rigid Protestthe latter is the bigger brained creature ant's dissent from a papal decree, but of the two. But strong as he is, the because the place and the order are so native of Natal is disinclined to work widely known under the old style. any more than is necessary for keeping About fourteen years ago some Trappist body and soul together. Consequently, brothers purchased twelve thousand although he is the common and con- acres near the very small village of venient means of haulage, he is not the Pinetown, christening the property reprosentative working-man of the col- Marianhill, and here, unaided except by ony. Thousands of Hindus, chiefly the lay brothers, they began their stuMadrasis, have been imported under pendous work. They made their own government auspices, as servants and bricks, cut their own timber, and conlaborers; and with such satisfactory trived their own water supply, buying results that what
thin nothing except galvanized iron and mastream of immigration has assumed the chinery, which were obviously beyond proportions of a tidal bore. So great in- their powers of construction. Yet they deed is the increase that there is every have been able to make a system of reason to fear some serious complication roads through the property, build of the gravest question which the gov- bridges, erect a large brick church ernment of Natal has to deal with, capable of holding six hundred persons, namely, the native question. There are also a still larger building that comnow fifty thousand Indians in the col- prises the refectory and monks' cells; ony, that is to say they equal the and finally, in addition to all this, they whites in number; whilst there are have constructed several substantial nearly five hundred thousand natives, houses, schools, and workshops. who, although averse to anything ap- Among the latter are to be seen an ironproaching continuous effort, are yet foundry, a tannery, a large carpenters' obliged to do some work in order to pay shop, bootmaking and tailoring estal)their annual hut-tax and provide the lishments, a bakery, a flour-mill, and, necessaries of life. A little larger in- most surprising of all, a vast printing crease in the supply of Indian labor, anil office, which includes not only the most the native will be shut out from all em- modern printers' plant but also stereoployment. To be sure, the influx of typing and book-binding departments; Asiatics may inspire the native to less whilst attached to it is another building spasmodic work. That would be a re- where the monks found their own type. sult as splendid as it was unexpected; The produce of all these factories is not and then it would become the business of course limited to the needs of the of the government to hinder by a poll- brothers any more than is the liquor tax (as in California and Australia) or manufactured at either the Grande other preventive measure, the Asiatic Chartreuse or St. Elmo. From the tauinvasion.
nery, for instance, where the pelt is
treated in all its stages from the raw built men who had not only left father hide to the finished article in leather, and mother in some far land for His the monks send saddles, bags, and sake, but had denied themselves all the straps away even into the heart of comforts and solaces of this world, even Matabeleland or anywhere else where to the sweet sound of the human voice. there may be a demand. In the car. All, except the youthful novices (who penters' shop, wheels, doors, and win- were still plump and rosy), bore traces, dow-sashes are manufactured for the in th pallid complexion and hollow contractors of Durban; whilst the print- cheek, of the austerity of their life; ing office, at the time of my visit, was most of them also wore spectacles. To busily employed on a government con- what purpose is this stern devotion tract.
mainly directed ? Simply to the end All these edifices and works are the that a few hundred black brethren may result of but fourteen years' labor, and be taught the knowledge of God and the at no time have the monks gone outside consolations of the Church. I am not a their own ranks for assistance. How Catholic, nor have I much sympathy has it been accomplished? Monks, nov- with some of the practices and tenets of ices, and lay-brothers retire at eight and that church; but I should like to feel rise at midnight or one in the morning that the congregation to which I do be according to the season of the year; long could actively testify, as eloquently whilst the rest of the twenty-four hours, as the Trappist monastery of Marianhill except where the offices are being said does for the Catholic, how much selfand during the half-hours devoted to sacrifice and real suffering can be enmeals, they work at their several tasks. dured, how high an example can be set At all times unbooted and unbonneted, when one is thus securely "mailed in and, except in the schools, where the the perfect panoply of faith.” The nature of the vocation makes it impos- Roman may be wrong in his solutions of sible, in absolute silence, the monks go the deep problem of life and the still through their daily round of incessant deeper one of futurity. Such are mattoil. The Trappists are vegetarians of ters which we may not know with cerine strictest sort. I was present at the tainty; the most plausible solution is, principal meal of the day-dinner-and after all, a mere groping in the dark; partly partook of it. The menu con- but in the deeds that find words, in the sisted of a thick barley-broth without examples that move us on to nobler eitner fat or any extract of meat, and a ends, these white-robed brothers of St. mash made of turnips, carrots, pump- Bernard may teach Protestants not a kins, and beans, without condiment or few salutary lessons. seasoning of any kind, but there was It sometimes happens, of courso, that plenty of beautifully-baked brown some fall under the burden; the cross is bread, and the whole was washed down too heavy and the habit is renounced. with a cup of tamarind wine, an agree. In this connection there was a curious able unfermented drink. The brethren and somewhat beautiful incident that ate the meal in silence, and the stillness came under my notice on that visit. In of the huge refectory was broken only our tour round the well-cared-for by the intermittent clink of a knife on grounds, the brother—there is always some tin plate and the droning voice of one who has a speaking part for the the brother whose turn it was, whilst sake of the visitors—told me that only the others dined, to read aloud some pas- the week before they had buried one of sage from the Vulgate. When the meal the monks who had grown gray in the was finished, each taking his plate and service of the order, and who had cup, handed them to the brother who planned and cultivated the grounds, in acted as cook; and, thanking him, not which he had always taken the deepest in words, but with a grateful smile and pride, but his part now, bowed head, passed out immediately to some appointed task. To me it was al
In all the pomp that fills together a touching sight. Here were
The circuit of the summer hills, over one hundred and fifty strongly- Is that his grave is green.